Search Results

Source: American Economic Review
Resulting in 57 citations.
1. Abowd, John M.
Card, David E.
Intertemporal Labor Supply and Long-Term Employment Contracts
American Economic Review 77,1 (March 1987): 50-68.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28198703%2977%3A1%3C50%3AILSALE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Labor Supply; Modeling; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: NBER Working Paper No. 1831, February 1986
We compare a contracting model and a labor supply model. One test is whether earnings changes are more variable than hours changes, as predicted by the labor supply model, or less variable, as predicted by the contracting model. We apply this test to two longitudinal surveys and find that earnings are somewhat more variable than hours for men who never change employers. The estimates suggest that changes in earnings and hours not associated with measurement error occur at fixed wage rates.
Bibliography Citation
Abowd, John M. and David E. Card. "Intertemporal Labor Supply and Long-Term Employment Contracts." American Economic Review 77,1 (March 1987): 50-68.
2. Akerlof, George A.
Main, Brian G.
An Experience-Weighted Measure of Employment and Unemployment Durations
American Economic Review 71,5 (December 1981): 1003-1011.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1803481
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Unemployment Duration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study displays empirical estimates of a measure of the average length of a spell in which an employment-year and unemployment-week is utilized. The results show that unemployment durations are all longer by large multiples. Most employment experience is spent in jobs that are quite long. Even though there may be less permanence than previous times, the average male is employed in a job of long standing; therefore, there exists a considerable degree of permanence in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Akerlof, George A. and Brian G. Main. "An Experience-Weighted Measure of Employment and Unemployment Durations." American Economic Review 71,5 (December 1981): 1003-1011.
3. Anderson, Deborah J.
Binder, Melissa
Krause, Kate
The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why?
American Economic Review 92,2 (May 2002): 354-359.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/000282802320191606
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Graduates; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors study the motherhood wage penalty using the 1968-1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Young Women (NLSYW). This data allows them to investigate both cross-sectional samples (with ordinary least-squares [OLS] models) and panel samples (with fixed-effects models to control for heterogeneity). The authors conclude that the least skilled do not suffer lower wages for becoming mothers; high-skilled workers should face high costs for exiting; and women who are high-school graduates and black college graduates appear to occupy a middle position.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J., Melissa Binder and Kate Krause. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty: Which Mothers Pay It and Why? ." American Economic Review 92,2 (May 2002): 354-359.
4. Antel, John J.
Costly Employment Contract Renegotiation and the Labor Mobility of Young Men
American Economic Review 75,5 (December 1985): 976-991.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1818640
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Employment, Youth; Job Productivity; Layoffs; Marital Status; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A model of job matching with costly post-hire negotiations is developed that is similar in some aspects to Hashimoto's (1981) model, but with particular relevance to the population of young workers only beginning their labor force participation. The model yields empirical implications concerning the role of wages in the determination of mobility that contrast to the implications of an otherwise similar zero negotiations cost model of job matching. The model focuses on the period immediately following hire when worker productivity is to a great extent governed by endowed capabilities rather than determined by learning on the job. The data consist of 709 observations derived from the NLS of Young Men. Job change behavior is tracked between the 1969 and 1970, and also the 1970 and 1971 contiguous surveys. The empirical results show that quits and permanent layoffs are different. The results tend to confirm the model of job matching with costly contract renegotiation.
Bibliography Citation
Antel, John J. "Costly Employment Contract Renegotiation and the Labor Mobility of Young Men." American Economic Review 75,5 (December 1985): 976-991.
5. Barrow, Lisa
Rouse, Cecilia Elena
Do Returns to Schooling Differ by Race and Ethnicity?
American Economic Review 95,2 (May 2005): 83-87.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/000282805774670130
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines the variations in returns to schooling rates in the U.S. The article further evidence on the variation in returns to schooling by examining whether the benefits vary by race and ethnicity of the individual. Using data from the U.S. Decennial Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979, the article find little evidence of differences in the return to schooling across racial and ethnic groups, even with attempts to control for ability and measurement-error biases. As a result, policies that increase education among the low-skilled, who are disproportionately African-American and Hispanic, have a good possibility of increasing economic well-being and reducing inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Barrow, Lisa and Cecilia Elena Rouse. "Do Returns to Schooling Differ by Race and Ethnicity?" American Economic Review 95,2 (May 2005): 83-87.
6. Bartel, Ann P.
The Migration Decision: What Role Does Job Mobility Play?
American Economic Review 69,5 (December 1979): 775-788.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1813646
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Children; Job Tenure; Layoffs; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper argues that one must take account of the relationship between job mobility and migration when studying the determinants and consequences of the decision to migrate. The results indicate that there are three distinctly different types of geographic moves (associated with either a quit, layoff, or transfer) and an analysis that ignores this distinction can often lead to misleading conclusions about the role of such variables as the wage, the wife's labor force participation, the presence of school children and the length of residence in the migration process.
Bibliography Citation
Bartel, Ann P. "The Migration Decision: What Role Does Job Mobility Play?" American Economic Review 69,5 (December 1979): 775-788.
7. Bjorklund, Anders
Jantti, Markus
Intergenerational Income Mobility in Sweden Compared to the United States
The American Economic Review 87,5 (December 1997): 1009-1018.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2951338
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Family Income; Family Studies; Fathers and Sons; Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Sweden, Swedish

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational income correlations are an important indication of the extent of economic mobility across families. Until recently it has been thought that the correlations between fathers' and sons' incomes were significantly positive, but quite low, indicating that family background was not a primary deterrent to economic success." Recently, Gary Solon (1989, 1992) and David J. Zimmerman (1992) have reconsidered these findings and considerably improved the methodology and data previously used to measure this correlation. They demonstrated that estimates based on annual income and nonrepresentative homogeneous samples understate the correlation between the long-run economic status of fathers and sons. Using more appropriate techniques and data, they both find correlations between 0.4 and 0.5 for the United States. Because Solon used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and Zimmerman the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS), the magnitude of their estimates seems fairly reliable. This paper assesses the magnitude of the same parameter for Sweden. Sweden provides an interesting comparison. In terms of equality of outcome, Sweden and the United States are at two extremes among OECD countries-the United States is at the top and Sweden at the bottom of orderings of inequality of disposable income (Anthony B. Atkinson et al., 1995). Their rank order in international comparisons of earnings inequality (before taxes) is similar (Richard Freeman and Lawrence Katz, 1995). Our interest in a comparison of intergenerational income correlation between Sweden and the United States is motivated, in part, by the question whether the extent of crosssectional and intergenerational inequality are independent of each other. Is it possible that Sweden, which has less cross-sectional income inequality, also has more intergenerational mobility?
Bibliography Citation
Bjorklund, Anders and Markus Jantti. "Intergenerational Income Mobility in Sweden Compared to the United States." The American Economic Review 87,5 (December 1997): 1009-1018.
