Search Results

Source: Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society
Resulting in 36 citations.
1. Addison, John T.
Surfield, Christopher James
Atypical Work and Employment Continuity
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 48,4 (October 2009): 655-683.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.2009.00580.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Employment; Underemployment; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Workers Ability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Atypical employment arrangements have long been criticized as offering more precarious and unstable work than regular employment. Using data from the Contingent and Alternative Employment Arrangement Supplement and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort, we determine whether workers who take such jobs rather than regular employment, or the alternative of continued job search, experience greater or lesser employment continuity. Controlling for unobserved individual heterogeneity, the advantage of regular work over atypical work and atypical work over continued joblessness dissipates. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T. and Christopher James Surfield. "Atypical Work and Employment Continuity." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 48,4 (October 2009): 655-683.
2. Bartlett, Robin L.
Callahan, Charles
Wage Determination and Marital Status: Another Look
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 23,1 (January 1984): 90-96.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1984.tb00877.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Marital Status; Wage Determination

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Analysis of the effect of marital status upon the hourly wage rates of older white males shows that human capital variables explain a great deal of the wages of married men, and work status and location variables explain the wages of other white men. Significant differences were not found, however, among the three models estimated. Findings indicate the observed wage differential between married and unattached males seems to result from role specialization or perceived need, or both. Remarried men appear to be more motivated or are perceived as needier than married men. Almost all of the wage differential between married men and continuously single men results from occupational and industrial distribution differences. It remains to be determined whether single men earn less because they choose to enter lower paid occupations, or because they are denied access to certain occupations on the basis of their marital status.
Bibliography Citation
Bartlett, Robin L. and Charles Callahan. "Wage Determination and Marital Status: Another Look." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 23,1 (January 1984): 90-96.
3. Becker, Brian E.
Hills, Stephen M.
Youth Attitudes and Adult Labor Market Activity
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 20,1 (January 1981): 60-70.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1981.tb00182.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Employment; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Schooling; Teenagers; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, the authors focus on a widely used attitudinal construct--locus of control--to examine the role of personal motivation and initiative in the labor market experiences of young men. The objectives are to estimate the influence of locus of control on subsequent employment and nonemployment experience and, where such a relationship is established, to extend the results to the issue of the extent to which racial differences in teenage work attitudes are predictive of subsequent racial differences in unemployment. Specifically, the authors examine the nature of relationships between internal-external control measured in the first years of labor market experience (17-20 years old) and subsequent labor market experience during the initial years in the adult labor market seven years later.
Bibliography Citation
Becker, Brian E. and Stephen M. Hills. "Youth Attitudes and Adult Labor Market Activity." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 20,1 (January 1981): 60-70.
4. Blau, Francine D.
Kahn, Lawrence M.
Unionism, Seniority and Turnover
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 22,3 (September 1983): 362-373.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1983.tb00941.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Quits; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper tests the exit-voice model by estimating the union effect on quits and total, temporary and permanent layoffs separately for older (i.e., more senior) and younger (i.e., more junior) men. The results are supportive of the exit-voice model. First, unions are found to have a much larger (in absolute value) negative effective effect on older than on younger men's quitting, and to raise young men's total layoffs to a greater extent than older men's. Further, although unions have large significant positive effects on temporary layoffs for both male cohorts, collective bargaining was found to raise young men's and lower older men's permanent layoffs.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M. Kahn. "Unionism, Seniority and Turnover." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 22,3 (September 1983): 362-373.
5. Buchele, Robert
Aldrich, Mark
How Much Difference Would Comparable Worth Make?
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 24,2 (March 1985): 222-233.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1985.tb00991.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Comparable Worth; Earnings; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Job Requirements

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from both the NLS of Young Men and Young Women as well as the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, the authors propose a model of employment and earnings determination which specifies that workers' earnings are determined primarily by the requirements or characteristics of their job. The authors conclude that women are differentially rewarded for their job requirements and tenure irrespective of the sex composition of their job and that more than crowding or excess supply of women in women's jobs must be involved. The findings suggest that comparable worth, narrowly defined as equal returns to this study's measures of job requirements (e.g., GED, SVP), would reduce the earnings gap by about 63 percent. Requiring equal returns to job tenure would reduce the gap by another 35 percent. In conclusion, the paper discusses some qualifications to the study's findings as well as the implications for occupational segregation as a causal factor in the male-female earnings gap and the impact of comparable worth on the laws of supply and demand.
