Search Results

Source: American Journal of Public Health
Resulting in 27 citations.
1. Abrams, Barbara
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Cohen, Alison K.
Headen, Irene
Hubbard, Alan
Ritchie, Lorrene
Rehkopf, David
Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention
American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
Also: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28727522
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Modeling; Mothers, Health; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults.

METHODS: We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009).

RESULTS: A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births.

CONCLUSIONS: Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

Bibliography Citation
Abrams, Barbara, Jeremy R. Coyle, Alison K. Cohen, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Lorrene Ritchie and David Rehkopf. "Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention." American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
2. Berdahl, Terceira Ann
Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Individual Workplace Injury Risk Trajectories: 1988-1998
American Journal of Public Health 98,12 (December 2008): 2258-2263.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/12/2258
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Injuries, Workplace; Insurance, Health; Mobility, Job; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. I examined workplace injury risk overtime and across racial/ethnic and gender groups to observe patterns of change and to understand how occupational characteristics and job mobility influence these changes. Methods. I used hierarchical generalized linear models to estimate-individual workplace injury and illness risk overtime ("trajectories") for a cohort of American workers who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988-1998). Results. Significant temporal variation in injury risk was observed across racial/ ethnic and gender groups. At baseline, White men had a high risk of injury relative to the other groups and experienced the greatest decline over time. Latino men demonstrated a pattern of lower injury risk across time compared with White men. Among both Latinos and non-Latino Whites, women had lower odds of injury than did men. Non-Latino Black women's injury risk was similar to Black men's and greater than that for both Latino and non-Latino White women. Occupational characteristics and job mobility partly explained these differences. Conclusions. Disparities between racial/ethnic and gender groups were dynamic and changed over time. Workplace injury risk was associated with job dimensions such as work schedule, union representation, health insurance, job hours, occupational racial segregation, and occupational environmental hazards. (Am J Public Health. 2008;98:2258-2263. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.103135) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Berdahl, Terceira Ann. "Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Individual Workplace Injury Risk Trajectories: 1988-1998." American Journal of Public Health 98,12 (December 2008): 2258-2263.
3. Chen, Xinguang
Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.
Smoking Initiation Associated With Specific Periods in the Life Course From Birth to Young Adulthood: Data From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997
American Journal of Public Health 104,2 (February 2014): e119-e126.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301530
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Life Course; Modeling, Trajectory analysis; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. Guided by the life-course perspective, we examined whether there were subgroups with different likelihood curves of smoking onset associated with specific developmental periods.

Methods. Using 12 waves of panel data from 4088 participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we detected subgroups with distinctive risk patterns by employing developmental trajectory modeling analysis.

Results. From birth to age 29 years, 72% of female and 74% of US males initiated smoking. We detected 4 exclusive groups with distinctive risk patterns for both genders: the Pre-Teen Risk Group initiated smoking by age 12 years, the Teenage Risk Group initiated smoking by age 18 years, the Young Adult Risk Group initiated smoking by age 25 years, and the Low Risk Group experienced little or no risk over time. Groups differed on several etiological and outcome variables.

Conclusions. The process of smoking initiation from birth to young adulthood is nonhomogeneous, with distinct subgroups whose risk of smoking onset is linked to specific stages in the life course.

Bibliography Citation
Chen, Xinguang and Angela J. Jacques-Tiura. "Smoking Initiation Associated With Specific Periods in the Life Course From Birth to Young Adulthood: Data From the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997." American Journal of Public Health 104,2 (February 2014): e119-e126.
4. Colen, Cynthia G.
Geronimus, Arline T.
Bound, John
James, Sherman A.
Maternal Upward Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight
American Journal of Public Health 96,11 (November 2006): 1-11.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/96/11/2032
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Family Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We estimate the extent to which upward socioeconomic mobility limits the probability that Black and White women who spent their childhoods in or near poverty will give birth to a low-birthweight baby.

Methods. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the 1970 US Census were used to complete a series of logistic regression models. We restricted multivariate analyses to female survey respondents who, at 14 years of age, were living in households in which the income-to-needs ratio did not exceed 200% of poverty.

Results. For White women, the probability of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby decreases by 48% for every 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of adult family income, once the effects of all other covariates are taken into account. For Black women, the relation between adult family income and the probability of low birthweight is also negative; however, this association fails to reach statistical significance.

