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Source: Journal of Health Economics
Resulting in 36 citations.
1. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Cascio, Elizabeth Ulrich
Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
Is Being in School Better? The Impact of School on Children's BMI When Starting Age is Endogenous
Journal of Health Economics 3,5 (September 2011): 977-986.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629611000725#sec3
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at School Entry; Body Mass Index (BMI); Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Elementary School Students; Obesity; Schooling; Weight

In this paper, we investigate the impact of attending school on body weight and obesity using a regression-discontinuity design. As is the case with academic outcomes, school exposure is related to unobserved determinants of weight outcomes because some families choose to have their child start school late (or early). If one does not account for this endogeneity, it appears that an additional year of school exposure results in a greater BMI and a higher probability of being overweight or obese. When we compare the weight outcomes of similar age children with one versus two years of school exposure due to regulations on school starting age, the significant positive effects disappear, and most point estimates become negative, but insignificant. However, additional school exposure appears to improve weight outcomes of children for whom the transition to elementary school represents a more dramatic change in environment (those who spent less time in childcare prior to kindergarten).

[Note: The estimation sample in this article is drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (ECLS-K). The authors also estimated their models using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Mother–Child matched file]

Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher, Elizabeth Ulrich Cascio and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. "Is Being in School Better? The Impact of School on Children's BMI When Starting Age is Endogenous." Journal of Health Economics 3,5 (September 2011): 977-986.
2. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Maternal Employment and Overweight Children
Journal of Health Economics 22,3 (May 2003): 477-505.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629603000225
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Health; Height; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Maternal Employment; Obesity; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

This paper seeks to determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood weight problems. We use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and employ econometric techniques to control for observable and unobservable differences across individuals and families that may influence both children's weight and their mothers' work patterns. Our results indicate that a child is more likely to be overweight if his/her mother worked more hours per week over the child's life. Analyses by subgroups show that it is higher socioeconomic status mothers whose work intensity is particularly deleterious for their children's overweight status. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Maternal Employment and Overweight Children." Journal of Health Economics 22,3 (May 2003): 477-505.
3. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Gittleman, Maury
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior
Journal of Health Economics 23,4 (July 2004): 815-839.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629604000542
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Drug Use; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

This paper examines the impact of maternal employment during a child's first 3 years and during adolescence on his or her decisions to engage in a range of risky behaviors: smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana and other drugs, engaging in sex and committing crimes. Using data from the NLSY79 and its young adult supplement, we do not find strong evidence that mother' s employment-whether early in the child' s life or during adolescence-affects the likelihood of participation in risky behaviors. We note as a caveat, however, that insufficient statistical precision makes it difficult, at times, to distinguish some potentially important effects from effects that are essentially equal to zero.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Maury Gittleman. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Risky Behavior." Journal of Health Economics 23,4 (July 2004): 815-839.
4. Baum, Charles L., II
Ruhm, Christopher J.
Age, Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Growth
Journal of Health Economics 28,3 (May 2009): 635-648.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629609000095
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Childhood; Ethnic Studies; Family Characteristics; Family Income; Health Factors; Household Composition; Life Cycle Research; Obesity; Racial Studies; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine how body weight changes with age for a cohort moving through early adulthood, to investigate how the age-obesity gradient differs with socioeconomic status (SES) and to study channels for these SES disparities. Our results show first that weight increases with age and is inversely related to SES during childhood. Second, the obesity gradient widens over the lifecycle, consistent with research on other health outcomes. Third, a substantial portion of the "effect" of early life conditions operates through race/ethnicity and the translation of advantaged family backgrounds during childhood into higher levels of subsequent education. By contrast, little of the SES gap appears to propagate through household composition, family income or health behaviors. Fourth, adult SES has independent effects after controlling for childhood status.

