Search Results

ignoring parameter: www.theatlantic.com
ignoring parameter: business
ignoring parameter: archive
ignoring parameter: 2016
ignoring parameter: 07
ignoring parameter: why-are-so-many-millennials-having-children-out-of-wedlock
ignoring parameter: 491753
ignoring parameter: www.dovepress.com
ignoring parameter: www.theatlantic.com
ignoring parameter: business
ignoring parameter: archive
ignoring parameter: 2016
ignoring parameter: 07
ignoring parameter: why-are-so-many-millennials-having-children-out-of-wedlock
ignoring parameter: 491753
ignoring parameter: Income Inequality, Social Mobility, and the Decision to Drop Out of High School
Cohort: NLSY97
Resulting in 1978 citations.
[1] [2] [3] [4]
1501. Rhodes, Alec P.
Student Debt and Geographic Disadvantage: Disparities by Rural, Suburban, and Urban Background
Rural Sociology published online (21 August 2021): DOI: 10.1111/ruso.12403.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ruso.12403
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Rural Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Debt/Borrowing; Rural Youth; Rural/Urban Differences; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

American youth from rural backgrounds have made great strides to overcome challenges in college enrollment and completion since the 2000s. Yet little is known about how rural youth are financing these attainment increases--a pressing question in light of high college costs, rising student debt, and spatial inequality in the resources that students have to pay for college. This paper examines disparities in young adults' student debt by geographic background using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort. Regression analyses reveal that college-goers from rural backgrounds accumulate more debt than those from suburban and urban backgrounds, adjusting for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Rural college-goers' higher debt can be partially attributed to differences in socioeconomic backgrounds and rates of inter-county migration during college, and there is evidence that the additive influences of geographic background and gender contribute to particularly high debt among rural women. The findings suggest that longstanding spatial inequalities contribute to disparities in student debt and raise questions about the experiences of rural youth and communities in a debt-based society.
Bibliography Citation
Rhodes, Alec P. "Student Debt and Geographic Disadvantage: Disparities by Rural, Suburban, and Urban Background." Rural Sociology published online (21 August 2021): DOI: 10.1111/ruso.12403.
1502. Richardson, George B.
Chen, Ching-Chen
Dai, Chia-Liang
Hardesty, Patrick H.
Swoboda, Christopher M.
Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use
Evolutionary Psychology 12,5 (December 2014): 932-957.
Also: http://evp.sagepub.com/content/12/5/147470491401200506.short
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Structural Equation; Parental Influences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Bibliography Citation
Richardson, George B., Ching-Chen Chen, Chia-Liang Dai, Patrick H. Hardesty and Christopher M. Swoboda. "Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use." Evolutionary Psychology 12,5 (December 2014): 932-957.
1503. Richardson, George B.
Chen, Ching-Chen
Dai, Chia-Liang
Swoboda, Christopher M.
Nedelec, Joseph L.
Chen, Wei-Wen
Substance Use and Mating Success
Evolution and Human Behavior 38,1 (January 2017): 48-57.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090513816301246
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Modeling, Structural Equation; Sexual Activity; Substance Use

Psychoactive substance use has been typical of most traditional and modern societies and is maintained in the population despite the potential for abuse and related harms, raising the possibility that it (or its underlying causes) confers fitness benefits that offset its costs. Although it seems plausible that psychoactive substances have facilitated survival among ancestral and modern humans, it is not clear that this enhancement has translated into Darwinian fitness through mating and ultimately reproductive success. In the current study, we discuss potential mechanisms by which substance use might make unique contributions to mating success, attend to the possibility that the effects between substance use and mating success are instead confounded, and use structural equations and nationally representative data to determine whether these effects are more likely causal or spurious. Our findings indicate that once we know participants' scores on "third" variables at each round in early young adulthood, their substance use gives us little additional information about their current prospects for acquiring sexual partners and no additional information about of their future prospects. Thus, if adaptations for substance use evolved, their adaptive value does not seem to be found in mating success.
Bibliography Citation
Richardson, George B., Ching-Chen Chen, Chia-Liang Dai, Christopher M. Swoboda, Joseph L. Nedelec and Wei-Wen Chen. "Substance Use and Mating Success." Evolution and Human Behavior 38,1 (January 2017): 48-57.
1504. Richardson, George B.
Dai, Chia-Liang
Chen, Ching-Chen
Nedelec, Joseph L.
Swoboda, Christopher M.
Chen, Wei-Wen
Adolescent Life History Strategy in the Intergenerational Transmission and Developmental Stability of Substance Use
Journal of Drug Issues 46,2 (April 2016): 102-121.
Also: http://jod.sagepub.com/content/46/2/102
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: College of Criminology and Criminal Justice
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Drug Use; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research suggests that fast life history strategy (LHS) may be a primary driver of substance use among young adults. However, a recent study reported that (a) young adult fast LHS did not subsume all theorized indicators of LHS during this period and (b) fast LHS among parents did not predict young adult fast LHS or liability for use of common substances. In this study, we used structural equations and national data to test whether these findings generalized to adolescence. In addition, given that LHS and substance use share genetic and neuropsychological bases, we examined whether fast LHS could explain the developmental stability of substance use. Overall, our results extend the findings discussed above and suggest that fast LHS fully explains the developmental stability of substance use among youth. We discuss implications for life history models, research applying life history theory and substance use, and substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Bibliography Citation
Richardson, George B., Chia-Liang Dai, Ching-Chen Chen, Joseph L. Nedelec, Christopher M. Swoboda and Wei-Wen Chen. "Adolescent Life History Strategy in the Intergenerational Transmission and Developmental Stability of Substance Use." Journal of Drug Issues 46,2 (April 2016): 102-121.
1505. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
An Odd Couple: Monotone Instrumental Variables and Binary Treatments
Econometric Reviews 35,6 (2016): 1099-1110.
Also: http://tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07474938.2014.977082
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): Crime; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Occupations; Treatment Response: Monotone, Semimonotone, or Concave-monotone

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates Monotone Instrumental Variables (MIV) and their ability to aid in identifying treatment effects when the treatment is binary in a nonparametric bounding framework. I show that an MIV can only aid in identification beyond that of a Monotone Treatment Selection assumption if for some region of the instrument the observed conditional-on-received-treatment outcomes exhibit monotonicity in the instrument in the opposite direction as that assumed by the MIV in a Simpson's Paradox-like fashion. Furthermore, an MIV can only aid in identification beyond that of a Monotone Treatment Response assumption if for some region of the instrument either the above Simpson's Paradox-like relationship exists or the instrument's indirect effect on the outcome (as through its influence on treatment selection) is the opposite of its direct effect as assumed by the MIV. The implications of the main findings for empirical work are discussed and the results are highlighted with an application investigating the effect of criminal convictions on job match quality using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth. Though the main results are shown to hold only for the binary treatment case in general, they are shown to have important implications for the multi-valued treatment case as well.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander. "An Odd Couple: Monotone Instrumental Variables and Binary Treatments." Econometric Reviews 35,6 (2016): 1099-1110.
1506. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
Essays on the Identification of Treatment Effects with Applications to the Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Labor Market Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation contains three independent essays; each essay can be read in isolation. The first essay investigates the causal effect of criminal convictions on various labor market outcomes in young adults. The estimation method used is a nonparametric bounding approach intended to partially identify the causal effect. The data used for this essay comes from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth. The second essay reevaluates the causal effect of post-secondary schooling on unemployment incidence using historical data from the 1980 U.S. Census and information on cohort level Vietnam War conscription risk. Conscription risk is used as an instrument for endogenous post-secondary schooling in a specification that accounts for the discrete nature of the treatment and outcome of interest. The third essay investigates the underlying necessary assumptions needed for the monotone instrumental variable (MIV) assumption to have identifying power on both the upper and lower bounds of a treatment effect when the treatment of interest is binary. I show that if the treatment is monotonic in the instrument, as is routinely assumed in the literature on instrumental variables, then for the MIV to have identifying power on both the lower and upper bounds of the treatment effect, the conditional-on-received-treatment outcomes cannot exhibit the same monotonicity assumed by the MIV. Results are highlighted with an application investigating the effect of criminal convictions on job match quality using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of the Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander. Essays on the Identification of Treatment Effects with Applications to the Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, 2012.
1507. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
Heterogeneous Trends in U.S. Teacher Quality 1980-2010
Education Economics 23,6 (November 2015): 645-659.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09645292.2014.996120
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Carfax Publishing Company ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Heterogeneity; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper documents changes in the entire ability distribution of individuals entering the teaching profession using the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and a constructed Armed Force Qualifying Test score that allows direct comparison of ability between cohorts. Such direct comparison between cohorts was previously not possible due to a lack of directly comparable measures of ability. I find there are minimal differences in the ability distribution between cohorts. However, this similarity masks vast differences within specific demographics. I then also decompose these changes into cohort-wide shifts and within-cohort shifts of teachers.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander. "Heterogeneous Trends in U.S. Teacher Quality 1980-2010." Education Economics 23,6 (November 2015): 645-659.
1508. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
Shackled Labor Markets: Bounding the Causal Effects of Criminal Convictions in the U.S.
International Review of Law and Economics 41 (March 2015): 17-24.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014481881400074X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; Earnings; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Economics; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences

This paper examines the causal effects of criminal convictions on labor market outcomes in young men using U.S. data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort. Unlike previous research in this area which relies on assumptions strong enough to obtain point identification, this paper imposes relatively weak nonparametric assumptions that provide tight bounds on treatment effects. Even in the absence of a parametric model, under certain specifications, a zero effect can be ruled out, though after a bias correction this result is lost. In general the results for the effect on yearly earnings align well with previous findings, though the estimated effect on weeks worked are smaller than in previous findings which focused on the effects of incarceration. The bounds here indicate the penalty from convictions, but not incarceration, lowers weeks worked by at most 1.55 weeks for white men and at most 4 weeks for black men. Interestingly, when those ever incarcerated are removed from the treatment group for black men, there does not appear to be any effect of convictions on earnings or wages but only on weeks worked.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander. "Shackled Labor Markets: Bounding the Causal Effects of Criminal Convictions in the U.S." International Review of Law and Economics 41 (March 2015): 17-24.
1509. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
The Effect of Youth Labor Market Experience on Adult Earnings
Journal of Economic Development 39,1 (March 2014): 47-61.
Also: http://www.jed.or.kr/full-text/39-1/2.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: The Economic Research Institute of Chung-Ang University (Korea)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment, Youth; Labor Force Participation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effect of multiple youth jobs on adult earnings using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth along with multiple regression specifications to identify treatment effects and a set of relatively weak nonparametric assumptions that provide tight bounds on treatment effects. Various specifications under an exogenous selection assumption indicate that an additional youth job increases adult yearly income by about $600 with the effect on men being larger than the effect on women. These specifications control for the number of adult jobs as well as the number of weeks worked as a youth. The partial identification strategy bounds the effect for men to be greater than zero, yet substantially smaller than the regression results. However, the confidence intervals on these estimates do not exclude a zero effect. Though a spurious explanation cannot be completely ruled out by the analysis, the results in this paper seem to imply that working multiple jobs as a youth has positive effects on adult earnings beyond pure labor market experience in contrast to the negative effect of multiple jobs as an adult.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander. "The Effect of Youth Labor Market Experience on Adult Earnings." Journal of Economic Development 39,1 (March 2014): 47-61.
1510. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
Rosburg, Alicia
Changing Roles of Ability and Education in U.S. Intergenerational Mobility
Economic Inquiry 55,1 (January 2017): 187-201.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12362/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data on young adults from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we investigate the changing roles of ability and education in the transmission of economic status across generations. We find that ability plays a substantially diminished role for the most recent cohort whereas education plays a much larger role. The first finding results primarily from a smaller effect of children's ability on status, the second from an increased correlation between parental status and educational attainment. A replication of the analysis by gender reveals that the changes in the role of ability are largely driven by men whereas the changes in education's role are largely driven by women.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander and Alicia Rosburg. "Changing Roles of Ability and Education in U.S. Intergenerational Mobility." Economic Inquiry 55,1 (January 2017): 187-201.
1511. Richey, Jeremiah
Tromp, Nikolas
The Black-White Wage Gap among Young Men in 1990 versus 2011: With Sample Selection Adjustment
Bulletin of Economic Research published online (15 March 2021): DOI: 10.1111/boer.12280.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boer.12280
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses unconditional quantile regressions to decompose changes in the black-white wage gap for young men between 1990 and 2011. Introducing a new application of reweighting methods, we control for selection into employment which tends to widen the gap. We find no changes in the gap itself between 1990 and 2011, but reversals in the roles of ability and education across the distribution. Ability loses importance at the bottom and middle but gains importance at the top, while the opposite occurs for education. This results from heterogeneous changes in returns to ability and education across the distribution alongside a widening educational achievement gap.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah and Nikolas Tromp. "The Black-White Wage Gap among Young Men in 1990 versus 2011: With Sample Selection Adjustment." Bulletin of Economic Research published online (15 March 2021): DOI: 10.1111/boer.12280.
1512. Riggio, Ronald E.
Riggio, Heidi R.
Evaluation of School-to-Work Programs Using the NLSY97 Database
Kravis Leadership Institute Report, Kravis Leadership Institute, Claremont McKenna College, September 16, 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY97, Older Men, Young Women
Publisher: Kravis Leadership Institute, Claremont McKenna College
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Job Rewards; Job Search; Job Training; Part-Time Work; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This report presents an evaluation of various sponsored school-to-work transition programs, including job shadowing, mentoring, cooperative education, and other similar programs. The evaluation was conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 survey (NLSY97). A total of 539 youth who participated in some type of school-to-work (STW) program were compared to 8483 youth non-participants. The two groups were compared on a number of important and relevant outcomes, including youths' part-time work, income from part-time work, job-seeking behavior, delinquency behaviors, attitudes toward parents, attitudes about school, common school problems, and positive and negative attitudes and expectations about the future.
Bibliography Citation
Riggio, Ronald E. and Heidi R. Riggio. "Evaluation of School-to-Work Programs Using the NLSY97 Database." Kravis Leadership Institute Report, Kravis Leadership Institute, Claremont McKenna College, September 16, 1999.
1513. Riza, Shoshana Dobrow
Ganzach, Yoav
Liu, Yihao
Time and Job Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of the Differential Roles of Age and Tenure
Journal of Management 44,7 (September 2018): 2558-2579.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0149206315624962
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Job Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Job Tenure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between job satisfaction and time is a fundamental question in organizational behavior. Yet given inconsistent results in the literature, the nature of this relationship has remained unresolved. Scholars' understanding of this relationship has been limited because studies have generally not simultaneously considered the two primary time metrics in job satisfaction research—age and tenure—and have instead relied on cross-sectional research designs. In this study, we develop and test an empirical model to provide a more definitive answer to the question of how age and tenure relate to job satisfaction. Our analyses draw on longitudinal data from 21,670 participants spanning a total of 34 waves of data collection across 40 years in two nationally representative samples. Multilevel analyses indicate that people became less satisfied as their tenure within a given organization increased, yet as people aged—and transitioned from organization to organization—their satisfaction increased. We also found that job rewards, as exemplified by pay, mediated these relationships. We discuss empirical, theoretical, and practical implications of our findings.
Bibliography Citation
Riza, Shoshana Dobrow, Yoav Ganzach and Yihao Liu. "Time and Job Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of the Differential Roles of Age and Tenure." Journal of Management 44,7 (September 2018): 2558-2579.
1514. Robin, Angela Evelina
Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Officials employed in the criminal justice system have a duty to serve, protect, and uphold the law. The current research seeks to examine the individual traits and behaviors of criminal justice employees during their youth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this research surveys the alcohol and illicit drug use of people who went on to work in the criminal justice system. We are able to observe patterns in behavior and substance use that may be common among persons before and after entering the field. If such patterns are observed this can be used to promote healthy coping skills for this stressful occupation with a working population of people who have a history of substance use and abuse.
Bibliography Citation
Robin, Angela Evelina. "Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
1515. Robin, Angela Evelina
Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field
Master's Thesis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Occupational Choice; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using waves 1 through 17 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the current research examines substance use patterns of criminal justice system employees, assessing how their rate of substance use compares to a nationally representative sample, and how their substance use changes once employed with the criminal justice system, this research surveys the alcohol and illicit drug use of people who went on to work in the criminal justice system and how their substance use compares to the general population. In addition, this research compares police officer substance use to the general population.

When compared to a nationally represented sample, criminal justice system employees consistently use illegal substances at lower rates. However, the prevalence of alcohol use among police officers specifically is higher when compared to the general population and increases once employed with the criminal justice system. Information from this research can be used to help agencies with employee selection procedures and employee assistance programs for current employees.