Conclusions. Upward socioeconomic mobility contributes to improved birth outcomes among infants born to White women who were poor as children, but the same does not hold true for their Black counterparts.

Bibliography Citation
Colen, Cynthia G., Arline T. Geronimus, John Bound and Sherman A. James. "Maternal Upward Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight." American Journal of Public Health 96,11 (November 2006): 1-11.
5. Darabi, Katherine
Ortiz, Vilma
Childbearing Among Young Latino Women in the United States
American Journal of Public Health 77,1 (February 1987): 25-28.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/1/25
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Birth Rate; Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Ethnic Groups; Ethnic Studies; Fertility; First Birth; Hispanics; Marital Status; Marriage; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This analysis is based on 1979 and 1982 data from the NLSY. The purpose of this paper is to compare rates of early childbearing among white, black, Mexican and Puerto Rican young women, and to see how these rates compare after controlling for marital, socioeconomic and generational statuses. A comparison of rates of premarital births among the four racial/ethnic origin groups demonstrate that the Mexican and Puerto Rican adolescents fall in between the extremely low rate of the whites and the extremely high rate of the blacks. Mexican and Puerto Rican adolescents have similar proportions of premarital first births, but differ in their proportions of marital first births. The marital first birth rate for Mexican adolescents is twice that of the Puerto Ricans. The bulk of Mexican first births, like births of whites, occur within marriage. Puerto Rican adolescents, on the other hand, are similar to blacks in that they are more likely to have a first birth outside of marriage than within. These initial racial/ethnic differences in premarital first birth rates are not greatly diminished by a control for SES of the family origin.
Bibliography Citation
Darabi, Katherine and Vilma Ortiz. "Childbearing Among Young Latino Women in the United States." American Journal of Public Health 77,1 (February 1987): 25-28.
6. Darity, William A. Jr.
Employment Discrimination, Segregation, and Health
American Journal of Public Health 93,2 (February 2003): 226-232.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9036683&db=aph
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Certain limitations in the scope and range of the NLSY dataset (among others) are discussed and the need for a single data set that would enable researchers to trace the connections between health outcomes and discrimination is outlined and suggested. [Ed.'s Note]

The author examines available evidence on the effects of exposure to joblessness on emotional well-being according to race and sex. The impact of racism on general health outcomes also is considered, particularly racism in the specific form of wage discrimination. Perceptions of racism and measured exposures to racism may be distinct triggers for adverse health outcomes. Whether the effects of racism are best evaluated on the basis of self-classification or social classification of racial identity is unclear. Some research sorts between the effects of race and socioeconomic status on health. The development of a new longitudinal database will facilitate more accurate identification of connections between racism and negative health effects. (Am J Public Health, 2003;93:226-231) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Bibliography Citation
Darity, William A. Jr. "Employment Discrimination, Segregation, and Health." American Journal of Public Health 93,2 (February 2003): 226-232.
7. Davis, Esa M.
Zyzanski, Stephen J.
Olson, Christine M.
Stange, Kurt C.
Horwitz, Ralph I.
Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Differences in the Incidence of Obesity Related to Childbirth
American Journal of Public Health 99,2 (February 2009): 294-299.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/2/294
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Ethnic Differences; Minority Groups; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between childbirth and 5-year incidence of obesity. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis of data on 2923 nonobese, nonpregnant women aged 14 to 22 years from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Cohort, which was followed from 1980 to 1990. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the adjusted relative risk of obesity for mothers 5 years after childbirth compared with women who did not have children. RESULTS: The 5-year incidence of obesity was 11.3 per 100 parous women, compared with 4.5 per 100 nulliparous women (relative risk [RR] = 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 4.9; P < .001). The 5-year incidence of obesity was 8.6 for primiparous women (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.5, 5.0) and 12.2 for multiparous women (RR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.6, 5.6). Among parous women, White women had the lowest obesity incidence (9.1 per 100 vs 15.1 per 100 for African Americans and 12.5 per 100 for Hispanics). CONCLUSIONS: Parous women have a higher incidence of obesity than do nulliparous women, and minority women have a higher incidence of parity-related obesity than do White women. Thus, efforts to reduce obesity should target postpartum women and minority women who give birth.
Bibliography Citation
Davis, Esa M., Stephen J. Zyzanski, Christine M. Olson, Kurt C. Stange and Ralph I. Horwitz. "Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Differences in the Incidence of Obesity Related to Childbirth." American Journal of Public Health 99,2 (February 2009): 294-299.
8. Gibson, Diane M.
The Neighborhood Food Environment and Adult Weight Status: Estimates from Longitudinal Data
American Journal of Public Health 101,1 (January 2011): 71-78.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/101/1/71
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Neighborhood Effects; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Rural/Urban Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: I used longitudinal data to consider the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and adult weight status.