Bibliography Citation
Buchele, Robert and Mark Aldrich. "How Much Difference Would Comparable Worth Make?" Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 24,2 (March 1985): 222-233.
6. Currie, Janet
Thomas, Duncan
Intergenerational Transmission of "Intelligence": Down the Slippery Slopes of the Bell Curve
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,3 (July, 1999): 297-330.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0019-8676.00131/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Family Background; Intelligence; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Herrnstein and Murray report that conditional on maternal "intelligence" (AFQT scores), child test scores are little affected by variations in socioeconomic status. Using the same date, we demonstrate that their finding is very fragile. We explore the effect of adopting a more representative sample of children, including blacks and Latinos, allowing nonlinearities in the relationships and incorporating richer measures of socioeconomic status. Making any one of these changes overturns their finding: Socioeconomic status and child test scores are postively and significantly related. Evidence is presented suggesting AFQT scores are likely better markers for family background than "intelligence."
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Duncan Thomas. "Intergenerational Transmission of "Intelligence": Down the Slippery Slopes of the Bell Curve." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,3 (July, 1999): 297-330.
7. D'Amico, Ronald
Maxwell, Nan L.
The Impact of Post-School Joblessness on Male Black-White Wage Differentials
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 33,2 (April 1994): 184-205.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1994.tb00335.x/pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Racial Differences; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment, Youth; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the employment undercurrents of the divergence in black-white wages for young males in the 1980s. By integrating school-to-work transition literature with black-white research on earnings differences, we establish a framework for linking employment during the school-to-work transition and subsequent wage differentials. We empirically confirm this link using the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys. Results suggest that the higher rates of joblessness among a subset of black youth directly translate into lower earnings for blacks and produce black-white wage divergence. Young black males with extremely high levels of joblessness during the school-to-work period face the greatest reduction in relative wages.
Bibliography Citation
D'Amico, Ronald and Nan L. Maxwell. "The Impact of Post-School Joblessness on Male Black-White Wage Differentials." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 33,2 (April 1994): 184-205.
8. Fairlie, Robert W.
Earnings Growth Among Young Less-Educated Business Owners
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 43,3 (July 2004): 634-660.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0019-8676.2004.00353.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Education; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I examine the earnings patterns of young less-educated business owners and make comparisons with young less-educated wage/salary workers. Estimates from fixed-effects earnings regressions indicate that the self-employed experience faster earnings growth on average than wage/salary workers after a few initial years of slower growth. I also find some evidence suggesting that a relatively high percentage of less-educated business owners, especially men, experience either rapid earnings growth or large annual losses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W. "Earnings Growth Among Young Less-Educated Business Owners." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 43,3 (July 2004): 634-660.
9. Gerhart, Barry
Cheikh, Nabil El
Earnings and Percentage Female: A Longitudinal Study
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 31,1 (January 1991): 62-78.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1991.tb00775.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Comparable Worth; Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Employment, Intermittent; Gender Differences; Occupations, Female; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Comparable worth advocates assume that the relation between earnings and percentage female in an occupation is due to crowding or other forms of discrimination. An alternative explanation is that the relation stems from women freely choosing different occupations. Using longitudinal data to control for time-invariant omitted variables, as well as cross-sectional data (for comparison with previous research), we find that although men's estimated penalty is not reduced, the percentage female penalty falls substantially for women and is not statistically significant. These results imply that estimates of the percentage female effect based on cross-sectional data may be inflated for women–except for those with intermittent labor force participation. This group does experience a sizeable penalty for working in female-dominated occupations. Hence, a comparable worth policy would most likely benefit women with discontinuous employment.