8. Borjas, George J.
Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities
The American Economic Review 85,3 (June 1995): 365-390.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2118179
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Ethnic Groups; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Ethnic Studies; Human Capital; Neighborhood Effects; Parenting Skills/Styles; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The socioeconomic performance of today 's workers depends not only on parental skills but also on the average skills of the ethnic group in the parents generation (or ethnic capital). This paper investigates the link between the ethnic externality and ethnic neighborhoods. The evidence indicates that residential segregation and the external effect of ethnicity are linked partly because ethnic capital summaries the socioeconomic background of the neighborhood where the children were raised. Ethnicity has an external effect even among persons who ho grow up in the same neighborhood when children are exposed frequently to persons who share the same ethnic background. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Borjas, George J. "Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities." The American Economic Review 85,3 (June 1995): 365-390.
9. Buckles, Kasey S.
Understanding the Returns to Delayed Childbearing for Working Women
American Economic Review 98,2 (May 2008): 403-407.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.98.2.403
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Earnings; Education; First Birth; Parenthood; Skill Formation; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The article investigates the wage-earning implications for U.S. women of giving birth to a first child. Previous research has suggested there are substantial economic benefits to delaying childbirth, with one study claiming a 3% increase in wages for each year of delay. The author seeks explanation through analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Her work reveals several findings. In 2003 an annual 3% wage premium did exist for each year of delayed parenthood. In addition, delayed childbirth correlated with high levels of skill, education, and professional status of the mother.
Bibliography Citation
Buckles, Kasey S. "Understanding the Returns to Delayed Childbearing for Working Women." American Economic Review 98,2 (May 2008): 403-407.
10. Currie, Janet
Cole, Nancy
Welfare and Child Health: The Link Between AFDC Participation and Birth Weight
American Economic Review 83,4 (September 1993): 971-985.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117589
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Well-Being; Fertility; Household Composition; Income; Mothers, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Program Participation/Evaluation; Siblings; Substance Use; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The stated goal of the Aid for Families with Dependent Children program is to improve the well-being of children in poor families. The program has come under considerable attack in recent years from critics who argue that participation in AFDC is associated with maternal behaviors that are bad for children. We investigate this question using birth weight as a measure of child health. While AFDC mothers are indeed more likely to have children at younger ages, to delay obtaining prenatal care, to smoke, and to drink during pregnancy, we find no support for the view that AFDC participation induces these behaviors. Rather, our results suggest that some women are predisposed both to participate in AFDC and to these behaviors. These women ultimately have babies of lower birth weight. We show that when observable and unobservable characteristics of the mother are controlled for, there is actually a positive association between participation in AFDC and the birth weights of children of white women from poor families. We find no association between birth weight and maternal participation in AFDC among black children.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Nancy Cole. "Welfare and Child Health: The Link Between AFDC Participation and Birth Weight." American Economic Review 83,4 (September 1993): 971-985.
11. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Does Head Start Make a Difference?
American Economic Review 85,3 (June 1995): 341-364.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2118178
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Disadvantaged, Economically; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Head Start; Medicaid/Medicare; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Siblings; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The impact of participation in Head Start is investigated using a national sample of children. Comparisons are drawn between siblings to control for selection. Head Start is associated with large and significant gains in test scores among both whites and African-Americans. However, among African-Americans, these gains are quickly lost. Head Start significantly reduces the probability that a white child will repeat a grade but it has no effect on grade repetition among African-American children. Both whites and African-Americans who attend Head Start, or other preschools, gain greater access to preventive health services.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Does Head Start Make a Difference?" American Economic Review 85,3 (June 1995): 341-364.
12. Dynarski, Susan M.
Does Aid Matter? Measuring the Effect of Student Aid on College Attendance and Completion
The American Economic Review 93,1 (March 2003): 279-288.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/000282803321455287
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; College Graduates; Financial Assistance; Social Security

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does student aid increase college attendance or simply subsidize costs for infra-marginal students? Settling the question empirically is a challenge, because aid is correlated with many characteristics that influence educational investment decisions. A shift in financial aid policy that affects some youth but not others can provide an identifying source of variation in aid. In 1982, Congress eliminated the Social Security Student Benefit Program, which at its peak provided grants totaling $3.7 billion a year to one out of ten college students. Using the death of a parent as a proxy for Social Security beneficiary status, I find that offering $1,000 ($1998) of grant aid increases educational attainment by about 0.16 years and the probability of attending college by four percentage points. The elasticities of attendance and completed years of college with respect to schooling costs are 0.7 to 0.8. The evidence suggests that aid has a "threshold effect": a student who has crossed the hurdle of college entry with the assistance of aid is more likely to continue schooling later in life than one who has never attempted college. This is consistent with a model in which there are fixed costs of college entry. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis indicates that the aid program examined by this paper was a cost-effective use of government resources.
Bibliography Citation
Dynarski, Susan M. "Does Aid Matter? Measuring the Effect of Student Aid on College Attendance and Completion." The American Economic Review 93,1 (March 2003): 279-288.
13. Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
Oaxaca, Ronald L.
Unemployment Insurance, Duration of Unemployment, and Subsequent Wage Gain
American Economic Review 66,5 (December 1976): 754-766.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1827489
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Job Search; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The estimated impact of unemployment insurance benefit changes on unemployed individual's duration of unemployment, postunemployment wages, and durations of spell out of the labor force is calculated. Three estimates are presented for each group: (1) the impact of the current benefit level relative to the absence of benefits; (2) the impact of increasing the replacement fraction from 0.4 to 0.5; and (3) the impact of increasing the replacement fraction from 0.0 to 1.0. The results seem to indicate that an increase in UI benefits would induce additional productive job search for older males and females, with the magnitudes of the impact on both postunemployment wages and duration of unemployment being larger for the males. In contrast, an increase in UI benefits appears to increase the duration of unemployment for the younger males and females but has no impact on their postunemployment wages.
Bibliography Citation
Ehrenberg, Ronald G. and Ronald L. Oaxaca. "Unemployment Insurance, Duration of Unemployment, and Subsequent Wage Gain." American Economic Review 66,5 (December 1976): 754-766.
14. Evans, David S.
Leighton, Linda S.
Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship
American Economic Review 79,3 (June 1989): 519-535.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1806861
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Assets; Census of Population; Educational Returns; Internal-External Attitude; Life Cycle Research; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility, Job; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Employed Workers; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data on full-time self-employed workers from the NLS of Young Men, coupled with CPS data, this report examines self-employment entry and exit over the life cycle and focuses on the relative returns to business and wage experience and education of self-employment vs wage work. Key findings include: (1) The probability of switching into self-employment is roughly independent of age and total labor-market experience. This result is not consistent with standard job-shopping models such as William Johnson (1978) and Robert Miller (1984) which predict that younger workers will try riskier occupations first. (2) The probability of departing from self-employment decreases with duration of self-employment, falling from about 10 percent in the early years to 0 by the eleventh year in self-employment. About half of the entrants return to wage work within seven years. (3) The fraction of the labor force that is self-employed increases with age until the early 40s and then remains constant within the retirement years. (4) Men with greater assets are more likely to switch into self-employment all else equal. (5) Wage experience has a much smaller return in self-employment than in wage work while business experience has just about the same return in wage work as in self-employment. (6) Poorer wage workers - that is, unemployed workers, lower-paid wage workers, and men who have changed jobs a lot - are more likely to enter self-employment or to be self-employed at a point in time, all else equal. (7) As predicted by one of the leading psychological theories, men who believe their performance depends largely on their own actions - that is, have an internal locus of control as measured by a test known as the Rotter Scale - have a greater propensity to start businesses.