METHODS: I combined individual-level data on adults from the 1998 through 2004 survey years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 with zip code-level data on the neighborhood food environment. I estimated ordinary least squares models of obesity, body mass index (BMI), and change in BMI.

RESULTS: For residents of urban areas, the neighborhood density of small grocery stores was positively and significantly related to obesity and BMI. For individuals who moved from a rural area to an urban area over a 2-year period, changes in neighborhood supermarket density, small grocery store density, and full-service restaurant density were significantly related to the change in BMI over that period.

CONCLUSIONS: Residents of urban neighborhoods with a higher concentration of small grocery stores may be more likely to patronize these stores and consume more calories because small grocery stores tend to offer more unhealthy food options than healthy food options. Moving to an urban area may expose movers to a wider variety of food options that may influence calorie consumption.

Bibliography Citation
Gibson, Diane M. "The Neighborhood Food Environment and Adult Weight Status: Estimates from Longitudinal Data." American Journal of Public Health 101,1 (January 2011): 71-78.
9. Glied, Sherry A.
Is Smoking Delayed Smoking Averted?
American Journal of Public Health 93,3 (March 2003): 412-416.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/93/3/412
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Antismoking efforts often target teenagers in the hope of producing a new generation of never smokers. Teenagers are more responsive to tobacco taxes than are adults. The author summarizes recent evidence suggesting that delaying smoking initiation among teenagers through higher taxes does not generate proportionate reductions in prevalence rates through adulthood. In consequence, the impact of taxes on smoking among youths overstates the potential long-term public health effects of this tobacco control strategy.
Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A. "Is Smoking Delayed Smoking Averted?" American Journal of Public Health 93,3 (March 2003): 412-416.
10. Heymann, S. Jody
Earle, Alison
The Impact of Welfare Reform on Parents' Ability to Care for Their Children's Health
American Journal of Public Health 89,4 (April 1999): 502-505.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/89/4/502
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Benefits; Child Health; Welfare; Work Reentry; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. Methods. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children: paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. Results. In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. Conclusions. If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs.
Bibliography Citation
Heymann, S. Jody and Alison Earle. "The Impact of Welfare Reform on Parents' Ability to Care for Their Children's Health." American Journal of Public Health 89,4 (April 1999): 502-505.
11. Homer, Charles J.
James, Sherman A.
Siegel, Earl
Work-Related Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Preterm, Low Birthweight Delivery
American Journal of Public Health 80,2 (February 1990): 173-177.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/2/173
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Childbearing; Employment; Job Hazards; Job Requirements; Maternal Employment; Occupations; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Stress; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data on working pregnant women from the NLSY, this paper examined whether work-related stress increased a woman's risk of delivering a pre-term, low birthweight infant. Results indicated that young women working during pregnancy in jobs characterized by high exertion and low job control were somewhat more likely than were women who worked in other jobs to deliver a low birthweight, pre-term infant if they did not want to continue working. Occupational stress was not associated, however, with pre-term, low birthweight delivery for the sample as a whole.
Bibliography Citation
Homer, Charles J., Sherman A. James and Earl Siegel. "Work-Related Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Preterm, Low Birthweight Delivery." American Journal of Public Health 80,2 (February 1990): 173-177.
12. Kakade, Meghana
Duarte, Cristiane S.
Liu, Xinhua
Fuller, Cordelia J.
Drucker, Ernest
Hoven, Christina W.
Fan, Bin
Wu, Ping
Adolescent Substance Use and Other Illegal Behaviors and Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice System Involvement: Findings From a US National Survey
American Journal of Public Health 102,7 (July 2012): 1307-1310.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300699
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We used data from a national survey to examine arrest rate disparities between African American and White adolescents (aged 12–17 years; n = 6725) in relation to drug-related and other illegal behaviors. African American adolescents were less likely than Whites to have engaged in drug use or drug selling, but were more likely to have been arrested. Racial disparities in adolescent arrest appear to result from differential treatment of minority youths and to have long-term negative effects on the lives of affected African American youths.
Bibliography Citation
Kakade, Meghana, Cristiane S. Duarte, Xinhua Liu, Cordelia J. Fuller, Ernest Drucker, Christina W. Hoven, Bin Fan and Ping Wu. "Adolescent Substance Use and Other Illegal Behaviors and Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice System Involvement: Findings From a US National Survey." American Journal of Public Health 102,7 (July 2012): 1307-1310.
13. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
Effects of Participation in the WIC Program on Birthweight: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
American Journal of Public Health 92,5 (May 2002): 799-804.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/92/5/799
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Health Care; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. This study sought to estimate the impact on birthweight of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