Bibliography Citation
Robin, Angela Evelina. Cops in the Making: Substance Use Patterns and Traits of Youth Who Enter the Criminal Justice Field. Master's Thesis, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University, 2019.
1516. Robinson, Rhissa Briones
Impact of a Religious/Spiritual Turning Point on Desistance: A Lifecourse Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Differences
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Deviance; Ethnic Differences; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Racial Differences; Religious Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study evaluates the generalizability of Sampson and Laub's age-graded theory through examination of the NLSY97 data, a representative sample of adolescents followed into adulthood. In addition, this study seeks to examine an alternate structural turning point, specifically religiosity/spirituality. Building on studies that explore the role of religiosity on change processes across race/ethnicity (Chu & Sung, 2009; Stansfield, 2017), the current investigation addresses questions relating to the nature of the religion-desistance relationship across demographics.

Multilevel mixed effects models are utilized to estimate over time the separate impact of religious behavior and beliefs on deviance, to assess a religious turning point effect across racial/ethnic subgroups, and to evaluate the influence of religiosity on change from deviance characterized as violations of secular and ascetic standards. Analyses of religiosity/spirituality on these differing forms of deviance across race/ethnicity are also conducted.

Findings reveal modest evidence for a religious/spiritual turning point effect in enacting change. Findings highlight the nuanced religion-desistance relationship, as the prosocial impact of a religious turning point differs across race/ethnicity, and depends upon processes relating to attendance to church services or spiritual beliefs, and may be conditional on the type of deviance outcome examined--whether in violation of secular or ascetic deviance.

Bibliography Citation
Robinson, Rhissa Briones. "Impact of a Religious/Spiritual Turning Point on Desistance: A Lifecourse Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Differences." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
1517. Roche, Kristen
Millennials and the Gender Wage Gap in the U.S.: A Cross-Cohort Comparison of Young Workers Born in the 1960s and the 1980s
Atlantic Economic Journal 45,3 (September 2017): 333-350.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11293-017-9546-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: International Atlantic Economic Society
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using two cohorts of young workers born in the early 1960s and early 1980s, this paper analyzes the temporal change in the U.S. gender wage gap and its determinants, which persists for both explained and unexplained reasons. Results suggest that the gender wage gap closed four (seven) percentage points at the mean (median) between cohorts. It finds cross-cohort evidence that young females' increasing returns to marriage and a changing occupational wage structure contributed to a narrowing of the gap. Nonetheless, the majority of this convergence remains unexplained due to relative improvements in unobservable institutional factors or heterogeneity for females. Compared to the previous generation, millennials likely entered a more progressive, female-friendly labor market. It is also possible that female millennials are more ambitious and competitive in their early years of work experience relative to females born in the 1960s.
Bibliography Citation
Roche, Kristen. "Millennials and the Gender Wage Gap in the U.S.: A Cross-Cohort Comparison of Young Workers Born in the 1960s and the 1980s." Atlantic Economic Journal 45,3 (September 2017): 333-350.
1518. Roghani, Ali
Adolescent Family Background and the Formation of the First Family Formation in Adulthood: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Applied Demography, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Event History; Family Background and Culture; Family Formation; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the association between adolescents' family backgrounds and their first union formation (marriage and cohabitation) from the ages of 16 to 35. This research additionally tests whether the influence of family processes varies by age. This study includes three aspects of family background, including, family structure, parental resources, and family process. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Event History Analysis are used to address how the mechanisms of social learning and intergenerational transmission of advantages by parents affect the timing and types of first union formation. The results indicate that individuals with positive family backgrounds have lower risk of cohabitating during adolescence and is associated with higher chances of marriage in their mid-twenties and later. The positive quality of the relationship between parents decreases the chance of cohabitation between the ages of 16 to 25. Also, higher parental material resources increase the chance of forming the first marriage after the age of 25. The findings show positive family process during adolescence plays a vital role in postponing cohabiting before the age of 25, while it encourages the first marriage after mid-twenties. This study further shows that fathers have a substantial role to play in affecting the timing and types of first union formation of their children compared to mothers. The findings of this research suggest that family processes have a multidimensional nature and are important in the timing and type of first union formation among young people in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Roghani, Ali. Adolescent Family Background and the Formation of the First Family Formation in Adulthood: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Applied Demography, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 2020.
1519. Roghani, Ali
Nyarko, Samuel H.
Potter, Lloyd
Smoking Cigarettes, Marijuana, and the Transition to Marriage among Cohabiters in the USA
Global Social Welfare published online (5 May 2021): DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00211-w.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40609-021-00211-w
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Drug Use; Marital History/Transitions; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many studies have established that married people have lower rates of smoking than singles and cohabiters. However, there is still limited research showing whether this advantage also applies specifically to cohabiters before marriage. Hence, this study examines the association between cigarette and marijuana smoking and the transition to marriage among cohabiters in the USA. This study employs data from seventeen waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Discrete-time logistic regression models are used to test whether lower rates of cigarette and marijuana smoking among cohabiters are associated with the transition to marriage. Results indicate that lower levels of marijuana and cigarette smoking are associated with the transition to marriage among male and female cohabiters. Not smoking cigarettes and marijuana is associated with a significantly higher odds of transition to marriage for both sexes. The findings show that smoking status may play a significant role in the odds of getting married during cohabitation. Pro-marital policies can focus on addressing smoking habits among cohabiters.
Bibliography Citation
Roghani, Ali, Samuel H. Nyarko and Lloyd Potter. "Smoking Cigarettes, Marijuana, and the Transition to Marriage among Cohabiters in the USA." Global Social Welfare published online (5 May 2021): DOI: 10.1007/s40609-021-00211-w.
1520. Roghani, Ali
Nyarko, Samuel H.
Sparks, Corey
The First Family Formation among Young Americans: The Role of Family Process
SN Social Sciences 1,50 (2021): DOI: 10.1007/s43545-020-00045-x.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s43545-020-00045-x
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Family Formation; Family Process Measures; Marital Status; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The percentage of young American adults living with their parents is said to have increased steadily over the last few decades. However, limited research has examined the role of parent-adolescent interaction in the first family formation of young adults. This study examines the association between adolescents' family process and their first union formation (marriage and cohabitation) from the ages of 16 to 35. This study also tests whether the influence of the family process varies significantly by age. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, an event history analysis was conducted to address how the mechanisms of social learning by family affect the timing and types of first union formation. The results indicate that individuals with a positive family process have a lower risk of cohabitating during adolescence and a higher chance of transitioning to marriage than cohabitation in their first union formation. The findings also show that a positive family process is associated with higher chances of marriage in the mid-twenties and later. The study further shows that fathers may have a substantial role to play in affecting the timing and types of first union formation of their children compared to mothers. The findings of this study suggest that family processes are important in determining the timing and type of first union formation among young people in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Roghani, Ali, Samuel H. Nyarko and Corey Sparks. "The First Family Formation among Young Americans: The Role of Family Process." SN Social Sciences 1,50 (2021): DOI: 10.1007/s43545-020-00045-x.
1521. Rohrer, Julie M.
Egloff, Boris
Schmukle, Stefan C.
Examining the Effects of Birth Order on Personality
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112,46 (17 November 2015): 14224–14229.
Also: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/46/14224.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences (NAS), United States
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Birth Order; Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Intelligence; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.
Bibliography Citation
Rohrer, Julie M., Boris Egloff and Stefan C. Schmukle. "Examining the Effects of Birth Order on Personality." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112,46 (17 November 2015): 14224–14229. A.
1522. Rohrman, Shawna
Healthy Paths? The Transition to Adulthood and Trajectories of Self-Rated Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Social Roles; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There is a large body of work demonstrating the relationship between health and transitions into and out of social roles. Much of this work focuses on one or a narrow set of role transitions at a time, which may not reflect the complexity with which we occupy social roles in our lives. Recent work on the transition to adulthood has examined five key role transitions (education, employment, residential independence, marriage, and parenthood) in combination with one another by identifying paths to adulthood--i.e., different configurations of role transitions made between adolescence and adulthood. However, there are few studies that examine whether these different paths have implications for young adult health. This study attempts to fill the gap by investigating whether health trajectories--changes in health from adolescence to adulthood—differ depending on one's path to adulthood. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), an annual and ongoing representative sample of young people, spanning from ages 12 to 30. Results indicate that there are differences across paths to adulthood, and those differences appear to favor paths where individuals continue their education beyond high school and delay family formation.
Bibliography Citation
Rohrman, Shawna. "Healthy Paths? The Transition to Adulthood and Trajectories of Self-Rated Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
1523. Roksa, Josipa
Differentiation and Work: Inequality in Degree Attainment in U.S. Higher Education
Higher Education 61,3 (March 2011): 293-308.
Also: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/high/2011/00000061/00000003/00009378
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Differentiation; Education; Educational Attainment; Employment; Employment, In-School; Family Background and Culture; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Studies, Geographic

