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Source: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
Resulting in 18 citations.
1. Aschaffenburg, Karen E.
Rethinking Images of the Mobility Regime: Making a Case for Women's Mobility
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 14 (1995): 201-235
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Inheritance; Mobility; Mobility, Social; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Stratification

Challenges the conventional approach to social stratification and proposes that female (F) mobility should be explicitly assessed in 3 ways: marital, as father-daughter, and mother-daughter. Analysis of data from 4 subsamples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1987 (total N = 14,964) reveals that regardless of which theoretical perspectives is taken, the structure of F mobility differs from male mobility. There is no simple single-parameter way to summarize how the effects differ from those in the standard father-son regime: the process is more complicated than a global muting of associations between origins and destinations or a uniform adjustment to the inheritance parameters. More significantly, an analysis of the net effects of mothers reveals that they are extremely important to both sons and daughters, but that the reasons that they matter are different. Overall, the regime for daughters is much more one of structured randomness. 6 Tables, 7 Figures, 1 Appendix, 89 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Aschaffenburg, Karen E. "Rethinking Images of the Mobility Regime: Making a Case for Women's Mobility." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 14 (1995): 201-235.
2. Augustine, Jennifer March
Increased Educational Attainment among U.S. Mothers and their Children's Academic Expectations
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 52 (December 2017): 15-25.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027656241730029X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences

Existing research provides strong evidence that children with more educated parents have higher academic expectations for themselves, but has yet to consider how an increase in the education of lower educated mothers might alter the expectations of their children. In light of the historic increase in U.S. mothers' pursuit of additional education, this study investigates this timely question using data from a nationally representative, intergenerational sample of U.S. children and mothers participating in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (n of mothers = 3,265; n of children = 8,027). Combining random and fixed effects procedures, the findings revealed that that an increase in mothers' educational attainment is linked to an increase in their children's expectations to earn a Bachelor's degree. Increased maternal education did not, however, buffer against the risk that children will downgrade these expectations upon approaching the end of high school. These results have theoretical importance to traditional models of status attainment, which typically view parental education as a stable feature of family background; extend a small but burgeoning literature that explores whether and why increased maternal education improves the mobility prospects of their children; and speak to current two-generation policy approaches that aim to leverage trends in mothers education to reduce inequality for future generations.
Bibliography Citation
Augustine, Jennifer March. "Increased Educational Attainment among U.S. Mothers and their Children's Academic Expectations." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 52 (December 2017): 15-25.
3. Curry, Matthew K.
The Great Recession and Shifting Patterns of College Effects for Young Men
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 59 (February 2019): 34-45.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562418300180
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Economic Changes/Recession; Educational Returns

College effects for young men's earnings, employment, and wages differ across economic context and the propensity to complete college.

For low-propensity individuals, recessionary contexts increased the effects of college on employment and earnings, but not on wages.

For high-propensity individuals, the opposite pattern occurred, with college effects on wages increasing during recessionary contexts.

Results are consistent with labor queues, where reductions in available jobs causes more desired workers to displace less desirable workers below them in the queue

Bibliography Citation
Curry, Matthew K. "The Great Recession and Shifting Patterns of College Effects for Young Men." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 59 (February 2019): 34-45.
4. DiPrete, Thomas A.
Analyzing Labor Force Transitions with Panel Data
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 3 (1984): 61-76
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Labor Force Participation; Longitudinal Data Sets; Markov chain / Markov model; Mobility, Labor Market; Research Methodology; Statistical Analysis; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Work Histories