Methods. WIC estimates were based on sibling models incorporating data on children born between 1990 and 1996 to women taking part in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Results. Fixed-effects estimates indicated that prenatal WIC participation was associated with a 0.075 unit difference (95% confidence interval [Cl]=-0.007, 0.157) in siblings' logged birthweight. At the 88-oz (2464-g) low-birthweight cutoff, this difference translated into an estimated impact of 6.6 oz (184.8 g).

Conclusion. Earlier WIC impact estimates may have been biased by unmeasured characteristics affecting both program participation and birth outcomes. Our approach controlled for such biases and revealed a significant positive association between WIC participation and birthweight. Copyright © 2002 Institute for Scientific Information

Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "Effects of Participation in the WIC Program on Birthweight: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." American Journal of Public Health 92,5 (May 2002): 799-804.
14. Martin, Sandra L.
Burchinal, Margaret R.
Young Women's Antisocial Behavior and the Later Emotional and Behavioral Health of their Children
American Journal of Public Health 82,7 (July 1992): 1007-1010.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/82/7/1007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Health; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Temperament; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty; Preschool Children; Psychological Effects; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Questions arise concerning whether youthful female deviant behavior eventually will have negative behavioral and emotional consequences for the later children of these women. Associations between the severity of early female antisocial behavior (including both drug-related and non-drug related offenses) and the later behavioral and emotional health of the children of these women were examined among 1425 mother-child pairs of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Multiple linear regression procedures indicated a significant positive relationship between the severity of the mothers' early non-drug-related offenses and the later severity of the children's scores on the Antisocial, Hyperactive, Anxious/Depressed, Headstrong, Peer Conflict/Social Withdrawal, Immature Dependency, and Total Problem subscales of the Behavior Problem Index. This study demonstrated an association between the antisocial behavior of female youth and the later behavioral and emotional problems of the children of these women. Future research needs to determine the mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of these types of problems so that effective preventive and therapeutic public health practices may be designed and implemented.
Bibliography Citation
Martin, Sandra L. and Margaret R. Burchinal. "Young Women's Antisocial Behavior and the Later Emotional and Behavioral Health of their Children." American Journal of Public Health 82,7 (July 1992): 1007-1010.
15. McCauley, Erin J.
The Cumulative Probability of Arrest by Age 28 Years in the United States by Disability Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender
American Journal of Public Health 107,12 (1 December 2017): 1977-1981.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304095?journalCode=ajph
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; Disability; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. To estimate the cumulative probability (c) of arrest by age 28 years in the United States by disability status, race/ethnicity, and gender.

Methods. I estimated cumulative probabilities through birth cohort life tables with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997.

Results. Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest (c = 42.65) than those without (c = 29.68). The risk was disproportionately spread across races/ethnicities, with Blacks with disabilities experiencing the highest cumulative probability of arrest (c = 55.17) and Whites without disabilities experiencing the lowest (c = 27.55). Racial/ethnic differences existed by gender as well. There was a similar distribution of disability types across race/ethnicity, suggesting that the racial/ethnic differences in arrest may stem from racial/ethnic inequalities as opposed to differential distribution of disability types.