Copyright of Journal of Health Economics is the property of Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II and Christopher J. Ruhm. "Age, Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Growth." Journal of Health Economics 28,3 (May 2009): 635-648.
5. Berger, Mark Charles
Fleisher, Belton M.
Husband's Health and the Wife's Labor Supply
Journal of Health Economics 3,1 (April 1984): 63-75.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0167629684900262
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public; Wives, Income; Wives, Work

This paper examines the labor supply response of the wife to deterioration in the husband's health. Unlike past cross-sectional studies, responses over time are directly examined through the use of longitudinal data. The empirical results suggest that the magnitude and direction of the response depend crucially on the attractiveness of transfers which the family may qualify for when the husband's health deteriorates. When no transfers are available the wife increases her market work in order to replace the lost earnings of the husband. However, as transfers become more attractive, the wife begins to reduce her labor supply, enabling her to spend more time at home caring for her husband.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Mark Charles and Belton M. Fleisher. "Husband's Health and the Wife's Labor Supply." Journal of Health Economics 3,1 (April 1984): 63-75.
6. Bhattacharya, Jay
Bundorf, M. Kate
The Incidence of the Healthcare Costs of Obesity
Journal of Health Economics 28,3 (May 2009): 649-658.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629609000113
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Health Care; Insurance, Health; Obesity; Wage Levels

Who pays the healthcare costs associated with obesity? Among workers, this is largely a question of the incidence of the costs of employer-sponsored coverage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we find that the incremental healthcare costs associated with obesity are passed on to obese workers with employer-sponsored health insurance in the form of lower cash wages. Obese workers without employer-sponsored insurance do not have a wage offset relative to their non-obese counterparts. A substantial part of the lower wages among obese women attributed to labor market discrimination can be explained by their higher health insurance premiums. [Copyright 2009 Elsevier]

Copyright of Journal of Health Economics is the property of Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Bhattacharya, Jay and M. Kate Bundorf. "The Incidence of the Healthcare Costs of Obesity." Journal of Health Economics 28,3 (May 2009): 649-658.
7. Chatterji, Pinka
Markowitz, Sara
The Impact of Maternal Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use on Children's Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Health Economics 20,5 (September 2001): 703-731.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016762960100090X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Drug Use; Family Studies; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Behavior; Substance Use; Variables, Instrumental

The Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is used to test for evidence of a causal relationship between maternal alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use, and children's behavior problems. Ordinary least squares (OLS) results provide strong evidence that substance use is associated with behavior problems. However, OLS estimation fails to account for unobserved factors that may be correlated with substance use and child behavior. To account for this problem, mother-child and family fixed-effects models are tested. The results suggest that maternal illicit drug use is positively associated with children's behavior problems, while alcohol use has a less consistent impact.
Bibliography Citation
Chatterji, Pinka and Sara Markowitz. "The Impact of Maternal Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use on Children's Behavior Problems: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Health Economics 20,5 (September 2001): 703-731.
8. Chen, Alice J.
When Does Weight Matter Most?
Journal of Health Economics 31,1 (January 2012): 285-295.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629611001639
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Obesity; Wage Differentials; Wages; Weight

Past empirical work establishes a wage penalty from being overweight. In this paper, I exploit variation in an individual's weight over time to determine the age when weight has the largest impact on labor market outcomes. For white men, controlling for weight at younger ages does not eliminate the effect of older adult weight on wage: being overweight as a young adult only adds an additional penalty to adult wages. However, for white women, what they weigh in their early twenties solely determines the existence of an adult wage penalty. The female early-twenties weight penalty has a persistent effect on wages, and differences in marital characteristics, occupation status, or education cannot explain it. It also is not a proxy for intergenerational unobservables.
Bibliography Citation
Chen, Alice J. "When Does Weight Matter Most?" Journal of Health Economics 31,1 (January 2012): 285-295.
9. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Economic Determinants and Consequences of Self-Reported Work Disability
Journal of Health Economics 3,2 (August 1984): 117-136.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016762968490002X
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Self-Reporting; Wages

This paper examines the determinants of self-reported work disability in samples of older men and women stratified by race. Strong support is found for the hypothesis that economic factors as well as poor health influence the probability individuals report health limits in the amount or kind of work they do. In particular, lower expected wage rates significantly raise the probability of reporting work disablement, controlling for health status and health-related job requirements. The implications of these findings on estimating health and wage effects in labor supply studies are examined. Policy implications are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Economic Determinants and Consequences of Self-Reported Work Disability." Journal of Health Economics 3,2 (August 1984): 117-136.
10. Cook, Philip J.
Moore, Michael J.
Drinking and Schooling
Journal of Health Economics 12,4 (December 1993): 411-430.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016762969390003W
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Education; College Graduates; Endogeneity; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Schooling; Taxes