While event-history data are always preferable to panel data, there are many situations in which they do not exist or cannot be collected. This analysis of transitions among labor force statuses for young men who participated in the NLS is intended to illustrate the usefulness of longitudinal models for data analysis even when event history data are not available. Continuous time Markov models can be estimated and constrained so that hypotheses can be tested. Further, it is feasible to specify the intensity parameters as functions of covariates and estimate the coefficients. Good starting values are important to obtain the estimates without a large expenditure of funds, and one way in which these values might be obtained is suggested.
Bibliography Citation
DiPrete, Thomas A. "Analyzing Labor Force Transitions with Panel Data." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 3 (1984): 61-76.
5. Jacob, Marita
Weiss, Felix
Class Origin and Young Adults’ Re-Enrollment
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 29,4 (December 2011): 415-426.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562411000102
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This paper examines re-enrollment decisions taken by adults who have previously participated in the labor market in the US. We investigate the influence of social origin on re-enrollment and test hypotheses based on the “status reproduction” argument. We find that young adults from the lower classes re-enroll less often than those from the upper classes and that these differences can be attributed to a large extend to different ability or performance. Beyond the effects of social origin as such, we also scrutinize the effects of the child's class position relative to family status as a more direct implication of the “status reproduction” argument. Our analyses reveal that once young adults from higher status positions have reached their parents’ class, re-enrollment is somewhat less likely to occur. However, this effect of the child's relative class to the parents’ is rather weak.
Bibliography Citation
Jacob, Marita and Felix Weiss. "Class Origin and Young Adults’ Re-Enrollment." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 29,4 (December 2011): 415-426.
6. Lee, Ji-Youn
Toney, Michael B.
Berry, Eddy Helen
Social Status Inconsistency and Migration
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 27,1 (March 2009): 35-49.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562408000322
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Status; Migration Patterns; Rural/Urban Migration; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

We use NLSY79 panel data to extend the line of sociological research encouraged in the early work of Lenski by analyzing the effects of social status inconsistencies on the likelihood and direction of migration. Given that migration is often viewed as a way for individuals to locate prospective returns fitting for their qualifications, analysis of migration behavior offers an opportunity to examine the impact of status inconsistency. Key findings indicate that under-rewarded individuals, specifically relatively highly educated individuals in low status and low paying occupations, are more likely to migrate than are status consistent individuals. Over-rewarded individuals are less likely to migrate. These findings vary across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan places: individuals in nonmetropolitan areas who are under-rewarded or have mixed statuses have higher odds of migration than status consistent respondents. Individuals in metropolitan areas with inconsistent statuses are not more likely to migrate than status consistent respondents once other determinants of migration are entered in the analysis. Exploratory analysis shows migration increases the likelihood of achieving status consistency. Further examination of the interrelationship between migration and status inconsistency is recommended.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Ji-Youn, Michael B. Toney and Eddy Helen Berry. "Social Status Inconsistency and Migration." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 27,1 (March 2009): 35-49.
7. Milesi, Carolina
Do All Roads Lead to Rome? Effect of Educational Trajectories on Educational Transitions.
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,1 (March 2010): 23-44.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562410000028
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; School Progress; Schooling, Post-secondary; Socioeconomic Background

"Non - traditional" educational trajectories are increasingly common among American students. This study assesses the implications of this phenomenon for inequality in educational attainment. A proper account of educational trajectories requires simultaneous consideration of qualitatively different types of destinations within educational transitions, of the timing at which different transitions occur, and of the sequence of events within educational levels. To examine "traditional" and "non - traditional" pathways through post - secondary education, this study relies on detailed educational histories from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 - 2002. Findings reveal that deviations from a traditional trajectory are widespread, are more frequent among students who enrolled in less selective colleges, and also among socioeconomically and academically disadvantaged students. Results show that following a "non - traditional" pathway reduces students' chances to enroll in college and to complete a post - secondary degree. In the case of bachelor's degree completion, most of the observed gap among students from different socioeconomic backgrounds is accounted for the different trajectories students follow. This study demonstrates that a fine - grained analysis of students' trajectories improves our understanding of the persistent socioeconomic disparities in educational attainment. (c) 2010 International Sociological Association Research Committee 28 on Social Stratification and Mobility. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Research in Social Stratification & Mobility is the property of JAI Press, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of t he copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Milesi, Carolina. "Do All Roads Lead to Rome? Effect of Educational Trajectories on Educational Transitions." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,1 (March 2010): 23-44.
8. Nau, Michael
Dwyer, Rachel E.
Hodson, Randy
Can't Afford a Baby? Debt and Young Americans
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 42 (December 2015): 114-122.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562415000402
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Fertility; Parenthood; Student Loans