Bibliography Citation
Gerhart, Barry and Nabil El Cheikh. "Earnings and Percentage Female: A Longitudinal Study." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 31,1 (January 1991): 62-78.
10. Johnson, William G.
Curington, William P.
Cullinan, Paul R.
Income Security for the Disabled
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 18,2 (March 1979): 173-183.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1979.tb00969.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Benefits, Insurance; Disabled Workers; Family Income; Veterans; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors analyze the deficiencies of social insurance programs for disabled workers. Four improvements are suggested to increase their adequacy and efficiency: (1) adopt measures of (after-tax) earnings capacity as the measure of adequacy; (2) consider the impact on households as well as on disabled individuals; (3) consider total and not individual benefits received by each household; and (4) identify gaps in the coverage provided by public programs for the disabled. The authors also suggest that consolidation of disability programs could increase administrative efficiency. Findings show that potential savings from program consolidation can only be identified by studies that consider the economic well-being of disabled households and the total benefits that are received from all public programs for the disabled.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, William G., William P. Curington and Paul R. Cullinan. "Income Security for the Disabled." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 18,2 (March 1979): 173-183.
11. Kahn, Lawrence M.
Union Strength and Wage Inflation
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 18,2 (March 1979): 144-155.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1979.tb00967.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Inflation; Unions; Wage Growth; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The hypothesis that the effect of union strength on wage inflation differs according to overall economic conditions is tested using ordinary least squares regression analysis of data for a period of relatively high employment (1968-1969) and for a period of recession (1970-71). In general, the results indicate that union strength has a rather small, but positive, impact on wage inflation for union members during periods of economic expansion and a similar moderate and positive effect on wages for non-union and union workers during recessionary periods.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Lawrence M. "Union Strength and Wage Inflation." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 18,2 (March 1979): 144-155.
12. Kahn, Lawrence M.
Wage Growth and Endogenous Experience
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 19,1 (January 1980): 50-63.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1980.tb00152.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Endogeneity; Job Tenure; Marital Status; Military Service; Wage Growth; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses the NLS of Young Men and Women to estimate the effect of the accumulation of employment experience on wage growth. Unlike previous work on wage growth, the endogeneity of experience is explicitly taken into account through the use of two-stage least squares. Comparison of OLS and 2SLS suggests the existence of a reciprocal impact between wage growth and experience. In addition, the effects of business cycle conditions on wage growth are examined by race-sex group. Knowledge of such effects can be useful in evaluating the impact of a full-employment national economic policy on labor market inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Lawrence M. "Wage Growth and Endogenous Experience." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 19,1 (January 1980): 50-63.
13. Kahn, Lawrence M.
Low, Stuart A.
The Wage Impacts of Job Search
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 21,1 (January 1982): 53-61.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1982.tb00214.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Job Search; Quits; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research, unlike studies of the return to quitting, accounts for search that does and search that does not lead to job change. More importantly, unlike all previous studies of the return to quitting (except Blau and Kahn, 1981), and unlike Black (1980), this study controls for the endogeneity of the search decision in estimating its wage effects. It is found that when the endogeneity of the search decision is taken into account, search does yield a greater expected wage offer than would have been obtained in the absence of search. The importance of controlling for selectivity bias (between searchers and nonsearchers) is underscored by the negative estimated effect of search using single equation methods. In addition, several of the single equation quit studies (Bartel and Borjas, 1977; Cooke, 1979, 1980; Black, 1980) found negative returns to quitting (and Black's results for the wage effects of search also sometimes indicated a negative return). Although there may also be nonpecuniary or long run wage returns to searching, selectivity bias corrected results suggest that there is an immediate wage payoff to search activity.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Lawrence M. and Stuart A. Low. "The Wage Impacts of Job Search." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 21,1 (January 1982): 53-61.