This study employs the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to explore the effect of youthful drinking on the likelihood of college matriculation and graduation. The study finds that students who drink heavily in high school are less likely than their peers to eventually graduate from college. But the proper interpretation of the result is not clear, since high school drinking decisions are strongly influenced by aspirations for higher education. This endogeneity problem is circumvented by estimating "reduced-form" equations that relate state beer taxes and minimum drinking age to the likelihood of obtaining a college degree. The results indicate that other things equal, students who spend their high school years in states with relatively high taxes and minimum age are more likely to graduate from college.
Bibliography Citation
Cook, Philip J. and Michael J. Moore. "Drinking and Schooling." Journal of Health Economics 12,4 (December 1993): 411-430.
11. Courtemanche, Charles
Rising Cigarette Prices and Rising Obesity: Coincidence or Unintended Consequence?
Journal of Health Economics 28,4 (July 2009): 781-798.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016762960900037X
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Taxes; Weight

Economists have begun to debate if the rise in cigarette prices in the U.S. in recent decades has contributed to the nation’s rise in obesity, reaching conclusions that are surprisingly sensitive to specification. I show that allowing for the effect to occur gradually over several years leads to the conclusion that a rise in cigarette prices is actually associated with a long-run reduction in body mass index and obesity. This result is robust to the different methodologies used in the literature. I also provide evidence that indirect effects on exercise and food consumption may explain the counterintuitive result.
Bibliography Citation
Courtemanche, Charles. "Rising Cigarette Prices and Rising Obesity: Coincidence or Unintended Consequence?" Journal of Health Economics 28,4 (July 2009): 781-798.
12. Cowan, Benjamin W.
Schwab, Benjamin
Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance and the Gender Wage Gap
Journal of Health Economics 45 (January 2016): 103-114.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629615001095
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Health Care; Insurance, Health; Wage Gap

During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men.
Bibliography Citation
Cowan, Benjamin W. and Benjamin Schwab. "Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance and the Gender Wage Gap." Journal of Health Economics 45 (January 2016): 103-114.
13. Cowan, Benjamin W.
Schwab, Benjamin
The Incidence of the Healthcare Costs of Smoking
Journal of Health Economics 30,5 (September 2011): 1094-1102.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629611000828
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Health Care; Insurance, Health; Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Smokers earn less than non-smokers, but much is still unknown about the source(s) of the smoker's wage gap. We build on the work of Bhattacharya and Bundorf (2009), who provide evidence that obese workers receive lower wages on account of their higher expected healthcare costs. Similarly, we find that smokers who hold employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) receive significantly lower wages than their non-smoking peers, while smokers who are not insured through their employer endure no such wage penalty. Our results have two implications: first, the incidence of smokers' elevated medical costs appears to be borne by smokers themselves in the form of lower wages. Second, differences in healthcare costs between smokers and non-smokers are a significant source of the smoker's wage gap.
Bibliography Citation
Cowan, Benjamin W. and Benjamin Schwab. "The Incidence of the Healthcare Costs of Smoking." Journal of Health Economics 30,5 (September 2011): 1094-1102.
14. Crost, Benjamin
Rees, Daniel I.
The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Marijuana Use: New Estimates from the NLSY97
Journal of Health Economics 32,2 (March 2013): 474-476.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629612001245
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Substance Use