Bibliography Citation
Evans, David S. and Linda S. Leighton. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship." American Economic Review 79,3 (June 1989): 519-535.
15. Farber, Henry S.
Trends in Worker Demand for Union Representation
American Economic Review 79,2 (May 1989): 166-171.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1827751
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Quality of Employment Survey (QES); Racial Differences; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The dramatic decline in the demand for union representation among nonunion workers over the last decade is investigated using data on worker preferences for union representation from four surveys conducted in 1977, 1980, 1982, and 1984. Relatively little of the decline can be accounted for by shifts in labor force structure. However, virtually all of the decline is correlated with an increase in the satisfaction of nonunion workers with their jobs and a decline in nonunion workers' beliefs that unions are able to improve wages and working conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Farber, Henry S. "Trends in Worker Demand for Union Representation." American Economic Review 79,2 (May 1989): 166-171.
16. Fleisher, Belton M.
Rhodes, George F.
Fertility, Women's Wage Rates, and Labor Supply
American Economic Review 69,1 (March 1979): 14-24.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1802493
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Children; Employment; Family Income; Fertility; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wage Rates; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our empirical results encourage us to believe that a disaggregate multivariate approach is useful for the study of fertility and labor supply behavior. There is fairly persuasive evidence that the number of children demanded responds negatively to their cost and positively to family income, ceteris paribus. Our results suggest that declining family size will reduce the future discrepancy in male-female wage differentials. Increased labor force attachment may prove to be a more powerful force toward male-female wage equality than "equal opportunity" labor market legislation.
Bibliography Citation
Fleisher, Belton M. and George F. Rhodes. "Fertility, Women's Wage Rates, and Labor Supply." American Economic Review 69,1 (March 1979): 14-24.
17. Freeman, Richard B.
Job Satisfaction as an Economic Variable
American Economic Review 68,2 (May 1978): 135-140.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1816677
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Quits; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Satisfaction is shown to be a major determinant of labor market mobility, in part, it is argued, because it reflects aspects of the workplace not captured by standard objective variables. Satisfaction is also found to depend anomolously on some economic variables (such as unionism) in ways that provide insight into how those factors affect people. Most variables like age, wages, and a race dummy had the expected opposite coefficients on satisfaction compared to quits. Overall, the results of comparing satisfaction as a dependent variable with quits indicates that, consistent with economists' suspicions, satisfaction cannot be treated in the same ways as standard economic variables. The divergent effects the unions and to a lesser extent tenure have on satisfaction and quits suggests that at least some economic institutions and variables have very distinct effects on the subjective way in which individuals view their job satisfaction. The empirical analysis finds job satisfaction to be a major determinant of labor market mobility and turns up puzzling relations between certain economic variables, notably unionism, and satisfaction that appear attributable to the subjective nature of the variable.
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. "Job Satisfaction as an Economic Variable." American Economic Review 68,2 (May 1978): 135-140.
18. Gitter, Robert J.
Reagan, Patricia Benton
Reservation Wages: An Analysis of the Effects of Reservations on Employment of American Indian Men
American Economic Review 92,4 (September 2002): 1160-1168.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/00028280260344696
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Studies; Wages, Men; Wages, Reservation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

American Indians living on reservations have experienced numerous economic problems, however no previous research has examined the effects of reservations on individual employment rates, controlling for other observable attributes. In this paper, the authors explore the effects of reservations on employment using a sample of young males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). They compare outcomes for Indians with those of a nationally representative cross section of the same birth cohort controlling for (1) contemporaneous proximity to a reservation and (2) whether the respondent lived at age 14 in a country with a reservation. Results show that American Indian males fare worse than other men in the labor market. The authors' data suggest that controlling for other factors, including local labor-market conditions, proximity to a reservation reduces the probability of employment among Indian men by 11 percentage points. Having lived in a country with a reservation at age 14 reduces the probability of employment among Indian men by 5-10 percentage points. In addition, neither measure of proximity to a reservation reduces employment of other groups.
Bibliography Citation
Gitter, Robert J. and Patricia Benton Reagan. "Reservation Wages: An Analysis of the Effects of Reservations on Employment of American Indian Men." American Economic Review 92,4 (September 2002): 1160-1168.
19. Goldin, Claudia
Exploring the "Present Through the Past": Career and Family Across the Last Century
American Economic Review 87,2 (May 1997): 396-399.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2950952
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Census of Population; College Education; Family History; Family Studies; Women's Education; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cliometric's development is divided into 3 decades: 1965- 1975, 1975-1985, and 1985-present. The US wing of the discipline is emphasized. The example used for examining the present through the past is a discussion regarding whether women, particularly those who have graduated from 4-year colleges, are able to combine career and family. Even though the educational and employment barriers faced by previous generations of women have been substantially reduced, many college women today are concerned. Using US federal census population data, alumnae and Women's Bureau surveys, and the National Longitudinal Survey of young women, the career and family histories of college women during the past century are pieced together.
Bibliography Citation
Goldin, Claudia. "Exploring the "Present Through the Past": Career and Family Across the Last Century." American Economic Review 87,2 (May 1997): 396-399.
20. Gupta, Nabanita Datta
Probabilities of Job Choice and Employer Selection and Male-Female Occupational Differences
American Economic Review 83,2 (May 1993): 57-61.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117640
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Modeling; Occupational Choice; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An explicit model was estimated of the occupational status of workers as determined by the interaction of two choices: a worker's choice of occupation and the employer's choice of that worker for that occupation. The data sample consisted of 3,540 young men and women from the 1982 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that gender differences in occupations are due to differences in both worker and employer preferences. Predicted probabilities of workers' job choices indicate that women are likelier than men to select the "female" (at least 60 percent female) and service occupations and less likely to select the crafts/labor and professional/managerial occupations. In terms of employer selection, predicted probabilities indicate that men are more likely than women to be chosen for the professional/managerial and service occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Gupta, Nabanita Datta. "Probabilities of Job Choice and Employer Selection and Male-Female Occupational Differences." American Economic Review 83,2 (May 1993): 57-61.