While much stratification research has focused on understanding the patterns and consequences of differentiation, previous studies have not considered similarly important variation in students' trajectories through higher education, and particularly their participation in the labor market. Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 (NLSY97) indicate that degree completion in a differentiated system of higher education is related to students' employment patterns. Students who begin their educational journeys in community colleges as well as students from less advantaged family backgrounds are more likely to dedicate longer hours to paid employment, which has negative consequences for degree attainment. Employment patterns contribute to gaps in degree completion among students from different family backgrounds and to a lesser extent to inequality in degree completion between students beginning postsecondary education in community colleges vs. 4-year institutions. A more complex set of patterns is revealed when examining the relationship between employment, family background, and degree attainment across different institutional types and educational credentials. These findings highlight the importance of developing a more comprehensive understanding of inequality in educational attainment by considering the relationship between differentiation and work. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Higher Education is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Roksa, Josipa. "Differentiation and Work: Inequality in Degree Attainment in U.S. Higher Education." Higher Education 61,3 (March 2011): 293-308.
1524. Roksa, Josipa
Velez, Melissa
A Late Start: Delayed Entry, Life Course Transitions and Bachelor's Degree Completion
Social Forces 90,3 (2012): 769-794.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/90/3/769
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Higher Education; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While a substantial proportion of students delay entry into higher education, sociologists are only beginning to understand the consequences of this phenomenon for educational attainment. Previous studies have reported a negative relationship between delayed entry and degree completion, but they have not been able to explain it with a range of students' background characteristics. Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 indicate that life course transitions, including work, marriage/cohabitation and parenthood, make a unique contribution to explaining this relationship. Adding life course transitions to the models that already control for a range of background characteristics helps to explain the negative relationship between delayed entry and degree completion. These findings have implications for studying educational success in higher education and understanding the process of educational attainment more broadly.
Bibliography Citation
Roksa, Josipa and Melissa Velez. "A Late Start: Delayed Entry, Life Course Transitions and Bachelor's Degree Completion." Social Forces 90,3 (2012): 769-794.
1525. Roksa, Josipa
Velez, Melissa
When Studying Schooling Is Not Enough: Incorporating Employment in Models of Educational Transitions
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,1 (March 2010): 5-21.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562409000146
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Education; Family Characteristics; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Background; Transition, School to Work

Several recent studies have demonstrated the importance of incorporating qualitative differentiation within educational systems in the study of class inequality in student transitions. We extend these endeavors by broadening the definition of differentiation to include participation in the labor market. As increasing proportions of students continue their educational journeys beyond compulsory schooling, they are considering not only whether to stay in school but also whether to simultaneously enter the world of work. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 (NLSY97), we show that family background influences not only whether students make specific educational transitions but also whether they combine those educational transitions with work. Student trajectories are also path dependent, with employment during one educational transition being related to specific transition patterns at a later point in time. Considering how students combine school and work reveals another dimension of differentiation which can be exploited by socioeconomically advantaged families to "effectively maintain" inequality in educational outcomes. (c) 2009 International Sociological Association Research Committee 28 on Social Stratification and Mobility. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Research in Social Stratification & Mobility is the property of JAI Press, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Roksa, Josipa and Melissa Velez. "When Studying Schooling Is Not Enough: Incorporating Employment in Models of Educational Transitions." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28,1 (March 2010): 5-21.
1526. Romich, Jennifer L.
Training, Trading or Taking? Parents' Work, Children's Work and Intergenerational Transfers
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Allowance, Pocket Money; Children, Well-Being; Employment; Household Demand; Household Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on parental employment and child well-being generally focuses on the relationship between parents' work and available financial resources for parents to transfer to children. However, children of working parents may provide valuable resources to their households as well in the form of household labor including sibling care. Using child- and household-level data from families with 12-18-year-olds in the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I examine the relationship between parental employment, children's household work and transfers to children. I hypothesize that being in a household in which all parents work increases the likelihood that a child provides household labor and receives direct financial transfers in the form of allowances or pocket money. The relationship is stronger in households with younger siblings. Interactions with child gender are investigated and implications for child well-being are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Romich, Jennifer L. "Training, Trading or Taking? Parents' Work, Children's Work and Intergenerational Transfers." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2005.
1527. Rosenberg, Alexander Joel
The Effects of Parental Advice and Financial Literacy On Asset Accumulation among American Youth
Master's Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Assets; Financial Literacy; Gender Differences; Parental Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Financial literacy is an important body of knowledge and set of skills that consumers need to successfully navigate the 21st century economy. Prior research shows financial literacy bears a significant relationship, along with other factors, to the wealth outcomes of adults. While some of this research has examined how specific behaviors related to self-control affect wealth, few include the effects of parental socialization as measured through advice given from parents to children. This paper estimates an empirical relationship amongst wealth, literacy, and parental advice using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth’s 1997 Cohort (NLSY 97). I find financial literacy and parental advice are strongly related to wealth. I also find that women on average have lower wealth than men, even after controlling for literacy, advice, and other demographics. The source of the parental advice also proves statistically important.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenberg, Alexander Joel. The Effects of Parental Advice and Financial Literacy On Asset Accumulation among American Youth. Master's Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2017.
1528. Ross, Martha
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Murphy, Kelly
Bateman, Nicole
DeMand, Alex
Sacks, Vanessa Harbin
Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults
Report: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings and Child Trends, October 2018.
Also: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Brookings_Child-Trends_Pathways-for-High-Quality-Jobs-FINAL.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Benefits; Disadvantaged, Economically; Employment, Youth; Job Characteristics; Job Satisfaction; Socioeconomic Background; Wages

Using an advanced methodology and longitudinal data, this report examines two main questions: the quality of jobs (as measured by wages, benefits, hours, and job satisfaction) held by 29-year-olds who experienced disadvantage in adolescence; and the particular adolescent and young adulthood employment, education, and training experiences of people from disadvantaged backgrounds that are associated with higher-quality jobs at age 29.
Bibliography Citation
Ross, Martha, Kristin Anderson Moore, Kelly Murphy, Nicole Bateman, Alex DeMand and Vanessa Harbin Sacks. "Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults." Report: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings and Child Trends, October 2018.
1529. Rothbaum, Jonathan L.
Essays on Income Mobility and Counterfactual Distributions
Ph.D. Dissertation, The George Washington University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation focuses on two issues: the measurement of income mobility and counterfactual distributions. In the first essay, I propose a new framework for measuring income mobility based on how increases and decreases in income, considered separately, affect social welfare. The framework also unifies major concepts from previous measures. The second essay applies this method to measuring how intergenerational income mobility has changed over the last 20 years for blacks, Hispanics, and whites in the United States. The third essay extends current econometric techniques and proposes a simple method to construct a counterfactual distribution of the location of a variable across space.
Bibliography Citation
Rothbaum, Jonathan L. Essays on Income Mobility and Counterfactual Distributions. Ph.D. Dissertation, The George Washington University, 2013.
1530. Rothstein, Donna S.
High School Employment and Youths' Academic Achievement
Journal of Human Resources 42,1 (Winter 2007): 194-213.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40057302
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Employment, Youth; High School Employment; High School Transcripts; School Performance; Work Hours

This paper asks whether employment during high school impacts youths' grade point average. Unlike much of the prior literature, it allows for the endogeneity of the hours and dropout decisions, uses ASVAB test scores, and tests whether youth employment is dynamic. The results indicate that high school employment and its lag have small, negative impacts on academic grade point average for both males and females. The hours effects diminish when a fixed person effect is included, and they become statistically insignificant when hours are instrumented.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "High School Employment and Youths' Academic Achievement." Journal of Human Resources 42,1 (Winter 2007): 194-213.
1531. Rothstein, Donna S.
Male Prime-age Nonworkers: Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Male Sample; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The labor force participation rate of prime-age men has been mostly falling since the late 1960s, with steeper declines during recessionary periods. This paper uses longitudinal data to examine whether men's prior trajectories of schooling, work, family, income, health, incarceration, and living situations differ between nonworkers and their working peers. It also investigates whether non-work status is a transitory state, and whether parents, spouses, partners, or others are providing support. The data in this paper are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), which contains detailed histories about individuals' lives across multiple domains. This allows one to drill down past top-level information about employment and schooling to create a more nuanced picture involving support systems, criminal behaviors, family formation, health, disability, and youth expectations regarding educational attainment and future employment. At the 2015-16 NLSY97 survey date about 9 percent of men, who range in age from 30 to 36, had not worked in the prior year. Most of these men had never married, about a third lived in a household with a parent, and almost 20 percent were incarcerated at the time of the interview. The vast majority of men who did not work in the year prior to the 2015-16 interview also did not work much in earlier years.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Male Prime-age Nonworkers: Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Economic Association Annual Meeting, January 2019.
1532. Rothstein, Donna S.
Male Prime-age Nonworkers: Evidence from the NLSY97
Monthly Labor Review (December 2020):.
Also: https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2020/article/male-prime-age-nonworkers-evidence-from-the-nlsy97.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Disadvantaged, Economically; Family Background and Culture; Labor Force Participation; Male Sample; Unemployment