In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal Bariş Yörük and Ceren Yörük (Y&EY) used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97) and a regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of the minimum legal drinking age on a variety of substances including marijuana. They obtained evidence that the probability of marijuana use increased sharply at the age of 21, consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol and marijuana are complements, but inadvertently conditioned on having used marijuana at least once since the last survey. Applying the Y&EY research design to all NLSY97 respondents ages 19 through 22, we find no evidence that alcohol and marijuana are complements.
Bibliography Citation
Crost, Benjamin and Daniel I. Rees. "The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Marijuana Use: New Estimates from the NLSY97." Journal of Health Economics 32,2 (March 2013): 474-476.
15. Currie, Janet
Hotz, V. Joseph
Accidents Will Happen? Unintentional Childhood Injuries and the Effects of Child Care Regulations
Journal of Health Economics 23,1 (January 2004): 25-60.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629603001012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Accidents; Child Care; Child Health; Injuries; Mortality

Accidents are the leading cause of death and injury among children in the United States, far surpassing diseases as a health threat. We examine the effects of child care regulation on rates of accidental injury using both micro data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and Vital Statistics mortality records. Estimates from both data sources suggest that requiring day care center directors to have more education reduces the incidence of unintentional injuries. An auxiliary analysis of the choice of child care mode confirms that these regulations are binding and that higher educational requirements tend to crowd some children out of care, as do regulations requiring frequent inspections of child care facilities and lower pupil-teacher ratios. Thus, regulation creates winners and losers: Some children benefit from safer environments, while those who are squeezed out of the regulated sector are placed at higher risk of injury. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and V. Joseph Hotz. "Accidents Will Happen? Unintentional Childhood Injuries and the Effects of Child Care Regulations." Journal of Health Economics 23,1 (January 2004): 25-60.
16. Currie, Janet
Stabile, Mark
Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD
Journal of Health Economics 25,6 (November 2006): 1094-1118.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629606000282
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Canada, Canadian; Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY); Child Health; Children, Mental Health; Cross-national Analysis; Family Income; Head Start; Human Capital; Job Aspirations; Labor Market Outcomes; Preschool Children; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); School Progress; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

One in five U.S. youngsters has a mental disorder, but we know little about the effects of these disorders on child outcomes. We examine U.S. and Canadian children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the most common child mental health problem. Our innovations include the use of nationally representative samples of children, the use of questions administered to all children rather than focusing only on diagnosed cases, and the use of sibling fixed effects to control for omitted variables. We find large negative effects on test scores and schooling attainment suggesting that mental health conditions are a more important determinant of average outcomes than physical health conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Mark Stabile. "Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD." Journal of Health Economics 25,6 (November 2006): 1094-1118.
17. Cutler, David M.
Lleras-Muney, Adriana
Understanding Differences in Health Behaviors by Education
Journal of Health Economics 29,1 (January 2010): 1-28.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629609001143
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Education; Family Background; Health Factors; Insurance, Health; National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS); NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Using a variety of data sets from two countries, we examine possible explanations for the relationship between education and health behaviors, known as the education gradient. We show that income, health insurance, and family background can account for about 30 percent of the gradient. Knowledge and measures of cognitive ability explain an additional 30 percent. Social networks account for another 10 percent. Our proxies for discounting, risk aversion, or the value of future do not account for any of the education gradient, and neither do personality factors such as a sense of control of oneself or over one's life. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Bibliography Citation
Cutler, David M. and Adriana Lleras-Muney. "Understanding Differences in Health Behaviors by Education." Journal of Health Economics 29,1 (January 2010): 1-28.
18. Fertig, Angela R.
Watson, Tara Elizabeth
Minimum Drinking Age Laws and Infant Health Outcomes
Journal of Health Ecomomics 28,3 (May 2009): 737-747.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629609000319
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Abortion; Alcohol Use; Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Sexual Behavior; State-Level Data/Policy

Alcohol policies have potentially far-reaching impacts on risky sexual behavior, prenatal health behaviors, and subsequent outcomes for infants. After finding initial evidence in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that changes in the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) are related to prenatal drinking, we examine whether the drinking age influences birth outcomes. Using data from the National Vital Statistics (NVS) for the years 1978-1988, we find that a drinking age of 18 is associated with adverse outcomes among births to young mothers-including higher incidences of low birth weight and premature birth, but not congenital anomalies. The effects are largest among black women. We also report evidence that the MLDA laws alter the composition of births that occur. In states with lenient drinking laws, young black mothers are less likely to report paternal information on the birth certificate, particularly in states with restrictive abortion policies. The evidence suggests that lenient drinking laws generate poor birth outcomes in part because they increase the number of unplanned pregnancies.