14. Kosteas, Vasilios D.
Gender Role Attitudes, Labor Supply, and Human Capital Formation
Industrial Relations 52,4 (October 2013): 915-940.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irel.12040/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Training

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relationship between attitudes toward women's roles in the labor force and human capital acquisition. I analyze both educational attainment and post schooling training spells. Holding more traditional attitudes about gender roles is associated with both lower educational attainment and lower probability of participating in post schooling training episodes. Also, gender role attitudes appear to have significant indirect effects on human capital acquisition, operating through a lower probability of labor market participation.
Bibliography Citation
Kosteas, Vasilios D. "Gender Role Attitudes, Labor Supply, and Human Capital Formation." Industrial Relations 52,4 (October 2013): 915-940.
15. Kosteas, Vasilios D.
Job Satisfaction and Promotions
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 50,1 (January 2011): 174-194.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.2010.00630.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Promotion; Job Satisfaction; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates the impact of promotions and promotion expectations on job satisfaction using the 1996–2006 waves of the NLSY79 dataset. Having received a promotion in the past 2 years leads to increased job satisfaction, even while controlling for the worker’s current wage, wage rank within her peer group, and wage growth. Workers who believe a promotion is possible in the next 2 years also report higher job satisfaction. Additionally, past promotions have a lingering, but fading impact on job satisfaction.
Bibliography Citation
Kosteas, Vasilios D. "Job Satisfaction and Promotions." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 50,1 (January 2011): 174-194.
16. Kramer, Amit
Unions as Facilitators of Employment Rights: An Analysis of Individuals' Awareness of Parental Leave in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 47,4 (October 2008): 651-658.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.2008.00539.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Benefits; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study considers the role of unions and individual characteristics as facilitators of knowledge among employees concerning labor rights. Labor policy by itself is often meaningless without mechanisms that allow implementation of such policy. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), individuals that are entitled to parental leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act but are ignorant of their right were identified. Using longitudinal data from 1992 to 2002, we find that union members' knowledge regarding their rights is better than that of nonunion members. Other individual and work characteristics are also associated with knowledge regarding parental leave rights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Amit. "Unions as Facilitators of Employment Rights: An Analysis of Individuals' Awareness of Parental Leave in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 47,4 (October 2008): 651-658.
17. Lee, Sang-Hyop
A Re-examination of Government Wage Differentials in the United States: Evidence from the NLSY with Geocode
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 43,2 (April 2004): 448-472.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0019-8676.2004.00338.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, OLS; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While many researchers have sought to estimate federal-private wage differentials in the US, most of them ignore the issues of unobserved heterogeneity and selectivity among sectors. This paper seeks to fill the gap in previous literature by utilizing a more appropriate data set and several compelling techniques. The main results suggest substantial bias in OLS estimates of federal-private wage differentials due to individual heterogeneity and self-selection. The direction of bias under selectivity correction is consistent with results from both test-score approach estimates and the fixed-effect estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Sang-Hyop. "A Re-examination of Government Wage Differentials in the United States: Evidence from the NLSY with Geocode." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 43,2 (April 2004): 448-472.
18. Leigh, Duane E.
Job Experience and Earnings Among Middle-Aged Men
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 15,2 (May 1976): 130-146.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1976.tb01111.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Job; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling; Vocational Training; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to improve on the specification of job experience as measured by current age minus age at completion of schooling. Using work history information for middle-aged men, a model is investigated that focuses on the determination of first-job occupation, occupational change between first job and current job, and current wage rate. The primary finding is that it is work experience accompanied by occupational advancement rather than work experience per se that has an effect on the distribution of wage rates.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Job Experience and Earnings Among Middle-Aged Men." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 15,2 (May 1976): 130-146.