21. Hashimoto, Masanori
Minimum Wage Effect on Training on the Job
American Economic Review 72,5 (December 1982): 1070-1087.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1812023
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Blue-Collar Jobs; Government Regulation; Job Training; Minimum Wage; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the theoretical argument for the adverse minimum wage effects and presents empirical evidence on the effects of minimum wages on the training of young male workers. The author finds that an effective minimum wage diminishes training in two ways. First, to the extent that the minimum wage results in lost employment, it deprives the disemployed workers access to training. This outcome is a definite side effect of decreased employment caused by the minimum wage. Second, even those workers who manage to remain employed at wages near the minimum wage may experience a reduction in on-the-job training. The second effect is the primary focus of this study. The author concludes that there should be youth differentials of exemptions in the minimum wage rates. By allowing young workers to pay for their training by accepting reduced current wages, youth differentials would help to alleviate the adverse minimum wage effects on future earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Hashimoto, Masanori. "Minimum Wage Effect on Training on the Job." American Economic Review 72,5 (December 1982): 1070-1087.
22. Hill, M. Anne
Intercohort Differences in Women's Labor Market Transitions
American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 289-292.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006586
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Racial Differences; Wages; Women; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The extent to which the labor force behavior of recent cohorts of women has actually changed was analyzed by comparing the early labor force experience of women who were between the ages of 16 and 21 in 1968 with that of women between the ages of 16 and 21 in 1979. The data consisted of 8-year samples from the NLS of Young Women and NLSY. The data include both completed work spells, the duration of which is known, and censored spells, for which the end of the labor force spell is not yet observed. The results showed that the length of censored work spells has risen nearly one year for both white and black women. The human capital variables, in particular, the level of labor market experience and schooling, increase the duration of work spells and hasten the exit from a nonwork spell. These effects appear stronger for the younger cohort of women, especially black women. The intercohort differences in responses to demographic variables were mixed. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Hill, M. Anne. "Intercohort Differences in Women's Labor Market Transitions." American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 289-292.
23. Holzer, Harry J.
Informal Job Search and Black Youth Unemployment
American Economic Review 77,3 (June 1987): 446-452.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1804107
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Job Search; Racial Differences; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1981 and 1982 panels of the NLSY are used to test for racial differences in the use and effectiveness of various job search methods. Also, the total observed difference in employment probabilities is decomposed into components attributed to each method of search, and further into differences in use, job offers, and job acceptances based on all methods. The results show that the two informal methods of search -- checking with friends and relatives and direct application without referral -- account for 87%-90% of the difference in youth employment probabilities between blacks and whites. In addition, virtually all of this reflects differences in the ability of these methods to produce job offers, as opposed to differences in methods used or job acceptance rates. Thus, the evidence strongly indicates that young blacks face more severe barriers when using informal rather than formal search methods, possibly because of the greater role played by personal contacts and subjective employers' impressions in the former. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J. "Informal Job Search and Black Youth Unemployment." American Economic Review 77,3 (June 1987): 446-452.
24. Hoxby, Caroline M.
Does Competition among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers?
American Economic Review 90,5 (December 2000): 1209-1238.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.90.5.1209
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Education; Endogeneity; Private Schools; Public Sector; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Tiebout choice among districts is the most powerful market force in American public education. Naive estimates of its effects are biased by endogenous district formation. I derive instruments from the natural boundaries in a metropolitan area. My results suggest that metropolitan areas with greater Tiebout choice have more productive public schools and less private schooling. Little of the effect of Tiebout choice works through its effect on household sorting. This finding may be explained by another finding: students are equally segregated by school in metropolitan areas with greater and lesser degrees of Tiebout choice among districts.
Bibliography Citation
Hoxby, Caroline M. "Does Competition among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers?" American Economic Review 90,5 (December 2000): 1209-1238.
25. Johnson, William R.
Kitamura, Yuichi
Neal, Derek A.
Evaluating a Simple Method for Estimating Black-White Gaps in Median Wages
The American Economic Review 90,2 (May 2000): 339-343.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.90.2.339
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Employment; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A model is developed to estimate black-white gaps in median wages. Data were gathered from average wages earned during the period 1990-91 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Findings reveal that imputing wages of zero for unemployed individuals may provide a reasonable method for the estimation of median wage regressions among men. Findings imply that data drawn from short panels rather than single-year cross-sections may mitigate the need for additional imputations and reduce the occurrence of imputation error. Tables show median regression results using various wage imputation methods and new wage observations two years after and two years before the original sample. Copyright: Database Producer Copyright (c) the H.W. Wilson Company. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, William R., Yuichi Kitamura and Derek A. Neal. "Evaluating a Simple Method for Estimating Black-White Gaps in Median Wages." The American Economic Review 90,2 (May 2000): 339-343.
26. Kahn, Shulamit
Griesinger, Harriet
Female Mobility and the Returns to Seniority: Should EEO Policy Be Concerned with Promotion?
American Economic Review 79,2 (May 1989): 300-304.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1827774
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Patterns; Labor Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Mobility, Occupational; Quits; Schooling, Post-secondary; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effect of sex differences in quit response to wage incentives. Using data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, it was found that full-time working women who have held their job a year or more are more responsive to wage incentives than men.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Shulamit and Harriet Griesinger. "Female Mobility and the Returns to Seniority: Should EEO Policy Be Concerned with Promotion?" American Economic Review 79,2 (May 1989): 300-304.
27. Kane, Thomas J.
Rouse, Cecilia Elena
Labor-Market Returns to Two- and Four-Year College
American Economic Review 85,3 (June 1995): 600-614.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2118190
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Education; College Graduates; Education; National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS72); Schooling, Post-secondary; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite their importance as providers of post secondary education, little is known about the labor-market payoffs to a community-college education. An attempt is made to fill this gap by employing 2 different data sets that allow one to distinguish between 2-year and 4-year college attendance: 1. the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Using the NLS- 72, it is found that the average person who attended a 2-year college earned about 10% more than those without any college education, even without completing an associate's degree. Further, contrary to widespread skepticism regarding the value of a community-college education, the estimated returns to a credit at a 2-year or 4-year college are both positive and remarkably similar: roughly 4%-6% for every 30 completed credits (2 semesters). Evidence is also found of the additional value of an associate's degree for women and a bachelor's degree for men. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM.
Bibliography Citation
Kane, Thomas J. and Cecilia Elena Rouse. "Labor-Market Returns to Two- and Four-Year College." American Economic Review 85,3 (June 1995): 600-614.
28. Keane, Michael P.
Nominal-Contracting Theories of Unemployment: Evidence from Panel Data
American Economic Review 83,4 (September 1993): 932-952.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117586
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Inflation; Unemployment Compensation; Wage Dynamics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men are used to study how nominal shocks affect real wages in the economy and in specific sectors. Nominal-contracting theories of unemployment hold that real wages and nominal shocks have a negative correlation. The research does not support these theories. The study shows that real wages have no correlation with either money-growth shocks or inflation and suggests that real shocks could lead to fluctuations in real wages.