Copyright of Journal of Health Economics is the property of Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Fertig, Angela R. and Tara Elizabeth Watson. "Minimum Drinking Age Laws and Infant Health Outcomes." Journal of Health Ecomomics 28,3 (May 2009): 737-747.
19. Fletcher, Jason
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited
Journal of Health Economics 27,3 (May 2008): 794-800.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629607000823
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Mental Health; Educational Attainment; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); School Progress; Siblings; Special Education

In volume 25, issue 6 of this journal, Janet Currie and Mark Stabile (JCMS,) made a significant contribution to our understanding of the influence of ADHD symptoms on a variety of school outcomes including participation in special education, grade repetition and test scores. Their contributions include using a broad sample of children and estimating sibling fixed effects models to control for unobserved family effects. In this comment we look at a sample of older children and confirm and extend many of the JCMS findings in terms of a broader set of measures of human capital and additional specifications.

In this paper, we corroborate the short-term educational consequences of ADHD shown by JCMS and extend the examination to longer term educational outcomes of children with ADHD symptoms. Like the results by JCMS for the children in the NLS-Y, we find evidence that children in the Add Health data set who have ADHD symptoms are more likely to repeat a grade and receive special education services. We then show that standard OLS results imply that children with ADHD face longer term educational disadvantages, including lower grade point averages, increases in suspension and expulsions, and fewer completed years of schooling. However, we find that nearly all of these results are not robust to the inclusion of family fixed effects, suggesting that short-term consequences of educational outcomes do not lead to longer term educational consequences in a straightforward manner.

Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Jason and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited." Journal of Health Economics 27,3 (May 2008): 794-800.
20. Glied, Sherry A.
Youth Tobacco Control: Reconciling Theory and Empirical Evidence
Journal of Health Economics 21,1 (January 2002): 117-135.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629601001187
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; Taxes; Teenagers; Youth Problems

Youth smoking is an important target for public policy. The implicit assumption behind targeting youth is that policies that reduce youth smoking initiation will reduce lifetime smoking propensities. This assumption has never been tested empirically. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to follow the smoking pattern of one cohort of teenagers. I examine how smoking rates in youth and young adulthood are affected by the taxes individuals faced at age 14. In panel data analysis, I find that the effects of taxes at age 14 are considerably attenuated by adulthood. I find some evidence suggesting that this result is a consequence of delayed smoking initiation that is correlated with taxes. These results suggest that reducing smoking among teens through tax policy may not be sufficient to substantially reduce smoking in adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A. "Youth Tobacco Control: Reconciling Theory and Empirical Evidence." Journal of Health Economics 21,1 (January 2002): 117-135.
21. Levine, Phillip B.
Trainor, Amy B.
Zimmerman, David J.
The Effect of Medicaid Abortion Funding Restrictions on Abortions, Pregnancies and Births
Journal of Health Economics 15,5 (October 1996): 555-578.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016762969600495X
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Abortion; Benefits, Disability; Child Care; Childbearing; Children; Demography; Fertility; Medicaid/Medicare; Modeling; Morbidity; Mortality; Poverty; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; State Welfare; Welfare

This paper considers whether state Medicaid abortion funding restrictions affect the likelihood of getting pregnant, having an abortion, and bearing a child. The authors exploit a natural experiment afforded by Supreme Court decisions and employ more traditional multivariate models with alternative fixed effect specifications. An analysis of twelve years of state-level data indicate that restrictions are associated with a reduction in abortions and either no change or a reduction in births, implying fewer pregnancies. Subsequent analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is consistent with these findings and show the response is concentrated among the low-income population.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Phillip B., Amy B. Trainor and David J. Zimmerman. "The Effect of Medicaid Abortion Funding Restrictions on Abortions, Pregnancies and Births." Journal of Health Economics 15,5 (October 1996): 555-578.
22. Lillard, Dean R.
Molloy, Eamon
Sfekas, Andrew
Smoking Initiation and the Iron Law of Demand
Journal of Health Economics 32,1 (January 2013): 114-127.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629612001154
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Taxes