19. Leigh, Duane E.
Union Preferences, Job Satisfaction, and the Union-Voice Hypothesis
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 25,1 (January 1986): 65-71.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1986.tb00669.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Quits; Racial Differences; Unions; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to Freeman's (1976) exit-voice model of unionism, unions provide their members with a collective voice to address grievances, moderating the effects of worker dissatisfaction on turnover. The model was tested using data from the 1980 Young Men's cohort. The survey assessed work dissatisfaction and desires for union representation for both union and nonunion workers. Union workers expressed significantly higher levels of job dissatisfaction than nonunion workers, but regardless of the level of satisfaction, they desired union representation more strongly. This finding, in relation to lower union worker quit rates, provided support for the exit-voice model. Nonunion workers' desires for unionism sharply increased with rising levels of job dissatisfaction. While desires for union representation grew with pay satisfaction for union workers, they decreased with pay satisfaction and education for nonunion workers. Finally, nonwhite workers expressed the strongest desires for union representation, especially nonunion, nonwhite workers.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Union Preferences, Job Satisfaction, and the Union-Voice Hypothesis." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 25,1 (January 1986): 65-71.
20. Leigh, Duane E.
Gifford, Kirk D.
Workplace Transformation and Worker Upskilling: The Perspective of Individual Workers
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,2 (April 1999): 174-191.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0019-8676.00123/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Training; Skills; Training; Training, Employee

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How common is workplace transformation in the American economy? What are its implications for work force skill requirements and training investments? The existing literature addressing these questions is based on firm-reported survey data. Using new data available in the 1993 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this article examines the same questions from the perspective of individual workers. Our empirical results suggest that workplace transformation is commonplace. Fully 40 percent of private-sector workers surveyed report that in the space of just one year, a change occurred at work that required them to learn new job skills. About 23 percent of all respondents reported experiencing a workplace change we term an organizational transformation. Incidence of formal training is positively related to indicators of organizational transformation, but the effect of these indicators is found to be sensitive to the inclusion of other important workplace change variables (namely, new products, new equipment, and new government regulations). While we expected to find strong positive relationships with product development and physical capital investment, government regulation has a surprisingly large impact on formal training.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Kirk D. Gifford. "Workplace Transformation and Worker Upskilling: The Perspective of Individual Workers." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,2 (April 1999): 174-191.
21. Levine, David I.
Mazumder, Bhashkar
The Growing Importance of Family: Evidence from Brothers' Earnings
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 46,1 (January 2007): 7-21.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.2007.00455.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Brothers; Earnings; Family Influences; Income; Income Distribution; Siblings; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine between-brother correlation of earnings, family income, and wages from two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys. Young brothers who entered the labor market in the 1970s had lower correlations of economic outcomes than did those who entered in the 1980s and early 1990s. Neither the rising brother correlation in education nor the rising return to schooling accounts for much of the increase in the brother correlation in earnings. These results suggest that family and community influences other than years of education that are shared by brothers have become increasingly important in determining economic outcomes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Levine, David I. and Bhashkar Mazumder. "The Growing Importance of Family: Evidence from Brothers' Earnings." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 46,1 (January 2007): 7-21.
22. Light, Audrey L.
Munk, Robert
Business Ownership versus Self‐Employment
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 57,3 (July 2018): 435-468.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irel.12213
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Entrepreneurship; Job Characteristics; Self-Employed Workers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that 68 percent of jobs classified as self‐employment are not independently reported as self‐owned businesses, while 16 percent of self‐owned businesses are not independently classified as self‐employment. Businesses not regarded as self‐employment are often associated with such signs of entrepreneurship as self‐identification as an entrepreneur, job descriptions that refer to business ownership or a managerial role, and high individual skill/asset levels. Self‐employed jobs that are not independently classified as self‐owned businesses are dominated by contract work and home‐based, single‐person pursuits. Our evidence suggests that self‐employment should not be viewed as a synonym for business ownership.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Robert Munk. "Business Ownership versus Self‐Employment." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 57,3 (July 2018): 435-468.