Conclusions. The experience of arrest for those with disabilities was higher than expected. Police officers should understand how disabilities may affect compliance and other behaviors, and likewise how implicit bias and structural racism may affect reactions and actions of officers and the systems they work within in ways that create inequities.

Bibliography Citation
McCauley, Erin J. "The Cumulative Probability of Arrest by Age 28 Years in the United States by Disability Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender." American Journal of Public Health 107,12 (1 December 2017): 1977-1981.
16. McLean, R. A.
Moon, Marilyn
Health, Obesity, and Earnings
American Journal of Public Health 70,9 (September 1980): 1006-1009.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/70/9/1006
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Published reports and economic theory suggest that workers' earnings may be affected by their degree of obesity. The purpose of this research was to estimate the size of such an effect. The earnings-obesity hypothesis was tested with data from the NLS of Older Men. Results suggest that, for members of that sample, there is no earnings depressant effect due to obesity.
Bibliography Citation
McLean, R. A. and Marilyn Moon. "Health, Obesity, and Earnings." American Journal of Public Health 70,9 (September 1980): 1006-1009.
17. Miller, Daniel P.
Han, Wen-Jui
Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescent Overweight
American Journal of Public Health 98,8 (June 2008): 1495-1502.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/8/1495
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Family Income; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Shift Workers; Weight; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We investigated whether nonstandard work schedules by mothers was associated with adolescent overweight. Methods. We conducted multiple regression analyses using a sample of mother-child pairs (n=2353) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the association between the number of years mothers worked at nonstandard schedules and adolescent overweight at age 13 or 14 years. Separate analyses were also conducted by family income and family type. Results. Child's body mass index increased significantly if mothers worked either a few years or many years at nonstandard schedules. Risk of overweight was also significantly associated with 1 to 4 and 10 or more years of maternal nonstandard work schedules. In both cases, results were driven by those families with predicted incomes in the 2nd quartile ("near-poor"), with a few or many years of nonstandard work schedules also associated with increased risk of adolescent overweight in 2-parent families. Conclusions. Results indicate the importance of the overlooked association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and adolescent overweight at age 13 or 14 years. Nonstandard work schedules among near-poor families and in 2-parent families may disrupt the work-family balance, affecting adolescent overweight.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Daniel P. and Wen-Jui Han. "Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Adolescent Overweight." American Journal of Public Health 98,8 (June 2008): 1495-1502.
18. Mossakowski, Krysia N.
The Influence of Past Unemployment Duration on Symptoms of Depression Among Young Women and Men in the United States
American Journal of Public Health 99,10 (October 2009): 1826-1832.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/short/99/10/1826
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Background; Health, Mental; Socioeconomic Background; Stress; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. I examined whether unemployment while looking for a job and being out of the labor force while not seeking work have distinct effects on symptoms of depression among young women and men in the United States. I also investigated whether past unemployment duration predicts depressive symptoms.

Methods. I used ordinary least squares regression to analyze data from the 1979–1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Results. Cross-sectional results suggested that current unemployment status and out-of-the-labor-force status were significantly associated with depressive symptoms at ages 29 through 37 years. The association between being out of the labor force and depressive symptoms was stronger for men. Longitudinal results revealed that past unemployment duration across 15 years of the transition to adulthood significantly predicted depressive symptoms, net of demographics, family background, current socioeconomic status, and prior depressive symptoms. However, duration out of the labor force did not predict depressive symptoms.

Conclusions. Longer durations of unemployment predict higher levels of depressive symptoms among young adults. Future research should measure duration longitudinally and distinguish unemployment from being out of the labor force to advance our understanding of socioeconomic mental health disparities.

Bibliography Citation
Mossakowski, Krysia N. "The Influence of Past Unemployment Duration on Symptoms of Depression Among Young Women and Men in the United States." American Journal of Public Health 99,10 (October 2009): 1826-1832.
19. Mutambudzi, Miriam
Meyer, John D.
Construction of Early and Midlife Work Trajectories in Women and Their Association With Birth Weight
American Journal of Public Health 104,S1 (February 2014): S58-S64.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301401
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We derived trajectories of the substantive complexity (SC) of work across mid-adult life in women and determined their association with term birth weight. SC is a concept that encompasses decision latitude, active learning, and ability to use and expand one’s abilities at work.