We show, with three longitudinal datasets, that cigarette taxes and prices affect smoking initiation decisions. Evidence from longitudinal studies is mixed but generally find that initiation does not vary with price or tax. We show that the lack of statistical significance partly results because of limited policy variation in the time periods studied, truncated behavioral windows, or mis-assignment of price and tax rates in retrospective data (which occurs when one has no information about respondents’ prior state or region of residence). Our findings highlight issues relevant to initiation behavior generally, particularly those for which individuals’ responses to policy changes may be noisy or small in magnitude.
Bibliography Citation
Lillard, Dean R., Eamon Molloy and Andrew Sfekas. "Smoking Initiation and the Iron Law of Demand." Journal of Health Economics 32,1 (January 2013): 114-127.
23. Lindo, Jason M.
Swensen, Isaac D.
Waddell, Glen R.
Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access
Journal of Health Economics 32,1 (January 2013): 22-32.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629612001476
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; School Performance

We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. Our preferred approach identifies the effect through changes in one's performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as one makes progress towards their degree. We also report RD-based estimates but argue that an RD design is not well suited to the research question in our setting. We find that students’ grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally, but by less than previously documented. We also show that there are effects on women and that the effects are persistent. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we show that students drink more often after legal access but do not consume more drinks on days on which they drink.
Bibliography Citation
Lindo, Jason M., Isaac D. Swensen and Glen R. Waddell. "Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access." Journal of Health Economics 32,1 (January 2013): 22-32.
24. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
The Health Effects of Leaving School in a Bad Economy
Journal of Health Economics 32,5 (September 2013): 951-964.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629613000970
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; School Completion; School Dropouts

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "The Health Effects of Leaving School in a Bad Economy." Journal of Health Economics 32,5 (September 2013): 951-964.
25. Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo
Does Increasing the Beer Tax Reduce Marijuana Consumption?
Journal of Health Economics 17,5 (October 1998): 557-585.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629697000398
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economics, Demographic; Modeling; Substance Use; Taxes

Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, a study finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, the study finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.
Bibliography Citation
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo. "Does Increasing the Beer Tax Reduce Marijuana Consumption?" Journal of Health Economics 17,5 (October 1998): 557-585.
26. Powell, Lisa M.
Fast Food Costs and Adolescent Body Mass Index: Evidence from Panel Data.
Journal of Health Economics 28,5 (September 2009): 963-970.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629609000678
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Influences; Heterogeneity; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study draws on four waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and external data to examine the relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and fast food prices and fast food restaurant availability using panel data estimation methods to account for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. Analyses also control for contextual factors including general food prices and the availability of full-service restaurants, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores and commercial physical activity-related facilities. The longitudinal individual-level fixed effects results confirm cross-sectional findings that the price of fast food but not the availability of fast food restaurants has a statistically significant effect on teen BMI with an estimated price elasticity of -0.08. The results suggest that the cross-sectional model over-estimates the price of fast food BMI effect by about 25%. There is evidence that the weight of teens in low- to middle-socioeconomic status families is most sensitive to fast food prices.
Bibliography Citation
Powell, Lisa M. "Fast Food Costs and Adolescent Body Mass Index: Evidence from Panel Data." Journal of Health Economics 28,5 (September 2009): 963-970.
27. Rashad, Inas
Kaestner, Robert
Teenage Sex, Drugs and Alcohol Use: Problems Identifying the Cause of Risky Behaviors
Journal of Health Economics 23,3 (May 2004): 493-504.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629604000244
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