The labor force participation rate of prime-age men (ages 25 to 54) has been mostly falling since the late 1960s, with steeper declines during recessionary periods. This article uses longitudinal data to examine whether men's prior trajectories of schooling, work, family, neighborhood, health, incarceration, and living situations are associated with nonwork status. It also investigates whether nonwork status is a transitory state and whether nonworkers are supported by family members. The data in this article are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), which provides detailed histories of respondents' lives across multiple domains. When the 2015-16 NLSY97 interview was conducted, about 8.5 percent of men, who, at the time, ranged in age from 30 to 36 years, had not worked in the prior year. More than two-thirds (70.0 percent) of these men had never married, nearly a third (30.6 percent) lived in a household with a parent, and 16.3 percent were incarcerated at the time of the interview. The vast majority of these men also did not work much in earlier years. Nonworkers not only are more disadvantaged in many aspects of their current lives--such as education, health, incarceration, and finances--but they also were disadvantaged earlier in their lives in terms of family and neighborhood background.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Male Prime-age Nonworkers: Evidence from the NLSY97." Monthly Labor Review (December 2020):.
1533. Rothstein, Donna S.
Men Who Do Not Work during Their Prime Years: What Do the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Data Reveal?
Report, Beyond The Numbers, Volume 8, No. 11, August 2019, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Also: https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-8/male-nonworkers-nlsy.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Incarceration/Jail; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Force Participation; Unemployment; Work Histories

This report examines nonworking status across two generations of men. It evaluates whether men's prior work history as well as education, family structure, personal health, incarceration status, and living situations differ between nonworkers across the two cohorts and between nonworkers and their working peers within cohorts. The report uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Men Who Do Not Work during Their Prime Years: What Do the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Data Reveal?" Report, Beyond The Numbers, Volume 8, No. 11, August 2019, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
1534. Rothstein, Donna S.
Youth Employment During School: Results from Two Longitudinal Surveys
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 25-37
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; Labor Market Outcomes; Work Hours

Students who worked 20 or fewer hours per week during the school year were more likely to attend college; youths who worked a greater percentage of weeks during the school year worked more consistently when they reached ages 18 to 30. According to a popular perception, youths work more today than in the past and their employment may not always lead to desirable consequences. The concern is that a young person's employment, particularly when the individual works many hours, may reduce study time, increase school lateness and absenteeism rates, and adversely affect grades. However, a youth's employment also may provide some positive benefits, teaching about workplace norms and responsibilities and helping to ease the person's subsequent transition from school to work full time. In addition, these costs and benefits associated with a person's working while young could have an impact on the individual's long-term educational and labor market outcomes.

The first part of this article compares the employment of today's youth with that of a youth cohort from nearly 20 years ago. It asks whether 15- and 16-year-olds are, in fact, more likely to work today and examines whether the likelihood of a young person's being employed while attending school varies across youths with different demographic characteristics. Also examined in this part is how the distribution of hours of work of 16-year-olds varies across the two cohorts. Data come from the first round of a new survey of youth -- the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) -- and from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). In the first round of each survey, 15- and 16-year-olds answered similar questions about their current employment status and hours of work. In addition, many demographic measures that may be associated with youths' decisions to work are similar across the two surveys.

Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Youth Employment During School: Results from Two Longitudinal Surveys." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 25-37.
1535. Rothstein, Donna S.
Youth Employment in the United States
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 6-17.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Ethnic Groups; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Household Income; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Work Experience

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 show substantial work activity among 14- and 15-year-olds. Today's youths commonly gain employment experience through working for a particular employer, such as a fast-food restaurant, or through a less formal arrangement, such as babysitting for a neighbor. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed profile of the employment of today's youths using round-1 data from a new survey of youth: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The article reports the incidence, intensity, and timing of youth employment, shows the industries and occupations in which youths commonly work, and examines employment differences across gender, race, ethnic group, household income, and family structure.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Youth Employment in the United States." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 6-17.
1536. Rothstein, Donna S.
Herz, Diane E.
A Detailed Look at Employment of Youths Aged 12 to 15
In: The Report on the Youth Labor Force, Revised, Chapter 3. Washington, DC: Department of Labor Report, 2000: pp. 14-29.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/rylf/pdf/chapter3.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Demography; Employment, Youth; Family Characteristics; Labor Market Outcomes; Transition, School to Work

This chapter examines employment patterns of youths using data from the first interview of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). The NLSY97 was designed specifically to collect a wide range of information on youths in the United States. It provides insight into their labor market experiences, demographic and family characteristics, and participation in school-to-work programs, as well as many other aspects of their lives. The NLSY97 provides an in-depth focus on a cohort of youths who were between the ages of 12 and 16 on December 31, 1996. The first interview will be followed by annual interviews to develop longitudinal data. NLSY97 data complement data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of households that provides data on trends over time but does not track specific age cohorts. CPS information on employment trends of youths aged 15 to 17 is described in Chapter 4.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. and Diane E. Herz. "A Detailed Look at Employment of Youths Aged 12 to 15" In: The Report on the Youth Labor Force, Revised, Chapter 3. Washington, DC: Department of Labor Report, 2000: pp. 14-29.
1537. Routon, P. Wesley
Military Service and Marital Dissolution: A Trajectory Analysis
Review of Economics of the Household 15,1 (March 2017): 335-355.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11150-016-9323-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Dissolution; Military Service; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Military service adds additional challenges for married couples. Previous literature on service and marital stability is comprised of mixed results and has often ignored the timing of these effects. This timing is important as it helps disclose the nature of causality and has implications for both military and social security policies. Using a trajectory specification, I estimate the effect of military service on the likelihood of divorce during the volunteer's period of service and the years following. Two veteran cohorts are examined, those who served during the early twenty-first century wars and those who served during the early 1980s. Among my results, the former cohort is shown to have had their divorce probability increased in the first 2 years post-service, while the opposite effect is found for the latter cohort. Unlike many previous studies of military service and marital stability, I find that effects are not overly dissimilar across racial groups.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "Military Service and Marital Dissolution: A Trajectory Analysis." Review of Economics of the Household 15,1 (March 2017): 335-355.
1538. Routon, P. Wesley
Socio-economic Returns to Voluntary Armed Forces Service
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Outcomes; Military Service; Racial Differences; Veterans; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 1, I estimate the effect of military service during these wars on civilian labor and educational outcomes. I find that veteran status increases civilian wages by approximately ten percent for minorities but has little or no effect on whites in this regard. Veterans of all demographic groups are found to be equally employable and equally as satisfied with their civilian occupation as non-veterans. For females and minorities, veteran status substantially increases the likelihood one attempts college. They are found to be more apt to pursue and obtain a two year degree instead of a four year degree.

With respect to their employment ambitions and perhaps prospects, the average military enlistee is likely to differ from the average American. In Chapter 2, we estimate the impact military service has on civilian wages across the wage distribution. For early 21st century veterans, we find that former military service grants civilian wage premiums at and below the median wage level but perhaps penalties at the high end of the wage distribution. For late 20th century veterans, who were mostly peace-time volunteers, we find evidence that veteran wage premiums were more constant across the wage distribution.

Military service adds additional challenges for married couples. In Chapter 3, I perform a trajectory analysis of the effect of military service on the likelihood of divorce. I find that these individuals were most likely to get a divorce in the first year following active duty service, with an increased probability of three to six percentage points. A within-racial group analysis shows that these effects are stronger for whites than minorities. I find that veterans who served during an earlier period (1980-1992) were unaffected, implying differing effects for wartime versus peacetime service.

Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. Socio-economic Returns to Voluntary Armed Forces Service. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2014.
1539. Routon, P. Wesley
The Effect of 21st Century Military Service on Civilian Labor and Educational Outcomes
Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 15-38.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12122-013-9170-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Labor Force Participation; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Propensity Scores; Veterans; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I estimate the effect of military service during the Afghanistan and Iraq wars on civilian labor and educational outcomes using several empirical methodologies including sibling fixed effects and propensity score matching. Since military occupations and training have changed significantly in the past few decades, these effects may be different than those found in previous studies on veterans of earlier theaters. I find that veteran status increases civilian wages by approximately ten percent for minorities but has little or no effect on whites in this regard. Veterans of all demographic groups are found to be equally employable and equally as satisfied with their civilian occupation as non-veterans. For females and minorities, veteran status substantially increases the likelihood one attempts college. These veterans are found to be more apt to pursue and obtain a two year (associate’s) degree instead of a four year (bachelor’s) degree. Lastly, I find mixed evidence that veteran status increases the likelihood of public sector employment.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "The Effect of 21st Century Military Service on Civilian Labor and Educational Outcomes." Journal of Labor Research 35,1 (March 2014): 15-38.
1540. Routon, P. Wesley
The Probability of Teenage Parenthood: Parental Predictions and Their Accuracy
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 647-661.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9583-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage parenthood is an often-discussed topic in family economics since it has been shown to affect many outcomes for the teen, child, and household. Using a nationally representative longitudinal panel of American teenagers and their parents, two questions related to the probability of teenage parenthood are examined. First, how do predictions of this occurrence made by the teenager's parents vary across the population? Second, how does the accuracy of these predictions vary? The actual prevalence and variance of teenage parenthood are also examined, and the determinants of its occurrence are estimated. Among other results, expectations and their accuracy are found to differ substantially across socioeconomic status and some demographics such as race and religion. The average American parent underestimates the probability their child will become a teen parent by only a small amount, but within certain demographic groups this outcome is considerably underestimated, and in others it is overestimated. These differences help explain the variability in teen parenthood effects, and more broadly, the analysis serves as a test of parents' ability to judge their childrens' future outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "The Probability of Teenage Parenthood: Parental Predictions and Their Accuracy." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 647-661.
1541. Ruddy, Ryan
The Effects of Housing Wealth on Education and Other Essays in Empirical Microeconomics
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Labor Market Outcomes; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation is composed of three essays. The first essay, Family Resources and Secondary Education Investment: Evidence From the Housing Boom uses plausibly exogenous home price increases during the housing boom in the late 1990's and early 2000's to identify the effect of family resources on investment in secondary education. Exploiting the large spatial and timing variation of home price changes during this period, I find the average home price increase lowered the probability of dropping out of high school by age 19 by 1 percentage point, a 10% reduction. Consistent with an increased expectation of ability to pay for college, home price increases also raised the probability of completing a college preparatory curriculum and attending college. Students who reported low grades in eighth grade respond the strongest to home price increases suggesting that merit-based scholarship programs might be less beneficial than scholarship programs which are not contingent on ability. Black students of all ability levels are more likely to remain in high school in response to a home price increase. A mean change in home price decreased the probability of black students dropping out by 20%.

The second chapter, The Effect of Housing Wealth on Labor Market Outcomes and Behavior , expands on the findings of Chapter 1 and previous literature that found a link between housing wealth and education by examining the impact of home wealth on adult labor market outcomes and behavior. Using the NLSY97, I measure the effect of a change in home price while in high school on income at age 26, job industry, criminal behavior, and community participation. I find evidence that home wealth shocks increase the probability of holding white collar jobs, increase wages, and positively impact behavior outcomes. These effects are likely manifesting through the increased education found in previous work.

Bibliography Citation
Ruddy, Ryan. The Effects of Housing Wealth on Education and Other Essays in Empirical Microeconomics. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Houston, 2015.
1542. Ruedisueli, Amy
Parental Attachment and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adolescents
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Wayne State University, 2010. DAI-A 71/04, Oct 2010.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2013955101&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Family Studies; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study sought to uncover parental attachment variables that are associated with risky adolescent sexual behavior. The study employed secondary data analysis and used a data set compiled by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Survey of Children and Youth 1997 (NLSY 1997). This was a national sample of nearly 8,000 respondents from 12-16 years of age. Variables measuring parental monitoring and emotional closeness were used in logistic and linear regression models to predict whether a respondent reported having sex, whether multiple partners were reported and the reported number of sexual partners in the past year. The study finds that maternal and paternal variables were significant in the prediction of having sex, having multiple partners, and number of partners in the last year. The number of hours spent weekly with family and number of hours of weekly maternal monitoring were significant in the prediction of all three dependent variables. Paternal variables were better predictors of having multiple partners and number of partners than predictors of having sex. Maternal factors were more important in the prediction of whether or not a respondent reported being sexually active.
Bibliography Citation
Ruedisueli, Amy. Parental Attachment and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adolescents. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Wayne State University, 2010. DAI-A 71/04, Oct 2010..
1543. Ruhm, Christopher J.
Baum, Charles L., II
The Lasting Benefits of Early Work Experience
Policy Report, Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, August 2014.
Also: https://www.epionline.org/study/the-lasting-benefits-of-early-work-experience/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Employment Policies Institute
Keyword(s): Employment, In-School; Employment, Part-Time; Employment, Youth; High School Employment; Minimum Wage; Occupational Attainment; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The US labor market has recovered slowly but steadily in the years since the Great Recession officially ended in June 2009. But for young adults between the ages of 16 and 19, the recovery has been tepid at best: In the five year period since the summer of 2008, youth unemployment has averaged a staggering 23.5 percent, and the seasonally-adjusted rate was still north of 21 percent as of this writing. These young adults are missing out on extra spending cash, but they’re also missing out on early workforce experience that could play a valuable role in future career development. In this new study, Drs. Christopher Ruhm of the University of Virginia and Charles Baum of Middle Tennessee State University examine data that spans three decades to measure the career benefits of early work experience.

The economists rely on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which tracks the career progress of one group of respondents who graduated from high school in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and another group of respondents who were in high school around the turn of the millennium. This permits them to examine both the near-term benefits of early work experience (roughly 10 years after graduation) and the longer-term benefits of that experience (roughly 30 years after graduation).

Carefully controlling for other family background characteristics that could impact subsequent career achievement, Drs. Ruhm and Baum find clear evidence that part-time work by young adults–both during senior year of high school, and during the summer months—translates to future career benefits that include higher hourly wages, increased annual earnings and less time spent out of work.

Bibliography Citation
Ruhm, Christopher J. and Charles L. Baum. "The Lasting Benefits of Early Work Experience." Policy Report, Washington DC: Employment Policies Institute, August 2014.
1544. Russo, David Michael
Two-Year College Enrollment and Educational Attainment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 2011.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2405062531&sid=2&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; College Graduates; Colleges; High School; Higher Education; Labor Force Participation; Male Sample; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

More than one-third of American undergraduate students attend two-year colleges (also called community colleges or junior colleges), but much of the evidence regarding the quality of these schools or the benefits of attending them is anecdotal. This paper describes and estimates a dynamic, discrete-choice model of high school attendance, college attendance, and labor market participation for young white men. Options to attend a two-year college or a four-year college are explicitly permitted, as are several part-time attendance options, and the model allows the college types to differ from each other in a number of dimensions. Data from the NLSY97 and simulated maximum likelihood are used to estimate the parameters of the model. I estimate the market returns to having attended a two-year college to be comparable to the returns to having attended a four-year college. I also propose and simulate several counterfactual policies that target two-year college attendance. In particular, I estimate that an annual tuition subsidy of $1,000 to students who attend a two-year school (pro-rated according to attendance) would substantially increase the number of individuals who earn a two-year degree while decreasing the number who earn four-year degrees.
Bibliography Citation
Russo, David Michael. Two-Year College Enrollment and Educational Attainment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 2011..
1545. Rutledge, Matthew S.
Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey
Vitagliano, Francis M.
Do Young Adults with Student Debt Save Less for Retirement?
Issue in Brief 18-13, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, June 2018.
Also: https://dlib.bc.edu/islandora/object/bc-ir:108128
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Debt/Borrowing; Retirement; Savings; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The brief's key findings are: (1) Student debt nearly tripled in real terms from 2005 to 2017, creating a financial burden that could potentially hamper retirement saving by young adults. (2) The analysis looked at the impact of student debt on 401(k) participation and assets for young workers who attended college, both graduates and non-graduates. (3) The results showed that student debt does not significantly affect 401(k) participation rates for either group. (4) However, student debt does seem to affect how much college graduates save: those with debt have only about half as much in assets by age 30 as those without debt.
Bibliography Citation
Rutledge, Matthew S., Geoffrey Sanzenbacher and Francis M. Vitagliano. "Do Young Adults with Student Debt Save Less for Retirement?" Issue in Brief 18-13, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, June 2018.
1546. Ryberg, Renee
Inequality and the Transition to Adulthood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Family Background and Culture; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition to adulthood has long been thought to play a key role in status attainment processes, but the mechanisms linking the transition to adulthood to family background and adult outcomes are not well understood. A first step in understanding how the transition to adulthood plays into stratification processes is to understand how this period differs for individuals from different social groups. The first chapter of this dissertation examines how the trajectories of events during the transition to adulthood vary by and within race, class, and gender groups. Sequence analysis is used to provide a "longitudinal thick description" of pathways to adulthood for youth in different race/class groups by gender.