This article explores the role of personal debt in the transition to parenthood. We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 cohort and find that for the generation coming of age in the 2000s, student loans delay fertility for women, particularly at very high levels of debt. Home mortgages and credit card debt, in contrast, appear to be precursors to parenthood. These results indicate that different forms of debt have different implications for early adulthood transitions: whereas consumer loans or home mortgages immediately increase access to consumption goods, there is often a significant delay between the accrual and realization of benefits for student loans. The double-edged nature of debt as both barrier and facilitator to life transitions highlights the importance of looking at debt both as a monetary issue and also as a carrier of social meanings.
Bibliography Citation
Nau, Michael, Rachel E. Dwyer and Randy Hodson. "Can't Afford a Baby? Debt and Young Americans." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 42 (December 2015): 114-122.
9. Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid
Kalmijn, Matthijs
Life-Cycle Jobs
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 14 (1995): 1-38
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Job Patterns; Job Status; Life Cycle Research; Mobility, Social; Racial Differences; Stratification; Unions

Based on occupation and industry data from the 1% 1970 Public Use Sample, a life-cycle job typology is used to distinguish youthful "stopgap" jobs from career jobs. Census and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data indicate that stopgap jobs represent a life-cycle phenomenon for both black and white male youths, although more so for whites. Stopgap employment increased for young white males between 1970-1980 but decreased for blacks. Education and experience variables make a substantial contribution to the steep age gradient of stopgap employment and are important in explaining black-white differences in this age pattern in 1970 as well as the 1970-1980 changes. Implications of these differences for the youth labor market are explored. The extensive employment of more educated whites in low-level stopgap jobs places less educated youth (black and white) at a competitive disadvantage. Furthermore, factors that negatively affect the labor market position of nondisadvantaged youths may indirectly affect the employment position of low-skilled youth. 6 Tables, 4 Figures, 1 Appendix, 20 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincaid and Matthijs Kalmijn. "Life-Cycle Jobs." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 14 (1995): 1-38.
10. Painter, Matthew A. II
Get a Job and Keep It! High School Employment and Adult Wealth Accumulation
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,2 (June 2010): 233-249.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562410000132
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Assets; Employment, Part-Time; High School Employment; Home Ownership; Human Capital; Transition, Adulthood; Wealth; Work Experience

Wealth inequality receives substantial scholarly attention, but mounting evidence suggests that childhood and adolescent traits and experiences contribute to financial disparities in the United States. This study examines the relationship between adolescent labor force participation and adult wealth accumulation. I argue that employed high school students gain practical life skills, abilities, and knowledge from work experience and business exposure that shape investment decisions and affect overall net worth. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort, to empirically explore this idea. This study extends the wealth literature by identifying adolescent employment as an important mechanism that improves adult net worth and financial well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. II. "Get a Job and Keep It! High School Employment and Adult Wealth Accumulation ." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,2 (June 2010): 233-249.
11. Pampel, Fred C.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Changes in Income Inequality During Old Age
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 13 (1994): 239-263
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Income Level; Mothers, Education; Occupational Status; Racial Differences; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public; Underreporting; Wage Dynamics

Do withdrawal from the labor force and increased reliance on public transfers during old age change the level of income inequality generated by market forces during the pre-retirement years? Despite competing claims that inequality during old age is (I) maintained by advantages accumulated during middle age, (2) reduced by public transfers, or (3) increased by differential access to social protection, few studies compare inequality within cohorts before and after the transition to old age and retirement. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men from 1966 to 1981, this paper examines changes in the distribution of market, transfer, and total family income (including adjustments for family size, underreporting, and assets). It also compares the contribution of status background variables--occupational status, education, and race--to income inequality across years, ages, and work statuses. The results show increases in inequality as the men grow older and withdraw from the labor force, and indicate the contribution of status background to inequality remains strong. Although public retirement transfers are progressively distributed, they fail to counter other pressures toward greater social inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Pampel, Fred C. and Melissa A. Hardy. "Changes in Income Inequality During Old Age." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 13 (1994): 239-263.
12. Parcel, Toby L.
Dufur, Mikaela J.
Family and School Capital Explaining Regional Variation in Math and Reading Achievement
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 27,3 (September 2009): 157-176.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562409000201
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Child School Survey 1994-1995; Children, Academic Development; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Family Influences; Geographical Variation; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Human Capital; Missing Data/Imputation; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Regions; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Tests and Testing