Methods. Using occupational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and O*NET work variables, we used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to construct longitudinal trajectories of work SC from the ages of 18 to 34 years. The association between work trajectories and birth weight of infants born to study participants was modeled using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for education, income, and relevant covariates.

Results. GMM yielded a 5-class solution for work trajectories in women. Higher work trajectories were associated with higher term birth weight and were robust to the inclusion of both education and income. A work trajectory that showed a sharp rise after age 24 years was associated with marked improvement in birth weight.

Conclusions. Longitudinal modeling of work characteristics might improve capacity to integrate occupation into a life-course model that examines antecedents and consequences for maternal and child health.

Bibliography Citation
Mutambudzi, Miriam and John D. Meyer. "Construction of Early and Midlife Work Trajectories in Women and Their Association With Birth Weight." American Journal of Public Health 104,S1 (February 2014): S58-S64.
20. Rendall, Michael S.
Weden, Margaret M.
Lau, Christopher
Brownell, Peter B.
Nazarov, Zafar
Fernandes, Meenakshi
Evaluation of Bias in Estimates of Early Childhood Obesity From Parent-Reported Heights and Weights
American Journal of Public Health 104,7 (July 2014): 1255-1262.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302001
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Data Quality/Consistency; Height; Obesity; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We evaluated bias in estimated obesity prevalence owing to error in parental reporting. We also evaluated bias mitigation through application of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s biologically implausible value (BIV) cutoffs.

Methods: We simulated obesity prevalence of children aged 2 to 5 years in 2 panel surveys after counterfactually substituting parameters estimated from 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for prevalence of extreme height and weight and for proportions obese in extreme height or weight categories.

Results: Heights reported below the first and fifth height-for-age percentiles explained between one half and two thirds, respectively, of total bias in obesity prevalence. Bias was reduced by one tenth when excluding cases with height-for-age and weight-for-age BIVs and by one fifth when excluding cases with body mass–index-for-age BIVs. Applying BIVs, however, resulted in incorrect exclusion of nonnegligible proportions of obese children.

Conclusions: Correcting the reporting of children's heights in the first percentile alone may reduce overestimation of early childhood obesity prevalence in surveys with parental reporting by one half to two thirds. Excluding BIVs has limited effectiveness in mitigating this bias.

Bibliography Citation
Rendall, Michael S., Margaret M. Weden, Christopher Lau, Peter B. Brownell, Zafar Nazarov and Meenakshi Fernandes. "Evaluation of Bias in Estimates of Early Childhood Obesity From Parent-Reported Heights and Weights." American Journal of Public Health 104,7 (July 2014): 1255-1262.
21. Sipsma, Heather L.
Biello, Katie Brooks
Cole-Lewis, Heather
Kershaw, Trace
Like Father, Like Son: The Intergenerational Cycle of Adolescent Fatherhood
American Journal of Public Health 100,3 (March 2010): 517-524
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Dating; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Fatherhood; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Studies; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. Strong evidence exists to support an intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood, yet such a cycle has not been studied. We examined whether paternal adolescent fatherhood (i.e., father of study participant was age 19 years or younger when his first child was born) and other factors derived from the ecological systems theory predicted participant adolescent fatherhood.

Methods. Data included 1496 young males who were interviewed annually from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine the effect of paternal adolescent fatherhood on participant adolescent fatherhood.

Results. Sons of adolescent fathers were 1.8 times more likely to become adolescent fathers than were sons of older fathers, after other risk factors were accounted for. Additionally, factors from each ecological domain-individual (delinquency), family (maternal education), peer (early adolescent dating), and environment (race/ethnicity, physical risk environment)-were independent predictors of adolescent fatherhood.

Conclusions. These findings support the need for pregnancy prevention interventions specifically designed for young males who may be at high risk for continuing this cycle. Interventions that address multiple levels of risk will likely be most successful at reducing pregnancies among partners of young men.