23. McCrate, Elaine
Leete, Laura
Black-White Wage Differences among Young Women, 1977-86
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 33,2 (April 1994): 168-183.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1994.tb00334.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Economics of Discrimination; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Educational Returns; Labor Market Demographics; Racial Differences; Rehabilitation; Wage Differentials; Wage Dynamics; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the 1977 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to explore reasons for the rise in the pay gap between black and white women in their twenties. Until 1977 wage disparities between black and white women had been declining, but between 1977 and 1986, the racial wage gap among young women increased by .074 log points. Demographic developments cannot explain the relative wage trend. Rather, black women appear to have lost ground because: their level of experience has declined relative to white women, despite the fact that their mean rate of pay rose substantially; and their rate of educational return has declined relative to the white rate, despite the fact that their mean level of education rose substantially. Changes in the relative level of work experience and in the rate of return to schooling were highlighted.
Bibliography Citation
McCrate, Elaine and Laura Leete. "Black-White Wage Differences among Young Women, 1977-86." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 33,2 (April 1994): 168-183.
24. Mehay, Stephen L.
Hirsch, Barry T.
The Postmilitary Earnings of Female Veterans
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 35,2 (April 1996): 197-217.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1996.tb00402.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Military Personnel; Military Service; Racial Differences; Transfers, Skill; Veterans; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An investigation is conducted of the civilian labor market performance of women veterans. Using standard data sets and a special survey of reservists, female veterans are found to have better earnings endowments than non-veterans. Although female veterans have higher unadjusted earnings than non-veterans, a wage disadvantage is found for white but not non-white veterans following control for measured and unmeasured skills. Low returns to military service may result from historically limited military opportunities for women and difficulty in transferring skills to civilian jobs. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Mehay, Stephen L. and Barry T. Hirsch. "The Postmilitary Earnings of Female Veterans." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 35,2 (April 1996): 197-217.
25. Monks, James
Pizer, Steven Daniel
Trends in Voluntary and Involuntary Job Turnover
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 37,4 (October 1998): 440-459.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0019-8676.00098/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Labor Turnover; Layoffs

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There has been some controversy recently about whether and how much job security has been declining in the United States. This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to show that young men became more likely to change jobs over the period from 1971 to 1990. For whites, this increase is mostly attributable to an increase in the probability of involuntary job change. For nonwhites, the probability of voluntary and involuntary job change both increased.
Bibliography Citation
Monks, James and Steven Daniel Pizer. "Trends in Voluntary and Involuntary Job Turnover." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 37,4 (October 1998): 440-459.
26. Pagan, Jose A.
Davila, Alberto
On-the-Job Training, Immigration Reform, and the True Wages of Native Male Workers
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 35,1 (January 1996): 45-58.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1996.tb00394.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Job; Immigrants; Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA); Training, On-the-Job; Unemployment Rate, Regional; Unions; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An attempt to assess the 1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act's (IRCA) impact on the "true" earnings of native workers, ie, observed wages & compensation received in the form of on-the-job training (OJT). Data from the 1983-1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggest that IRCA reduced the true wages of male natives most likely to be mistaken as unauthorized. Mexican Americans suffered the largest decline in post-IRCA OJT. It is concluded that antidiscrimination policies following recent immigration reform have not fully protected some US natives against unintended IRCA-related employment discrimination ... Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Pagan, Jose A. and Alberto Davila. "On-the-Job Training, Immigration Reform, and the True Wages of Native Male Workers." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 35,1 (January 1996): 45-58.
27. Petre, Melinda
Are Employers Omniscient? Employer Learning About Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 57,3 (July 2018): 323-360.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irel.12210
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Learning Hypothesis; Noncognitive Skills; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do employers recognize noncognitive skills at the beginning of a career or is there a learning process? Does learning transfer perfectly across employers or is there a degree to which learning resets as employees change jobs throughout their careers? This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 to incorporate measures of noncognitive skills into a model of symmetric employer learning described originally by Altonji and Pierret (2001) and nested in a model of asymmetric employer learning as in Schonberg (2007). I find evidence that employers reward self‐esteem, internal control, and schooling initially, while rewarding cognitive skills and motivation over time.
Bibliography Citation
Petre, Melinda. "Are Employers Omniscient? Employer Learning About Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 57,3 (July 2018): 323-360.