We know that inequality varies by region and also begins early in life. Bivariate data suggest that 5–14-year-old children in the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) score differently in reading and mathematics achievement depending on their region, with children in the South and West scoring lower. We combine literatures on regional bases of inequality and family and school capital to generate hypotheses explaining these differences. Analyses of covariance provide supportive evidence. For both outcomes among boys, the variation is explained by additive models including family and child social and human capital, although selected aspects of school capital are also influential; these models also explain math achievement among girls. A model including both additive and interactive effects explains regional differences in reading achievement for girls. We interpret these findings in terms of their implications for studying inequality in child achievement as well as for emphasizing the importance of regional inequality, particularly beyond the South versus non-South distinction.
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Mikaela J. Dufur. "Family and School Capital Explaining Regional Variation in Math and Reading Achievement." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 27,3 (September 2009): 157-176.
13. Pearlman, Jessica Anne
Occupational Mobility for Whom?: Education, Cohorts, the Life Course and Occupational Gender Composition, 1970-2010
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 59 (February 2019): 81-93.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027656241830009X
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female

Over the past 50 years, occupational segregation by gender has markedly declined in the United States. This paper uses data from the decennial censuses and the National Longitudinal Surveys from 1967 to 2013 to explore how trends over time in the occupational gender composition of women's jobs vary according to educational attainment. The paper also examines the relative contributions of inter-generational and intra-generational occupational mobility to changes in occupational gender composition over time for high school educated women and women with a bachelor's degree. The findings indicate that for women with a bachelor's degree, declines in the likelihood of working in a female dominated occupation are primarily due to changes across cohorts. High school educated women experience smaller changes across cohorts but are more likely than women with a bachelor's degree to move to gender integrated occupations over the course of their careers. Fixed effects models show that the changes over the life course reflect changes in the gender composition of individual women's occupations rather than changes in the composition of the labor force. Both occupational mobility across and within broad groups of occupations contribute to changes in the occupational gender composition for high school educated women; for women with a bachelor's degree, mobility across broad groups of occupations is most important.
Bibliography Citation
Pearlman, Jessica Anne. "Occupational Mobility for Whom?: Education, Cohorts, the Life Course and Occupational Gender Composition, 1970-2010." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 59 (February 2019): 81-93.
14. Peterson, Richard R.
Effect of Divorce on Wages of Working Women
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 6 (1987): 61-79
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Divorce; Dual Economic Theory; Wages, Women; Women

This paper provides an analysis of the long-term effects of divorce on women's wages based on the NLS of Mature Women, 1967-1977 (number of cases = 3,964). It is found that, in the long run, working divorced women build up a wage advantage over working married women. Structural and individualist models are considered to account for this wage advantage. A labor market segmentation model indicates that divorced (and other single) women are more likely than married women to be working in advantaged segments of the labor market, particularly in large firms, suggesting that such firms prefer to have single or divorced women. Results from the individualist models (human capital and family role) indicate that part of the wage advantage of divorced women can also be attributed to their greater education and work experience. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Peterson, Richard R. "Effect of Divorce on Wages of Working Women." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 6 (1987): 61-79.
15. Roksa, Josipa
Velez, Melissa
When Studying Schooling Is Not Enough: Incorporating Employment in Models of Educational Transitions
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,1 (March 2010): 5-21.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562409000146
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Education; Family Characteristics; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Background; Transition, School to Work