Bibliography Citation
Sipsma, Heather L., Katie Brooks Biello, Heather Cole-Lewis and Trace Kershaw. "Like Father, Like Son: The Intergenerational Cycle of Adolescent Fatherhood." American Journal of Public Health 100,3 (March 2010): 517-524 .
22. Sloan, Frank A.
Grossman, Daniel S.
Alcohol Consumption in Early Adulthood and Schooling Completed and Labor Market Outcomes at Midlife by Race and Gender
American Journal of Public Health 101,11 (November 2011): 2093-2101.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21330591
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Educational Attainment; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption in young adulthood to problem alcohol consumption 10 years later and to educational attainment and labor market outcomes at midlife. We considered whether these relations differ between Blacks and Whites.

Methods. We classified individuals on the basis of their drinking frequency patterns with data from the 1982 to 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (respondents aged 19–27 years). We assessed alcohol consumption from the 1991 reinterview (respondents aged 26–34 years) and midlife outcomes from the 2006 reinterview (respondents aged 41–49 years).

Results. Black men who consumed 12 or more drinks per week at baseline had lower earnings at midlife, but no corresponding relation for Black women or Whites was found. Black men and Black women who consumed 12 or more drinks per week at baseline had lower occupational attainment than did White male non-drinkers and White female non-drinkers, respectively, but this result was not statistically significant.

Conclusions. The relation between alcohol consumption in young adulthood and important outcomes at midlife differed between Blacks and Whites and between Black men and Black women, although Blacks’ alcohol consumption at baseline was lower on average than was that of Whites.

Bibliography Citation
Sloan, Frank A. and Daniel S. Grossman. "Alcohol Consumption in Early Adulthood and Schooling Completed and Labor Market Outcomes at Midlife by Race and Gender ." American Journal of Public Health 101,11 (November 2011): 2093-2101.
23. Strong, Larkin L.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Occupational Injury and Absence From Work Among African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White Workers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
American Journal of Public Health 95,7 (July 2005): 1226-1232.
Also: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/95/7/1226
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Injuries; Occupational Status; Occupations; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We examined how race and ethnicity influence injury and illness risk and number of days of work missed as a result of injury or illness.

Methods. We fit logistic regression and negative binomial regression models using generalized estimating equations with data from 1988 to 2000 on currently employed African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Results. Occupational factors—having a blue-collar occupation, working full-time, having longer tenure, working 1 job versus 2, and working the late shift—were associated with increased odds of an occupational injury or illness. Although racial/ethnic minority workers were no more likely than Whites to report an occupational injury or illness, they reported missing more days of work. African American and Hispanic men missed significantly more days of work than non-Hispanic White men, and African American women missed significantly more days of work than non-Hispanic White women.

Conclusions. Factors associated with occupational health are multifaceted and complex. Our findings suggest that race/ethnicity influences the duration of work absence owing to injury or illness both indirectly (by influencing workers' occupational characteristics) and directly (by acting independently of occupational factors).

Bibliography Citation
Strong, Larkin L. and Frederick J. Zimmerman. "Occupational Injury and Absence From Work Among African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White Workers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." American Journal of Public Health 95,7 (July 2005): 1226-1232.
24. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults
American Journal of Public Health 106,2 (February 2016): 374-380.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302968
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We examined the mutual effects of smoking bans and taxes on smoking among a longitudinal cohort of young adults.

Methods: We combined a repository of US tobacco policies at the state and local level with the nationally representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (2004–2011) from ages 19 to 31 years and Census data, to examine the impact of tobacco policies on any current and daily pack smoking. The analytic sample amounts to 19,668 observations among 4341 individuals within 487 cities.

Results: For current smoking, we found significant effects for comprehensive smoking bans, but not excise taxes. We also found an interaction effect, with bans being most effective in locales with no or low taxes. For daily pack smoking, we found significant effects for taxes, but limited support for bans.

Conclusions: Social smoking among young adults is primarily inhibited by smoking bans, but excise taxes only deter such smoking in the absence of a ban. Heavy smokers are primarily deterred by taxes. Although both policies have an impact on young adult smoking behaviors, their dual presence does not intensify each policy's efficacy.

Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults." American Journal of Public Health 106,2 (February 2016): 374-380.
25. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Bell, Bethany A.
Hummer, Robert A.
Effects of Timing and Level of Degree Attained on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Rated Health at Midlife
American Journal of Public Health 102,3 (March 2012): 557-563 .
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300216
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Health, Mental; High School Diploma; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We examined whether attaining a higher educational degree after 25 years of age was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health at midlife than was not attaining a higher educational degree.