Bibliography Citation
Keane, Michael P. "Nominal-Contracting Theories of Unemployment: Evidence from Panel Data." American Economic Review 83,4 (September 1993): 932-952.
29. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Child Care and Women's Return to Work After Childbirth
American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 284-288.
Also: http://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/resources/6782?author=Klerman%2C+Jacob+Alex
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Childbearing; First Birth; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Re-employment; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on the labor supply of women immediately following their first birth and explores the extent to which child care subsidies have promoted the recent growth in labor supply of women with young children. Using data from the NLSY, the authors estimate multinomial logit models of the determinants of returning to work by three and 24 months and the mode of child care utilized. Calculations of regional differences in child care costs are made. Results of the study indicate that: (1) the women studied returned to work rapidly after their first birth with one-third returning to work in the first three months following birth; (2) non-relative care accounted for one-third of the child care arrangements regardless of when the mother returned to work while child care centers and other non-home arrangements accounted for another 8-11% of the child care; (3) although the presence of a grandmother in the home increased the probability of a woman returning to work during the first three months, the presence of relatives did not appear to affect returns to work after three months; (4) the maximum value of the child care credit was found to be positively related to returns to work within three months of delivery while the marginal tax care credit had a negative effect on returning to work with market care but did not affect working with relative care; (5) neither child care tax variable significantly affected returns to work after the first three months; and (6) women with higher wages and more education return to work sooner.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Child Care and Women's Return to Work After Childbirth." American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 284-288.
30. Kniesner, Thomas J.
McElroy, Marjorie B.
Wilcox, Steven P.
Getting into Poverty Without a Husband, and Getting Out, With or Without
American Economic Review 78,2 (May 1988): 86-95.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1818103
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Mothers; Parents, Single; Poverty; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing data from the NLS of Young Women, this research analyzed the poverty spells of young single mothers during the survey years 1968-1982. Findings include: (1) young black women are more likely than young white women to not only experience poverty but to stay in poverty; (2) changes in family structure account for nearly all entries into poverty with divorce the prevalent entry mode for white women and leaving the household of another adult the predominant mode for black women; (3) more young white women exit poverty via remarriage while black women typically rejoin either their parent's household or the household of another unrelated male adult; and (4) for both races, poverty status represented new poverty rather than poverty carried over from some previous family structure.
Bibliography Citation
Kniesner, Thomas J., Marjorie B. McElroy and Steven P. Wilcox. "Getting into Poverty Without a Husband, and Getting Out, With or Without." American Economic Review 78,2 (May 1988): 86-95.
31. Kotlikoff, Laurence J.
Testing the Theory of Social Security and Life Cycle Accumulation
American Economic Review 69,3 (June 1979): 396-410.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1807373
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Life Cycle Research; Retirement; Social Security

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

New micro evidence is presented on the accumulation response of households to Social Security. Section I reviews the theory of Social Security and life cycle savings, considering the one-for-one replacement of accumulated Social Security taxes for accumulated private savings, the retirement effect, and the effect of changes in lifetime wealth due to the yield of the Social Security system. In Section II econometric specification is used to test the theory. Section III discusses the sample selected from the NLS of Older Men aged 45-59, and Section IV presents the empirical findings.
Bibliography Citation
Kotlikoff, Laurence J. "Testing the Theory of Social Security and Life Cycle Accumulation." American Economic Review 69,3 (June 1979): 396-410.
32. Lang, Kevin
Manove, Michael
Education and Labor Market Discrimination
American Economic Review 101,4 (June 2011): 1467–1496.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.4.1467
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Education; Educational Attainment; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a model of statistical discrimination and educational sorting, we explain why blacks get more education than whites of similar cognitive ability, and we explore how the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), wages, and education are related. The model suggests that one should control for both AFQT and education when comparing the earnings of blacks and whites, in which case a substantial black-white wage differential emerges. We reject the hypothesis that differences in school quality between blacks and whites explain the wage and education differentials. Our findings support the view that some of the black-white wage differential reflects the operation of the labor market. (JEL I21, J15, J24, J31, J71)
Bibliography Citation
Lang, Kevin and Michael Manove. "Education and Labor Market Discrimination." American Economic Review 101,4 (June 2011): 1467–1496. A.
33. Lazear, Edward
Age, Experience, and Wage Growth
American Economic Review 66,4 (September 1976): 548-558.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1806695
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Earnings; Military Service; Schooling; Unions; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study estimates the human capital (i.e. work experience) component of earnings and found it to be about 1/3 of total compensation for young workers. "Aging" per se thus accounts for a significant proportion of wage growth over and beyond the effects of work experience; however, as individuals grow older the aging effect is less strong.
Bibliography Citation
Lazear, Edward. "Age, Experience, and Wage Growth." American Economic Review 66,4 (September 1976): 548-558.
34. Lazear, Edward
The Narrowing of Black-White Wage Differentials Is Illusory
American Economic Review 69,4 (September 1979): 553-564.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1808702
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Job Training; Racial Differences; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The recent evidence of a substantial narrowing of the black-white wage difference is due to a wage measurement problem. There has not been as great a narrowing in the black-white differential as it appears from looking at observed wages. Instead, blacks in recent cohorts have experienced a relative substitution of current wages for future wages or earnings power. But this differential in total compensation is severely overstated by differences in pecuniary wages. It appears that much of what employers have been giving nonwhites in current wages has been recaptured by a reduction in on-the-job training (OJT) provided. This paper estimates the unobserved component of wages. The size of this component is calculated for non-whites and whites separately and then compared. Since, as it turns out, the component is larger for whites than nonwhites, observed wage differentials understate true differentials. The most important conclusion is that nonwhite gains in pecuniary wages over the eight-year period under study were more than offset by declines in the unobserved OJT component of earnings. It is also the case that in terms of level of OJT, whites seem to receive substantially more than nonwhites in both periods. It is the change over time, however, that finds whites enjoying even greater gains in OJT than nonwhites. This causes the true differential to rise while the observed one falls.
Bibliography Citation
Lazear, Edward. "The Narrowing of Black-White Wage Differentials Is Illusory." American Economic Review 69,4 (September 1979): 553-564.
35. Leigh, Duane E.
Do Union Members Receive Compensating Wage Differentials? Note
American Economic Review 71,5 (December 1981): 1049-1055.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1803489
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Unions; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two conclusions may be drawn from the findings presented here. First, Duncan-Stafford's longitudinal evidence showing that higher union wages represent a compensating differential for undesirable working conditions does not generalize to NLS data for Young Men. Second, the NLS evidence appears to be more consistent with a collective voice view of unionism than it is with the interdependencies hypothesis advanced by Duncan and Stafford. In particular, results obtained for union joiners and leavers indicate that working conditions in the union sector are at least equal to those in nonunion jobs, as would be expected if, despite their higher wages, organized workers have a direct impact through their unions in altering disagreeable working conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Do Union Members Receive Compensating Wage Differentials? Note." American Economic Review 71,5 (December 1981): 1049-1055.