In the second chapter, these pathways are used to predict young adult income and examine how experiences in this time period serve as mechanisms in the intergenerational transfer of status. The transition-to-adulthood pathways explain about one-third of the intergenerational transmission of status through young adulthood. For men, the pathway characterized by extended education mediates the relationship between parental wealth and young adult income, indicating a potential mechanism for resource hoarding in the upper-middle class. For women, on the other hand, this life stage may contribute to the poverty trap, as pathways related to less advantaged populations link family background to young adult income.

The third chapter contextualizes the transition to adulthood and examines how the impact of class on transition-to-adulthood pathways varies across institutional contexts in 20th century Europe. Class operates fairly consistently in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe, where young women with more educated parents tend to delay family formation and avoid rapid transitions to adulthood. The role of class in the transition to adulthood is distinct in Eastern Europe, however. Results are explained according to the welfare states and family systems operating in each region.

Together, the chapters illustrate that an individual's location within society influences how they are likely to experience the transition to adulthood, which has meaningful consequences for long-term outcomes. The influence of class on these pathways, however, may vary by context.

Bibliography Citation
Ryberg, Renee. Inequality and the Transition to Adulthood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2018.
1547. Ryberg, Renee
Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Opportunity Youth
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Disconnected Youth; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the transition to adulthood, youth finish education and begin work trajectories that affect them for their rest of their lives. A large subset of youth, however, stall out during this transition. More than one in ten youth ages 16-24 are not actively engaged in society as either students or workers (Belfield, Levin, & Rosen, 2012; Burd-Sharps & Lewis, 2018). Previous research has identified some of the risk and protective factors associated with youth disconnection, but analyses at the national level have been quite limited. This study examines the risk and protective factors associated with youth disconnection using NLSY97 and examines how these factors vary by severity of disconnection (chronic vs. temporary) and demographic groups known to experience disconnection differently. Preliminary analyses indicate that cognitive ability acts as a protective factor against disconnection and teen parenthood is the largest risk factor across types of disconnection.
Bibliography Citation
Ryberg, Renee. "Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Opportunity Youth." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
1548. Sabia, Joseph J.
Covinald, Reggie
Teen Parenthood and Adult Civic Engagement: New Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Civic Engagement; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Adolescent; Parenthood; Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy; Teenagers; Volunteer Work; Voting Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we examine the relationship between teen parenthood and four measures of adult civic engagement: charitable giving, volunteerism, political awareness, and voting. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and propensity score matching (PSM) estimates suggest that teen parenthood is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Family fixed effects estimates show estimated associations that are smaller in magnitude, but do not rule out adverse civic engagement effects. Finally, when we compare adult civic engagement of teen mothers to women who became pregnant, but miscarried as teens, we continue to find that teen motherhood is negatively related to charitable giving, volunteerism, and voting. Our findings suggest that diminished leisure time and adverse income effects of teen motherhood may have important adverse consequences for civic engagement.
Bibliography Citation
Sabia, Joseph J. and Reggie Covinald. "Teen Parenthood and Adult Civic Engagement: New Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
1549. Sabia, Joseph J.
Mackay, Taylor
Nguyen, Thanh Tam
Dave, Dhaval
Do Ban the Box Laws Increase Crime?
NBER Working Paper No. 24381, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2018.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w24381
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Discrimination; Geocoded Data; State-Level Data/Policy

Ban-the-box (BTB) laws, which prevent employers from asking prospective employees about their criminal histories at initial job screenings, have been adopted by 25 states and the District of Columbia. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System, the Uniform Crime Reports, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study is the first to estimate the effect of BTB laws on crime. We find some evidence that BTB laws are associated with an increase in property crime among working-age Hispanic men. This finding is consistent with employer-based statistical discrimination as well as potential moral hazard. A causal interpretation of our results is supported by placebo tests on policy leads and a lack of BTB-induced increases in crime for non-Hispanic whites and women. Finally, we find that BTB laws are associated with a reduction in property crime among older and white individuals, consistent with labor-labor substitution toward those with perceived lower probabilities of having criminal records (Doleac and Hansen 2017). [Also presented at Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019]
Bibliography Citation
Sabia, Joseph J., Taylor Mackay, Thanh Tam Nguyen and Dhaval Dave. "Do Ban the Box Laws Increase Crime?" NBER Working Paper No. 24381, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2018.
1550. Sabia, Joseph J.
Price, Joseph P.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Covington, Reginald
The Effect on Teenage Childbearing on Social Capital Development: New Evidence on Civic Engagement
Review of Economics of the Household 16,3 (September 2018): 629-659.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11150-017-9371-3
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Civic Engagement; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Adolescent; Parenthood; Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy; Social Capital; Volunteer Work; Voting Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we examine the relationship between teenage childbearing and four measures of adult civic engagement: charitable giving, volunteerism, political awareness, and voting. After accounting for selection on observables via propensity score matching and selection on unobservables via family fixed effects and instrumental variables approaches, we find that teen motherhood is negatively related to adult civic engagement. Descriptive evidence suggests that teen birth-induced reductions in educational attainment and the time-intensive nature of childcare are important mechanisms. Finally, we find that while the adverse civic engagement effects of teen parenthood may extend to teen fathers, the effects are much smaller in magnitude.
Bibliography Citation
Sabia, Joseph J., Joseph P. Price, H. Elizabeth Peters and Reginald Covington. "The Effect on Teenage Childbearing on Social Capital Development: New Evidence on Civic Engagement." Review of Economics of the Household 16,3 (September 2018): 629-659.
1551. Sadighi, Shahriar
Essays in Empirical Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Northeastern University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Wage Determination

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

My dissertation consists of three essays in empirical labor economics which are self-contained and can be read independently of the others. The second essay estimates the changing effects of cognitive ability on wage determination of college bound and non-college bound young adults between 1980s and 2000s.
Bibliography Citation
Sadighi, Shahriar. Essays in Empirical Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Northeastern University, 2017.
1552. Saeed, Mohammed A..
Educational Attainment and Labor Market Integration of Young Adults, with Emphasis on Second-Generation Immigrants
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Height; Immigrants; Parental Influences; Physical Characteristics; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter is the economic assimilation of second generation Immigrants. The population of second generation Americans (U.S. born individuals of foreign-born parents) stood at 45 million in 2015. The labor market outcomes of this large segment of the population can provide useful insights into the long-run contribution of immigration to the US labor force and economy. This study uses a longitudinal data set and makes use of detailed personal and family characteristics to study the economic assimilation of second generation immigrants. The use of longitudinal data allows us to examine the relative wage evolution of second generation immigrants in the US. The trends show that second generation immigrant adolescents begin their careers with a wage advantage over natives (third and subsequent generations of immigrants), which diminishes as they age. Overall, we find female second generation immigrants to have a wage advantage of about 8 percent over natives whereas male second generation immigrants have a small or no wages advantage over native males once personal and parental characteristics are controlled for.

The second chapter investigates the Impact of physical appearance on the transition from high school to full-time employment Due to changes in the structure of the economy since the 1980s, the average time it takes a job-seeker with only a high school diploma to gain full-time employment has been increasing. Several reasons have been proffered for the low transition from high school graduation to full-time employment, but these reasons have been shifting over time. Against this background, I propose an additional element, physical attribute, that may explain the low transition from high school graduation to full-time employment. Using both parametric and semi-parametric hazard models, I show that physical appearance affects the odds of transitioning from high school to full-time employment. I find that job-seekers who have only a high school diploma and who are well below average in physical height, spend on average, five more months unemployed compared to others. There is no significant reduction in the odds of exiting unemployment for taller job-seekers, suggesting a shortness penalty, but not a height premium. Additionally, I find the likelihood of obese job-seekers transitioning from high school to full-time employment is about 28% lower than that of non-obese job-seekers. With the economy predominantly service oriented, these results imply job-seekers with less than desirable physical attributes will face challenging labor market conditions for the foreseeable future.

The third and the final chapter examines the impact of parental education on the educational attainment of second generation immigrants (SGI). Leveraging the rich parental characteristics available in the NLSY, I contrast the effect of parental years of schooling on the years of schooling and degree attainment of natives and second generation immigrants. I find a positive correlation between parental schooling and the educational attainment for both natives and SGI. The impact is more pronounced for natives than for the average SGI. The results seem to indicate that some immigrant parents invest more in the education of their children to help them achieve socio-economic mobility. These also robust to the inclusion of several parental socio-economic characteristics and controls for the ability of the children.