28. Pfeffer, Jeffrey
Ross, Jerry
Union-Nonunion Effects on Wage and Status Attainment
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 19,2 (March 1980): 140-151.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1980.tb01084.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Tenure; Job Training; Occupational Status; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

First, this paper examines the process of occupational prestige attainment as well as wage attainment. In the literature on the sociology of labor markets, occupational prestige is itself an important outcome and has been the principal variable used in the study of stratification in society. Thus, the examination of the effects of unionization on the occupational status determination process is significant. Second, the authors include in the wage and occupational status determination equations two important additional variables, race and socioeconomic origins. Finally, longitudinal data is employed to examine whether there are differences in the dynamics of the occupational prestige and income determination process over time among unionized and nonunionized employees.
Bibliography Citation
Pfeffer, Jeffrey and Jerry Ross. "Union-Nonunion Effects on Wage and Status Attainment." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 19,2 (March 1980): 140-151.
29. Pfeffer, Jeffrey
Ross, Jerry
Unionization and Income Inequality
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 20,3 (September 1981): 271-285.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1981.tb00202.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Tenure; Job Training; Occupational Status; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Findings from an examination of the relationship between labor unions and income inequality suggest that one of the effects of unionization is the reduction of inter-race and intra-race income inequality for organized workers. Evidence does not confirm that unionization has the effect of increasing either kind of income inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Pfeffer, Jeffrey and Jerry Ross. "Unionization and Income Inequality." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 20,3 (September 1981): 271-285.
30. Power, Marilyn
Rosenberg, Sam
Black Women Clerical Workers: Movement Toward Equality with White Women?
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 32,2 (May 1993): 223-237.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1993.tb01028.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Mobility; Racial Equality/Inequality; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article examines the occupational mobility patterns of black and white female clerical workers from 1972 to 1980. Black women were initially concentrated in the lower-paying clerical positions and were less likely than white women to leave for better jobs in other areas. Those black women who had relatively good clerical jobs tended not to rise any further and even experienced some difficulty in maintaining their occupational status. Education and training aided occupational mobility less for black women than for white women.
Bibliography Citation
Power, Marilyn and Sam Rosenberg. "Black Women Clerical Workers: Movement Toward Equality with White Women?" Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 32,2 (May 1993): 223-237.
31. Quan, Nguyen T.
Unionism and the Size Distribution of Earnings
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 23,2 (May 1984): 270-277.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1984.tb00902.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Unions; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This note compares the incidence of unionism and the relative union shares within each earnings bracket for two completely different samples: the NLS Older Men's cohort and the 1969-70 Survey of Working Conditions. The cumulative distribution of union and nonunion earnings shares is then used to measure the degree of inequality via the Gini coefficient. The results indicate that, after controlling for age and individual characteristics effects, unions do significantly reduce inequality in the size distribution of earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Quan, Nguyen T. "Unionism and the Size Distribution of Earnings." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 23,2 (May 1984): 270-277.
32. Raelin, Joseph A.
A Comparative Analysis of Female-Male Early Youth Careers
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 21,2 (May 1982): 231-247.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1982.tb00230.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Job Satisfaction; Mobility, Job; Schooling; Vocational Training; Work Attitudes; Work Knowledge

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article investigates the accessibility of any career-related levers available to women to enhance opportunity during their early work experience. Such "levers" were found to be minimal, and it was discovered that young women are unlikely to benefit from job changes or from adjustments in their disposition toward work and their jobs. Results indicated that the way to get ahead as a woman is to be intelligent, to get as much education and training as possible, and to land a good first job.
Bibliography Citation
Raelin, Joseph A. "A Comparative Analysis of Female-Male Early Youth Careers." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 21,2 (May 1982): 231-247.
33. Ritter, Joseph A.
Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nonwage Compensation
Industrial Relations 52,4 (October 2013): 829-852.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irel.12037/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Ethnic Differences; Insurance, Health; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has found that, after controlling for test scores, measured black–white wage gaps are small, but unemployment gaps remain large. This article complements this previous research by examining the incidence of employer-provided benefits from the same premarket perspective. However, marriage rates differ substantially by race, and the possibility of health insurance coverage through a spouse's employer therefore distorts how the distribution of benefits available in the market to an individual is expressed in the distribution of benefits received. Two imputation strategies are used to address this complication. The evidence suggests that benefit availability gaps are small.