36. Light, Audrey L.
McGarry, Kathleen
Why Parents Play Favorites: Explanations for Unequal Bequests
American Economic Review 94,5 (December 2004): 1669-1682.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/0002828043052321
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Inheritance; Mothers; Mothers, Health; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The article explores the explanations given by mothers in the U.S. who participated in the 1999 National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Mature Women, on why they intend to divide their estates unequally among their children. The data for a sample of 45- to 80-year-old mothers include a feature not available in other surveys which assessed the relative importance of alternative motives for parental transfers: verbatim explanations of why mothers intend to divide their estates unequally among their children. The analysis indicates that a variety of motives come into play when mothers determine the allocation of their estates. Relatively few mothers intend to differentiate among their children in making bequests, but those who do are equally likely to provide explanations that are consistent with altruism and explanations that suggest exchange. Among mothers with adopted children or stepchildren, a surprisingly large number refer to their children's biological status in their response. Factors such as poor maternal health, the presence of non-biological children and increased within-family variation in children's predicted income are associated with a higher probability of unequal bequests.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Kathleen McGarry. "Why Parents Play Favorites: Explanations for Unequal Bequests." American Economic Review 94,5 (December 2004): 1669-1682.
37. Light, Audrey L.
Ureta, Manuelita
Gender Differences in Wages and Job Turnover Among Continuously Employed Workers
American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 293-297.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006587
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Job Turnover; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Women; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses the Young Men and Young Women cohorts of the NLS to determine whether a significant number of women work continuously during their early careers, which women are likely to do so, and how these women compare to men in terms of their interfirm mobility and earnings. It was found that roughly 88 percent of the women in our sample spend more than ten percent of their time working when they are between the ages of 24 and 30, while 25 percent work for more than 90 percent of their time. However, women are far more likely to work a large fraction of their time if they have a college education, and there has been a tremendous increase over time in the fraction of white women (especially those who are well educated) who work at least 90 percent of their time. In comparing the job turnover behavior of continuously employed men and women, the authors found that both genders exhibit identical degrees of negative duration dependence. While women born in 1944-46 are less likely than men to leave their jobs (regardless of race, education, and current tenure), the opposite is true for a cohort born just six years later. In comparing starting wages of men and women, it was found that the wage gap is less pronounced among continuously employed workers than among the full sample in almost every race-cohort-schooling group, and the gap is narrowing far more rapidly among the continuously employed.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Manuelita Ureta. "Gender Differences in Wages and Job Turnover Among Continuously Employed Workers." American Economic Review 80,2 (May 1990): 293-297.
38. Link, Charles R.
Ratledge, Edward C.
Lewis, Kenneth
Black-White Differences in Returns to Schooling: Some New Evidence
American Economic Review 66,1 (March 1976): 221-223.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1804965
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Costs; Educational Returns; Racial Differences; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The findings show that improved quality of education, as opposed to differential vintage effects, is responsible for blacks' relative income gains. For blacks, the interaction between years of schooling and expenditures may partially explain other researchers' pessimistic findings that education has little impact on black earnings. This note on Welch's l973 article in the American Economic Review supports the hypothesis that improved quality of black education is responsible for blacks' relative income gains.
Bibliography Citation
Link, Charles R., Edward C. Ratledge and Kenneth Lewis. "Black-White Differences in Returns to Schooling: Some New Evidence." American Economic Review 66,1 (March 1976): 221-223.
39. Link, Charles R.
Ratledge, Edward C.
Lewis, Kenneth
The Quality of Education and Cohort Variation in Black-White Earnings Differentials: Reply
American Economic Review 70,1 (March 1980): 196-203.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1814750
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Costs; Educational Returns; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines two data sets in order to further examine Welch's contention that: (1) blacks for the past several years have begun to receive monetary benefits from education commensurate with those of whites; and (2) that the gap has narrowed because of a relative upgrading of educational quality for blacks. Counter to Akin and Garfinkel and in support of Welch, it was found that the gap in percentage returns to schooling has narrowed for blacks in younger cohorts. Contrary to Akin and Garfinkel and in support of Welch, we find percentage returns to schooling and to quality for the younger black cohorts were found to be commensurate with those for whites. In fact, it was found that percentage returns to schooling and to quality to be somewhat more favorable for younger blacks than for whites. Akin and Garfinkel are quick to point out, however, that even if percentage returns are comparable, absolute wage rate differences still favor whites. Thus they warn that equal percentage returns to blacks and whites are not necessarily an indication of equal earnings for equally competent workers. While Akin and Garfinkel compute implied wages to be greater for young whites than blacks, these results are not as disheartening and are mixed, depending upon which model specification is adopted. Consistent with Welch, however, a narrowing in the implied black white hourly wage gap for younger cohorts was found.
Bibliography Citation
Link, Charles R., Edward C. Ratledge and Kenneth Lewis. "The Quality of Education and Cohort Variation in Black-White Earnings Differentials: Reply." American Economic Review 70,1 (March 1980): 196-203.
40. Lochner, Lance John
Monge-Naranjo, Alexander
The Nature of Credit Constraints and Human Capital
American Economic Review 101,6 (October 2011): 2487-2529.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.6.2487
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Family Income; Human Capital; Modeling; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We develop a human capital model with borrowing constraints explicitly derived from government student loan (GSL) programs and private lending under limited commitment. The model helps explain the persistent strong positive correlation between ability and schooling in the United States, as well as the rising importance of family income for college attendance. It also explains the increasing share of undergraduates borrowing the GSL maximum and the rise in student borrowing from private lenders. Our framework offers new insights regarding the interaction of government and private lending, as well as the responsiveness of private credit to economic and policy changes. (JEL D14, H52, I22, I23, J24)
Bibliography Citation
Lochner, Lance John and Alexander Monge-Naranjo. "The Nature of Credit Constraints and Human Capital." American Economic Review 101,6 (October 2011): 2487-2529.
41. Lochner, Lance John
Moretti, Enrico
The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports
American Economic Review 94,1 (March 2004): 155-189.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/000282804322970751
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; Behavior; Census of Population; Crime; Education; Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Incarceration/Jail; Schooling; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate the effect of education on participation in criminal activity using changes in state compulsory schooling laws over time to account for the endogeneity of schooling decisions. Using Census and FBI data, we find that schooling significantly reduces the probability of incarceration and arrest. NLSY data indicate that our results are caused by changes in criminal behavior and not differences in the probability of arrest or incarceration conditional on crime. We estimate that the social savings from crime reduction associated with high school graduation (for men) is about 14-26 percent of the private return.
Bibliography Citation
Lochner, Lance John and Enrico Moretti. "The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports." American Economic Review 94,1 (March 2004): 155-189.