The relationship between substance use and adolescent sexual activity is an important one, and extensive literature has shown that substance use is positively associated with adolescent sexual behaviors. While this is true, causality from substance use to risky sexual behaviors is difficult to establish, as it is likely that an adolescent's sexual behavior and substance use depend on a set of personal and social behaviors, many of which are unmeasured. Researchers must thus devise a credible empirical strategy in order to overcome this omitted variable bias. Using the first waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we call into question recent methods used to determine causality. Despite attempts to determine the causal relationship between substance use and sexual behavior, the nature of the relationship remains unknown. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Rashad, Inas and Robert Kaestner. "Teenage Sex, Drugs and Alcohol Use: Problems Identifying the Cause of Risky Behaviors." Journal of Health Economics 23,3 (May 2004): 493-504.
28. Rosales-Rueda, Maria Fernanda
Family Investment Responses to Childhood Health Conditions: Intrafamily Allocation of Resources
Journal of Health Economics 37 (September 2014): 41-57.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629614000691
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birthweight; Child Health, Limiting Condition(s); Children, Mental Health; Family Resources; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Parental Investments; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Self-Esteem; Siblings

The onset of a health condition during childhood impairs skill formation. A number of studies have investigated the long-lasting effects of poor health during childhood on later-in-life outcomes. However, this evidence ignores how parents respond to the onset of health conditions. Do their investments reinforce the health condition? Or compensate, or behave neutrally? If parents change their investments, the relationship between early health and later outcomes combines the biological effect and the investment responses. To address this question, I use within-sibling variation in the incidence of health conditions to control for selection from unobserved household heterogeneity. Parents invest, on average, 0.16 standard deviations less in children with mental conditions relative to their healthy siblings, using a measure of investment that includes time and resources. On the contrary, when children have a physical condition, parental investments do not differ across siblings. Results are robust to alternative measures of health conditions and the inclusion of child fixed effects.
Bibliography Citation
Rosales-Rueda, Maria Fernanda. "Family Investment Responses to Childhood Health Conditions: Intrafamily Allocation of Resources." Journal of Health Economics 37 (September 2014): 41-57.
29. Sen, Bisakha
Does Alcohol-Use Increase the Risk of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents? Evidence from the NLSY97
Journal of Health Economics 21,6 (November 2002): 1085-1094.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629602000796
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Sexual Activity

This study investigates the causal link between alcohol-use and adolescent sexual activity. In a recent paper, using data from the 1995 wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Rees et al. [Journal of Health Economics 20 (5) (2001)] found little evidence of such a link. The data used here are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97), and results indicate that alcohol-use increases the probability of sexual intercourse, even after accounting for the potential endogeneity. However, consistent with Rees et al., there is less evidence that heavy drinking has a significant effect on sexual intercourse. [Copyright: 2002 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Sen, Bisakha. "Does Alcohol-Use Increase the Risk of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents? Evidence from the NLSY97." Journal of Health Economics 21,6 (November 2002): 1085-1094.
30. Thompson, Owen
Racial Disparities in the Cognition-Health Relationship
Journal of Health Economics 30,2 (March 2011): 328-339.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629611000142
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Cognitive Ability; Health Factors; Obesity; Racial Differences; Self-Perception; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

This paper investigates how the association between cognitive achievement and self-rated health in middle age differs by race, and attempts to explain these differences. The role of cognition in health determination has received only limited empirical attention, and even less is known about how race may affect this relationship. Using data from the NLSY, I find that while Whites with higher cognitive achievement scores tend to report substantially better general health, this relationship is far weaker or wholly absent among Blacks. Further tests suggest that about 35% of this racial difference can be explained by behavioral decisions during adulthood, and that another portion of the disparity may trace back to prenatal and early childhood experiences. The paper closes by noting that its results are broadly consistent with explanations of the racial health gap that emphasize entrenched forms of racial discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Owen. "Racial Disparities in the Cognition-Health Relationship." Journal of Health Economics 30,2 (March 2011): 328-339.
31. Thompson, Owen
The Long-Term Health Impacts of Medicaid and CHIP
Journal of Health Economics 51 (January 2017): 26-40.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629616305136
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Asthma; Children, Health Care; Family Income; Geocoded Data; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Medicaid/Medicare; Program Participation/Evaluation; State-Level Data/Policy