Several recent studies have demonstrated the importance of incorporating qualitative differentiation within educational systems in the study of class inequality in student transitions. We extend these endeavors by broadening the definition of differentiation to include participation in the labor market. As increasing proportions of students continue their educational journeys beyond compulsory schooling, they are considering not only whether to stay in school but also whether to simultaneously enter the world of work. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 (NLSY97), we show that family background influences not only whether students make specific educational transitions but also whether they combine those educational transitions with work. Student trajectories are also path dependent, with employment during one educational transition being related to specific transition patterns at a later point in time. Considering how students combine school and work reveals another dimension of differentiation which can be exploited by socioeconomically advantaged families to "effectively maintain" inequality in educational outcomes. (c) 2009 International Sociological Association Research Committee 28 on Social Stratification and Mobility. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Research in Social Stratification & Mobility is the property of JAI Press, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Roksa, Josipa and Melissa Velez. "When Studying Schooling Is Not Enough: Incorporating Employment in Models of Educational Transitions." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,1 (March 2010): 5-21.
16. Smith, Chelsea
Crosnoe, Robert
Chao, Shih-Yi
Family Background and Contemporary Changes in Young Adults' School-Work Transitions and Family Formation in the United States
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 46,A (December 2016): 3-10.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562416300099
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Family Background; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Force Participation; Marriage; Parenthood; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work

The oft-discussed lengthening of the transition into adulthood is unlikely uniform across diverse segments of the population. This study followed youth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts (n = 12,686 and 8,984, respectively) from 16 to 32 years old to investigate this trend in the United States, examining cross-cohort changes in transitions with a focus on differences by family background. Logistic regressions revealed that young adults in the most recent cohort were less likely to have completed schooling, fully entered the labor force, married, or become parents by their 30s than those in the older cohort. The cross-cohort drop in young adults completing schooling was more pronounced among youth from more disadvantaged family backgrounds, the drop in entering the labor force and having children was more pronounced among those from more advantaged backgrounds, and the drop in marriage did not differ by family background.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Chelsea, Robert Crosnoe and Shih-Yi Chao. "Family Background and Contemporary Changes in Young Adults' School-Work Transitions and Family Formation in the United States." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 46,A (December 2016): 3-10.
17. Thompson, Jason
Mobility in the Middle: Bachelor's Degree Selectivity and the Intergenerational Association in Status in the United States
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 60 (April 2019): 16-28.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562417300641
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Degree; Colleges; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Social; Social Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study deploys data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to estimate the intergenerational association in socioeconomic status (SES) among graduates from non-selective, less-selective, and selective four-year colleges. The intergenerational association in status varies by measure of SES, level of education, and tier of bachelor's degree selectivity. Although the intergenerational association in SES is statistically significant among non-degree holders, the parent-child link in occupational status is null among those who attain a bachelor's degree. Likewise, the parent-child association in monetary SES is either small in magnitude or statistically insignificant among graduates of colleges in the middle tier of admissions selectivity. However, the intergenerational association in monetary status among graduates of the least and most-selective colleges is statistically indistinguishable from the association among non-degree holders. Results suggest that while occupational destinations are independent of occupational origins among all bachelor's degree holders, social origins continue to influence wages and family income among graduates of the least and most-selective institutions. These findings motivate continued work to address concerns regarding causality and to examine the potential institutional structures playing a role in social mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Jason. "Mobility in the Middle: Bachelor's Degree Selectivity and the Intergenerational Association in Status in the United States." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 60 (April 2019): 16-28.
18. Weiss, Felix
Roksa, Josipa
New Dimensions of Educational Inequality: Changing Patterns of Combining College and Work in the U.S. over Time
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 44 (June 2016): 44-53.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562416300117
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Employment, In-School; Higher Education; Mobility, Social; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Expansion of an educational system is often accompanied by differentiation. In the U.S., expansion of higher education included an increasing reliance on work. For a growing proportion of students, including those of traditional college-going age, going to college also involved going to work. This raises a crucial question of whether this form of differentiation has altered the patterns of inequality in higher education. While growing proportions of disadvantaged students are entering higher education, are they increasingly depending on work during their studies? We address this question using data from two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97). We begin by presenting longitudinal profiles of engagement in school and work for young adults in the 1980s and 2000s. Following, we conduct multivariate analyses predicting the number of hours students are working while enrolled in college in two time periods. Presented analyses reveal a substantial amount of stability in social class inequality over time, with a modest increase in inequality among students attending four-year institutions full-time. Implications of these findings for policy and research on social stratification are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Weiss, Felix and Josipa Roksa. "New Dimensions of Educational Inequality: Changing Patterns of Combining College and Work in the U.S. over Time." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 44 (June 2016): 44-53.