Methods. We analyzed data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, restricting our sample to respondents who had not attained a bachelor's degree by 25 years of age (n = 7179). We stratified all regression models by highest degree attained by 25 years of age.

Results. Among respondents with no degree, a high school diploma, or a post–high school certificate at 25 years of age, attaining at least a bachelor's degree by midlife was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health at midlife compared with respondents who did not attain a higher degree by midlife. Those with an associate's degree at 25 years of age who later attained a bachelor's degree or higher reported better health at midlife.

Conclusions. Attaining at least a bachelor's degree after 25 years of age is associated with better midlife health. Other specifications of educational timing and its health effects across the life course should be studied.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Bethany A. Bell and Robert A. Hummer. "Effects of Timing and Level of Degree Attained on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Rated Health at Midlife." American Journal of Public Health 102,3 (March 2012): 557-563 .
26. Weden, Margaret M.
Brownell, Peter B.
Rendall, Michael S.
Prenatal, Perinatal, Early Life, and Sociodemographic Factors Underlying Racial Differences in the Likelihood of High Body Mass Index in Early Childhood
American Journal of Public Health 102,11 (November 2012): 2057-2067.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300686
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Breastfeeding; Child Care; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Obesity; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We investigated early childhood disparities in high body mass index (BMI) between Black and White US children.

Methods. We compared differences in Black and White children’s prevalence of sociodemographic, prenatal, perinatal, and early life risk and protective factors; fit logistic regression models predicting high BMI (≥ 95th percentile) at age 4 to 5 years to 2 nationally representative samples followed from birth; and performed separate and pooled-survey estimations of these models.

Results. After adjustment for sample design–related variables, models predicting high BMI in the 2 samples were statistically indistinguishable. In the pooled-survey models, Black children's odds of high BMI were 59% higher than White children's (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.32, 1.92). Sociodemographic predictors reduced the racial disparity to 46% (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.17, 1.81). Prenatal, perinatal, and early life predictors reduced the disparity to nonsignificance (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.93, 1.49). Maternal prepregnancy obesity and short-duration or no breastfeeding were among predictors for which racial differences in children’s exposures most disadvantaged Black children.

Conclusions. Racial disparities in early childhood high BMI were largely explained by potentially modifiable risk and protective factors.

Bibliography Citation
Weden, Margaret M., Peter B. Brownell and Michael S. Rendall. "Prenatal, Perinatal, Early Life, and Sociodemographic Factors Underlying Racial Differences in the Likelihood of High Body Mass Index in Early Childhood." American Journal of Public Health 102,11 (November 2012): 2057-2067.
27. Weden, Margaret M.
Miles, Jeremy N. V.
Intergenerational Relationships between the Smoking Patterns of a Population-Representative Sample of US Mothers and the Smoking Trajectories of their Children
American Journal of Public Health 102,4 (April 2012): 723-731.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300214
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: We assessed intergenerational transmission of smoking in mother-child dyads.

METHODS: We identified classes of youth smoking trajectories using mixture latent trajectory analyses with data from the Children and Young Adults of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 6349). We regressed class membership on prenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal smoking, including social and behavioral variables, to control for selection.

RESULTS: Youth smoking trajectories entailed early-onset persistent smoking, early-onset experimental discontinued smoking, late-onset persistent smoking, and nonsmoking. The likelihood of early onset versus late onset and early onset versus nonsmoking were significantly higher among youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus either postnatally alone or unexposed. Controlling for selection, the increased likelihood of early onset versus nonsmoking remained significant for each exposure group versus unexposed, as did early onset versus late onset and late onset versus nonsmoking for youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus unexposed. Experimental smoking was notable among youths whose mothers smoked but quit before the child's birth.

CONCLUSIONS: Both physiological and social role-modeling mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are evident. Prioritization of tobacco control for pregnant women, mothers, and youths remains a critical, interrelated objective.

Bibliography Citation
Weden, Margaret M. and Jeremy N. V. Miles. "Intergenerational Relationships between the Smoking Patterns of a Population-Representative Sample of US Mothers and the Smoking Trajectories of their Children." American Journal of Public Health 102,4 (April 2012): 723-731.