This paper estimates the effect of US public health insurance programs for children on health. Previous work in this area has typically focused on the relationship between current program eligibility and current health. But because health is a stock variable which reflects the cumulative influence of health inputs, it would be preferable to estimate the impact of total program eligibility during childhood on longer-term health outcomes. I provide such estimates by using longitudinal data to construct Medicaid and CHIP eligibility measures that are observed from birth through age 18 and estimating the effect of cumulative program exposure on a variety of health outcomes observed in early adulthood. To account for the endogeneity of program eligibility, I exploit variation in Medicaid and CHIP generosity across states and over time for children of different ages. I find that an additional year of public health insurance eligibility during childhood improves a summary index of adult health by.079 standard deviations, and substantially reduces health limitations, chronic conditions and asthma prevalence while improving self-rated health.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Owen. "The Long-Term Health Impacts of Medicaid and CHIP." Journal of Health Economics 51 (January 2017): 26-40.
32. Yörük, Baris K.
Can Technology Help to Reduce Underage Drinking? Evidence from the False ID Laws with Scanner Provision
Journal of Health Economics 36 (July 2014): 33-46.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629614000332
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; Legislation

Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth.
Bibliography Citation
Yörük, Baris K. "Can Technology Help to Reduce Underage Drinking? Evidence from the False ID Laws with Scanner Provision." Journal of Health Economics 36 (July 2014): 33-46.
33. Yörük, Baris K.
The Impact of the False ID Laws on Alcohol Consumption among Young Adults: New Results from the NLSY97
Journal of Health Economics 57 (January 2018): 191-194.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629617310809
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; State-Level Data/Policy

In volume 36 of this journal, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), Yoruk (2014) finds that the false ID laws with scanner provision (FSP laws) significantly reduce underage drinking. In a recent paper, Zheng (2017) argues that analyses based on the NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises and uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) to estimate the effectiveness of the FSP laws. This paper replies to Zheng (2017) and provides new results from the NLSY97, which show that the FSP laws were effective reducing several indicators of alcohol consumption among minors.
Bibliography Citation
Yörük, Baris K. "The Impact of the False ID Laws on Alcohol Consumption among Young Adults: New Results from the NLSY97." Journal of Health Economics 57 (January 2018): 191-194.
34. Yörük, Baris K.
Yörük, Ceren Ertan
The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Alcohol Consumption, Smoking, and Marijuana Use Revisited
Journal of Health Economics 32,2 (March 2013): 477-479.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629612001233
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.
Bibliography Citation
Yörük, Baris K. and Ceren Ertan Yörük. "The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Alcohol Consumption, Smoking, and Marijuana Use Revisited." Journal of Health Economics 32,2 (March 2013): 477-479.
35. Yörük, Baris K.
Yörük, Ceren Ertan
The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Alcohol Consumption, Smoking, and Marijuana Use: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design Using Exact Date of Birth
Journal of Health Economics 30,4 (July 2011): 740-752.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629611000634
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Legislation; Modeling; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Yörük, Baris K. and Ceren Ertan Yörük. "The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Alcohol Consumption, Smoking, and Marijuana Use: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design Using Exact Date of Birth." Journal of Health Economics 30,4 (July 2011): 740-752.
36. Zheng, Emily Yiying
Can Technology Really Help to Reduce Underage Drinking? New Evidence on the Effects of False ID Laws with Scanner Provisions
Journal of Health Economics 57 (January 2018): 102-112.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629617309967
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; State-Level Data/Policy

In Volume 36 of this journal, Yoruk (2014) uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and finds that false ID laws with scanner provisions have large impacts on binge drinking participation, frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking frequency among minors. This paper reexamines how false ID laws with scanner provisions affect underage drinking. I first demonstrate that analyses based on NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises testing for significant pre-intervention effects, and that the estimated effects based on these data are highly sensitive to the inclusion of a lead term and to sample selection, which weakens confidence in the large estimated effects reported in Yoruk (2014). I then use data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to show that false ID laws with scanner provisions have no effect on underage drinking behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Zheng, Emily Yiying. "Can Technology Really Help to Reduce Underage Drinking? New Evidence on the Effects of False ID Laws with Scanner Provisions." Journal of Health Economics 57 (January 2018): 102-112.