42. Loury, Linda Datcher
All in the Extended Family: Effects of Grandparents, Aunts, and Uncles on Educational Attainment
American Economic Review 96,2 (May 2006): pp. 275-278.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/000282806777212099
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Grandparents; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper shows that older extended family members--aunts, uncles, and grandparents--independently affect the schooling of their younger relatives. This finding can shed light in many areas. For example, gender differences in relationships with extended family members may partly explain schooling differences among siblings. Extended family members may also account for intergenerational influences not directly tied to observed nuclear family characteristics. In the policy arena, countervailing extended family influences may lower achievement gains from programs that move adolescents to more advantageous neighborhoods and schools. On the other hand, if extended family members can improve adolescent choices, nonparent adult mentors in programs such as Big Brothers Big Sisters may also provide effective guidance for teens.
Bibliography Citation
Loury, Linda Datcher. "All in the Extended Family: Effects of Grandparents, Aunts, and Uncles on Educational Attainment." American Economic Review 96,2 (May 2006): pp. 275-278.
43. Lynch, Lisa M.
Private-sector Training and the Earnings of Young Workers
American Economic Review 82,1 (March 1992): 299-312.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117617
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Training; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Slower productivity growth rates are the result of companies' poor training policies and poor training decisions made by workers. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey youth cohort is used to study the formal training process in the private sector. Some 70% of young employees are not college graduates. Research indicates that private-sector training programs are a key factor in determining the growth of wages in this group of young employees.
Bibliography Citation
Lynch, Lisa M. "Private-sector Training and the Earnings of Young Workers." American Economic Review 82,1 (March 1992): 299-312.
44. Lynch, Lisa M.
The Role of Off-the-Job vs On-the-Job Training for the Mobility of Women Workers
American Economic Review 81,1 (May 1991): 151-156.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006844
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Job Training; Job Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Private Sector; Training; Training, Off-the-Job; Training, On-the-Job; Transition, School to Work; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the impact of various types of training (company training, apprenticeships, and for-profit training by proprietary institutions) on job turnover or the probability that young workers will leave their first jobs. Data for civilian NLSY respondents who had left school during 1979-1983 and who had obtained a job during the first year out of school are analyzed. Factors found to influence the probability of leaving an employer were race, educational attainment, marital status, union status, being disabled, and local labor market unemployment rate. Those workers who had participated in company training were less likely to leave an employer while those who had invested in proprietary training were more likely to leave although the differences by sex were marked.
Bibliography Citation
Lynch, Lisa M. "The Role of Off-the-Job vs On-the-Job Training for the Mobility of Women Workers." American Economic Review 81,1 (May 1991): 151-156.
45. Maxwell, Nan L.
D'Amico, Ronald
Employment and Wage Effects of Involuntary Job Separation: Male-Female Differences
American Economic Review 76,2 (May 1986): 373-377.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1818799
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Gender Differences; Job Turnover; Labor Force Participation; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study is undertaken to determine if women fare better or worse than men upon job termination. Analysis examines the role human capital and institutional factors play in explaining the consequences following involuntary job termination. Data are taken from the Young Men and Young Women's panels of the NLS. The results indicate that, while males may have increased displacement rates, once females lose their jobs, they are more likely to have difficulty recovering their initial labor market positions. Striking employment differentials between the sexes exist after displacement, with female unemployment rates about 2 1/2 times greater than rates for males. With prolonged unemployment, women are much more likely to drop out of the workforce than men. Much of the differential can be attributed to gender or to gender-related characteristics. Evidence also suggests that, net of human capital and institutional influences, displaced females also suffer greater wage loss than males.
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. and Ronald D'Amico. "Employment and Wage Effects of Involuntary Job Separation: Male-Female Differences." American Economic Review 76,2 (May 1986): 373-377.
46. Miller, Amalia Rebecca
Motherhood Delay and the Human Capital of the Next Generation
American Economic Review 99,2 (May 2009): 154–158.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.99.2.154
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Contraception; Fertility; Human Capital; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses biological fertility shocks as instrumental variables to estimate the causal effect of motherhood delay on the cognitive ability of first children. Maternal age at first birth represents a potential determinant of early human capital formation that reflects choices that respond to financial incentives, cultural norms, and policy environment. The key measures of cognitive ability are Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) scores. Test scores have long been predictors of individual educational attainment and earnings, and their importance has only increased (Richard Murnane, John Willet, and Frank Levy 1995). At the national level, test performance in mathematics and science is strongly related to economic growth, and may matter more than years of completed schooling (Eric Hanushek and Dennis Kimko 2000). Using data on first-born children age 5 to 14 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Children survey, this paper finds delayed motherhood leads to significant increases in PIAT test scores. The relationship is robust to the inclusion of various controls for observable elements of maternal human capital, and the use of instrumental variables to address the potential endogeneity of motherhood timing.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Amalia Rebecca. "Motherhood Delay and the Human Capital of the Next Generation." American Economic Review 99,2 (May 2009): 154–158. A.
47. O'Neill, June E.
Gender Gap in Wages, circa 2000
American Economic Review 93,2 (May 2003): 309-315.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10016000&db=buh
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Modeling; Skills; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Examines evidence from the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on trends and sources of the gender gap in wages in the United States in 2000. Factors underlying gender differences in skills; Major changes that have occurred in the gender differential in earnings-related characteristics in the 1979-2001 period; Highlights of the model specifications.
Bibliography Citation
O'Neill, June E. "Gender Gap in Wages, circa 2000." American Economic Review 93,2 (May 2003): 309-315.
48. Oyer, Paul
Schaefer, Scott
Litigation Costs and Returns to Experience
American Economic Review 92,3 (June 2002): 683-705.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/00028280260136318
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Discrimination; Discrimination, Employer; Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We develop a model linking maximum damage awards available to plaintiffs in wrongful termination lawsuits, workers' propensity to sue as a function of experience, and returns to experience. Using Equal Employment Opportunity Commission data on protected-worker discrimination complaints and labor-market data from the Current Population Survey, we examine how returns to experience among protected workers changed around the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1991. We show that employers' reactions to employment protections may induce redistributive effects. Furthermore, these effects operate not merely across groups of differing protected status, but also within groups of identical protected status.
Bibliography Citation
Oyer, Paul and Scott Schaefer. "Litigation Costs and Returns to Experience." American Economic Review 92,3 (June 2002): 683-705.
49. Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo
Women and Substance Use: Are Women Less Susceptible to Addiction?
American Economic Review 87,2 (May 1997): 454-459.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2950967
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Addiction; Gender Differences; Substance Use; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A study examines the intertemporal demands for alcohol and marijuana of men and women using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to see if women are less susceptible to addition than men after accounting for possible multi-commodity habit formation. Results from reduced-form demand equations reveal that, although both men and women exhibit signs of multi-commodity habit formation, the cross-drug effects significantly influence quantity consumed for women only. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM.
Bibliography Citation
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo. "Women and Substance Use: Are Women Less Susceptible to Addiction?" American Economic Review 87,2 (May 1997): 454-459.