Bibliography Citation
Ritter, Joseph A. "Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nonwage Compensation." Industrial Relations 52,4 (October 2013): 829-852.
34. Robinson, James C.
Hazardous Occupations Within the Job Hierarchy
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 27,2 (March 1988): 241-250.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1988.tb01004.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Job Hazards; Job Rewards; Job Status; Labor Market, Secondary; Wage Levels

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Businesses that utilize hazardous technologies have the tendency to assign these occupations to undesirable job ladders or to subcontract them to secondary labor market firms in order to minimize the level of compensating wage and nonwage differentials they must pay. The outcome of this process in terms of the location of hazardous jobs within the overall structure of jobs is examined for the years 1974-1982. In addition to health and safety factors, four types of job attributes are considered. These are: (1) job content and worker autonomy; (2) possibilities for training and promotion; (3) job security; and (4) earnings. Four independent sources of statistical data are used to measure the relation between health and safety hazards and the other job characteristics. The results show that hazardous jobs offer significantly less worker autonomy, less on-the-job training, poorer promotion possibilities, greater risk of temporary and permanent layoff, and lower wage levels than safe occupations. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Robinson, James C. "Hazardous Occupations Within the Job Hierarchy." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 27,2 (March 1988): 241-250.
35. Rosenberg, Sam
Economic Contractions and Racial Differentials in Male Job Mobility
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economics and Society 26,3 (September 1987): 291-295.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1987.tb00714.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Duncan Index; Mobility; Mobility, Occupational; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys, the effects of the economic contraction of 1969-1975 on the occupational mobility of older black and white male workers was examined. The sample contained 440 black and 1,041 white males who: (1) reported a current occupation, (2) were not enrolled in school, and (3) indicated their major activity during the survey week was either "working" or "with a job but not at work." It was limited to the years 1966, 1969, and 1975. Occupational standing was measured with the one-digit Census occupation and the Duncan socioeconomic status index (SES), an ordinal prestige scale assigning a rank between 0-97 to each of the 3-digit 1960 Census occupations. Overall, in 1969, whites held positions with an average SES value of 42.83, while those held by blacks averaged 21.91. The average SES scores were virtually the same in 1969 and 1975. Although many workers changed positions, these fluctuations balanced out. Accumulated evidence concerning two economic contractions in the early 1980s suggests that black men were more negatively affected by the economic conditions than were white men. Moreover, black men who lost their jobs were less likely to locate other positions than white men. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Rosenberg, Sam. "Economic Contractions and Racial Differentials in Male Job Mobility." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economics and Society 26,3 (September 1987): 291-295.
36. Yates, Julie A.
Rothstein, Donna S.
The Newest National Longitudinal Survey: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,4 (October 1999): 604-610.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0019-8676.00147/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Education; Family Background; Labor Force Participation; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The newest survey in the National Longitudinal Surveys program, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), represents the U.S. population born during 1980 through 1984. Round 1 of the annual survey took place in 1997 and is now available to the public. Using data from the longitudinal NLSY97 survey, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will be able to identify characteristics that define today's youths' transition from school to the labor market and into adulthood. To achieve this, the NLSY97 survey collects extensive information on youths' labor market behavior, educational experiences, and family and community backgrounds from the youth respondents. One unique aspect of the NLSY97 is that round 1 contains a questionnaire asked of a parent or guardian that generates information about the youths' family background and history. This information will help researchers assess the impact of schooling and other environmental factors on these newest labor market entrants. Data from the NLSY97 also will aid in determining how youth experiences relate to establishing a career, participating in government programs, and forming a family.
Bibliography Citation
Yates, Julie A. and Donna S. Rothstein. "The Newest National Longitudinal Survey: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,4 (October 1999): 604-610.