50. Parnes, Herbert S.
The National Longitudinal Surveys: New Vistas for Labor Market Research
American Economic Review 65,2 (May 1975): 244-49.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1818860
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): NLS Description; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For nearly a decade, the Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, under separate contracts with the U.S. Department of Labor, have been engaged in the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Experience. A rich data bank is being accumulated that has already served as the basis for thirteen comprehensive research monographs and over seventy-five specialized studies completed by staff members of the Center for Human Resource Research and other researchers throughout the country. The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and availability of the NLS data and to illustrate the unique kinds of analysis they make possible.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "The National Longitudinal Surveys: New Vistas for Labor Market Research." American Economic Review 65,2 (May 1975): 244-49.
51. Parsons, Donald O.
Health, Family Structure, and Labor Supply
American Economic Review 67,4 (September 1977): 703-712.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1813401
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands; Simultaneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study discusses the interrelationship between health and the family's allocation of time. The author focuses attention on health effects of the joint labor supply of both spouses, and to the differential labor supply responses to poor health of married and single men. The impact of health on home production hours indicates how well older individuals and families can economically survive health problems. The empirical results indicate that married men in poor health work significantly more hours than single men, which is consistent with the belief that married men can marshal resources other than their own time (ie. wives' time, when faced with a health problem). Estimation of a simultaneous model of male labor supply suggests that other family income does not have a substantial effect on labor supply but that male labor supply has a significant effect in other family income. Only in households where the wife has a high level of education, does other family income increase. Finally, declining health of each partner leads to substantial market time withdrawal, while home work remains unchanged.
Bibliography Citation
Parsons, Donald O. "Health, Family Structure, and Labor Supply." American Economic Review 67,4 (September 1977): 703-712.
52. Parsons, Donald O.
Racial Trends in Male Labor Force Participation
American Economic Review 70,5 (December 1980): 911-920.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1805771
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Social Security; Unemployment; Wages; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The decline in labor force participation, particularly among blacks, is the result of increasingly attractive alternatives to work. The differentially large decline among blacks is due simply to their relatively poor market alternatives and the increasingly progressive structure of Social Security benefits. From a positive viewpoint, one would predict that if wage rates for blacks and whites do ultimately converge, their labor force participation behavior will converge as well.
Bibliography Citation
Parsons, Donald O. "Racial Trends in Male Labor Force Participation." American Economic Review 70,5 (December 1980): 911-920.
53. Phillips, Llad
Votey, Harold L.
Black Women, Economic Disadvantage, and Incentives to Crime
American Economic Review 74,2 (May 1984): 293-297.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1816372
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Employment; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A model of labor market behavior is used to investigate the relationship between the supply of hours to legitimate work and the decision to participate in grand theft. Attention is focused on those women who have chosen to participate in legal work but are constrained, possibly by the 40-hour week. Some will be overemployed and seeking part-time work; others will be underemployed and seeking additional work. Data on individual observations were obtained from the NLSY, with information classified by race, sex, hours worked, and self-report of the number of thefts over $50 in the past year. The pattern of the percentage of white men, white women, and black men reporting grand theft is U-shaped as hours worked increases. For all categories of hours worked, a slightly higher percentage of black women reported grand thefts than white women, with no black women working 49 hours or more reporting grand theft.
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Llad and Harold L. Votey. "Black Women, Economic Disadvantage, and Incentives to Crime." American Economic Review 74,2 (May 1984): 293-297.
54. Rosenzweig, Mark R.
Wolpin, Kenneth I.
Parental and Public Transfers to Young Women and Their Children
American Economic Review 84,5 (December 1994): 1195-1212.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117768
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Benefits; Coresidence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Methods/Methodology; Parental Influences; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents estimates of how an increase in welfare benefits for the welfare-eligible affects the provision of parental support in the form of both financial transfers and shared residence based on an overlapping-generations framework incorporating game-theoretic interactions among parents, their adult children, and the government. The empirical results, obtained from two longitudinal data sets, indicate that the parents view a dollar of income earned by their daughters as equivalent to a dollar increase in welfare benefits. However, there exists only a small trade-off between the generosity of government aid and the incidence of parental aid. Copyright 1994 by American Economic Association.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenzweig, Mark R. and Kenneth I. Wolpin. "Parental and Public Transfers to Young Women and Their Children." American Economic Review 84,5 (December 1994): 1195-1212.
55. Sickles, Robin
Taubman, Paul
Who Uses Illegal Drugs
American Economic Review 81,2 (May 1991): 248-251.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2006863
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper utilizes data from the 1984 and 1988 NLSY to estimate a model of the types of young people reporting use, in the past year, of various illegal substances such as marijuana or cocaine. Examined are such socio- demographic variables as age, race, sex, parents' education, yearly income, and religious affiliation.
Bibliography Citation
Sickles, Robin and Paul Taubman. "Who Uses Illegal Drugs." American Economic Review 81,2 (May 1991): 248-251.
56. Zalokar, C. Nadja
Generational Differences in Female Occupational Attainment -- Have the 1970's Changed Women's Opportunities?
American Economic Review 76,2 (May 1986): 378-381.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1818800
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Attainment; Occupations, Female; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Earlier studies found evidence that sex differences in labor force attachment may explain sex differences in occupations. However, England (1982) and Corcoran et al. (1983) find that women with high labor force attachment are no more likely than other women to be in male occupations. This suggests that, when selecting occupations, women may face constraints in the form of direct labor market discrimination preventing them from entering male occupations or of a socialization process through which women and men acquire differing tastes for occupations. In the present analysis, data from the NLS of Mature Women are compared with the NLS of Young Women when each cohort was aged 30-38. The main source of women's increased occupational attainment during the 1970s was a decrease in women's costs of entering (increase in women's tastes for) more skilled, less female occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Zalokar, C. Nadja. "Generational Differences in Female Occupational Attainment -- Have the 1970's Changed Women's Opportunities?" American Economic Review 76,2 (May 1986): 378-381.
57. Zimmerman, David J.
Regression Toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature
American Economic Review 82,3 (June 1992): 409-429.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117313
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Fathers and Children; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages, Men; Wages, Young Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Estimates of the correlation in lifetime earnings between fathers and sons are presented. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey are used to measure the amount of intergenerational economic mobility present in the U.S. The data were obtained from a sample of 876 independent father-son pairs over the 1966-81 period and were analyzed on the basis of income from wages and salaries, hourly wages, and the Duncan index of socioeconomic status. Earlier studies, conducted for the US, report elasticities of children's earnings with respect to parent's earnings of 0.2 or less, suggesting extensive intergenerational mobility. These estimates, however, are biased downward by error-contaminated measures of lifetime economic status. Estimates are presented which correct for the problem of measurement error and find the integenerational correlation in income to be on the order of 0.4. This suggests considerably less intergenerational mobility than previously believed. Charts, equations, references.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, David J. "Regression Toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature." American Economic Review 82,3 (June 1992): 409-429.