Bibliography Citation
Saeed, Mohammed A.. Educational Attainment and Labor Market Integration of Young Adults, with Emphasis on Second-Generation Immigrants. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2017.
1553. Saffer, Henry
Dave, Dhaval
Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption By Adolescents
NBER Working Paper No. 9676, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2003.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9676.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Gender Differences; Market Level Data; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Monitoring the Future (MTF); Racial Differences

The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring the Future (MTF) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data sets, which include only data for adolescents, are employed for the empirical work. These data sets are augmented with alcohol advertising data, originating on the market level, for five media. Use of both the MTF and the NLSY97 data sets improves the empirical analysis since each data set has its own unique advantages. The large size of the MTF makes it possible to estimate regressions with race and gender specific subsamples. The panel nature of the NLSY97 makes it possible to estimate individual fixed effects models. In addition, very similar models can be estimated with both data sets. Since the data sets are independent, the basically consistent findings increase the confidence in all the results. The results indicate that blacks participate in alcohol less than whites and their participation cannot be explained with the included variable as well as it can for whites. A comparison of male and female regressions shows that price and advertising effects are generally larger for females. Models which control for individual heterogeneity result in larger advertising effects implying that the MTF results may understate the effect of alcohol advertising. The results based on the NLSY97 suggest that a complete ban on all alcohol advertising could reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation by about 24 percent and binge participation by about 42 percent. The past month price-participat ion elasticity was estimated at about -0.28 and the price-binge participation elasticity was estimated at about -0.51. Both advertising and price policies are shown to have the potential to substantially reduce adolescent alcohol consumption.
Bibliography Citation
Saffer, Henry and Dhaval Dave. "Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption By Adolescents." NBER Working Paper No. 9676, National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2003.
1554. Saffer, Henry
Dave, Dhaval
Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents
Health Economics 15,6 (June 2006): 617-637.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1091/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Gender; Heterogeneity; Market Level Data; Monitoring the Future (MTF); Racial Studies; Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Saffer, Henry and Dhaval Dave. "Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents." Health Economics 15,6 (June 2006): 617-637.
1555. Saffer, Henry
Dave, Dhaval
Grossman, Michael
A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price
Health Economics 25,7 (July 2016): 816-828.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.3186/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low consumption levels. The estimation work employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the empirical model is estimated with quantile regressions. The results show that advertising has a small positive effect on consumption and that this effect is relatively larger at high consumption levels. The continuing importance of alcohol taxes is also supported. Education is employed as a proxy for self-regulation, and the results are consistent with this assumption. The key conclusion is that restrictions on alcohol advertising on TV would have a small negative effect on drinking, and this effect would be larger for heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Saffer, Henry, Dhaval Dave and Michael Grossman. "A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price." Health Economics 25,7 (July 2016): 816-828.
1556. Saffer, Henry
Dave, Dhaval
Grossman, Michael
Behavioral Economics and the Demand for Alcohol: Results from the NLSY97
NBER Working Paper No. 18180, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2012.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w18180
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Behavior; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Education; Market Level Data; Modeling; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Television Viewing

The behavioral economic model presented in this paper argues that the effect of advertising and price differ by past consumption levels. The model predicts that advertising is more effective in reducing consumption at high past consumption levels but less effective at low past consumption levels. Conversely, the model predicts that higher prices are effective in reducing consumption at low past consumption levels but less effective at high past consumption levels. Unlike the models used in most prior studies, this model predicts that the effects of policy on average consumption and on the upper end of the distribution are different.

Both FMM and Quantile models were estimated. The results from these regressions show that heavy drinkers are more responsive to advertising and less responsive to price than are moderate drinkers. The empirical evidence also supports the assumption that education is a proxy for self-regulation. The key conclusions are that restrictions on advertising are targeted at heavy drinkers and are an underutilized alcohol control policy. Higher excise taxes on alcohol reduce consumption by moderate drinkers and are of less importance in reducing heavy consumption.

Bibliography Citation
Saffer, Henry, Dhaval Dave and Michael Grossman. "Behavioral Economics and the Demand for Alcohol: Results from the NLSY97." NBER Working Paper No. 18180, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2012.
1557. Saint Onge, Jarron
Smith, Sarah
Scheuermann, Taneisha
Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Smoking Trajectories: The Role of Multiple Health Behaviors and Behavioral-Risk Profiles
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Pregnancy is an important intervention point for improving health behaviors, as mothers commonly receive a range of health recommendations. While most women reduce health compromising behaviors during pregnancy, many return to risky behaviors postpartum. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (n = 1,476) to estimate latent cigarette smoking trajectories over the period of 1997-2013. First, we identify four common smoking trajectories over the course of pregnancy, including pregnancy-related reducers, long-term reducers, and chronic smokers. Next, we use Latent Class Analysis to group prenatal behavior risk factors (i.e., binge drinking, marijuana, drugs, and obesity) into meaningful health lifestyle classes. Finally, we find that both individual health behaviors and the identified health classes have strong, relationships with smoking trajectories. Results provide strong evidence for the importance of the prenatal period in future smoking patterns and suggest the importance of a multi-behavioral approach to health promotion.
Bibliography Citation
Saint Onge, Jarron, Sarah Smith and Taneisha Scheuermann. "Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Smoking Trajectories: The Role of Multiple Health Behaviors and Behavioral-Risk Profiles." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
1558. Salvador, Eric
Perceptions of Crime and Punishment: An Analysis of the Effect on Juvenile Delinquency
Master's Thesis, Department of Sociology, Auburn University, 2008.
Also: https://etd.auburn.edu/handle/10415/1128
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Auburn University
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to investigate and examine perceptions of the criminal justice system and show its effects on juvenile delinquency. As the juvenile continues to engage in deviant behavior, the risk of being caught increases, thus instilling more negative perceptions toward the criminal justice system. Therefore, as deviant behavior increases, criminal behavior and potential for arrest will increase as well. Subsequently, if criminal behavior and the possibility for arrest both increase, the likelihood of contact with the criminal justice system will be similarly affected. This study will utilize Travis Hirschi's Social Control Theory, while focusing specifically on the "Belief" component in his theory. The sample and data for this study is taken solely from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort. This research provides statistical evidence that the perceptions of the criminal justice system have an effect on Juvenile delinquency. The statistical significance of the findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Salvador, Eric. Perceptions of Crime and Punishment: An Analysis of the Effect on Juvenile Delinquency. Master's Thesis, Department of Sociology, Auburn University, 2008..
1559. Sanabria, Tanya
Failing Grades: Examining The Long-Term Effects of Failure in Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Attainment; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 3, I use transcript data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to show that while college remedial coursework benefits some students, the substantial number of students who fail remediation are considerably worse off (e.g., they are less likely to graduate, take longer to graduate, and earn less) than peers who were not placed in remediation.
Bibliography Citation
Sanabria, Tanya. Failing Grades: Examining The Long-Term Effects of Failure in Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine, 2019.
1560. Sanabria, Tanya
Penner, Andrew M.
Domina, Thurston
Failing at Remediation? College Remedial Course-taking, Failure and Long-term Student Outcomes
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Earnings; Educational Outcomes; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Schooling, Post-secondary

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many students who enroll in post-secondary education are not adequately prepared to succeed in college-level courses. Colleges offer remedial coursework to help underprepared students. Despite the prevalence of remediation, previous research presents contradictory findings regarding the short and long-term effects of remediation. This paper contributes to this literature by examining whether the degree completion and wage outcomes associated with remedial education vary by whether students pass or fail remedial courses. Using the NLSY Postsecondary Transcript-1997 data we find that 40 percent of students who take remedial coursework fail one or more of their remedial courses, and that underrepresented minority students and students working more than 20 hours per week had higher odds of failing remedial coursework. Students who took and passed their remedial coursework had higher odds of graduating from college and had higher earnings than students who did not take remedial coursework, but students who failed at least one remedial course had lower odds of degree completion and earned 5 percent lower wages over a five-year average. Our findings suggest that while many students may benefit from remedial education, a substantial number of students struggle with remedial coursework.
Bibliography Citation
Sanabria, Tanya, Andrew M. Penner and Thurston Domina. "Failing at Remediation? College Remedial Course-taking, Failure and Long-term Student Outcomes." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
1561. Sanabria, Tanya
Penner, Andrew M.
Domina, Thurston
Failing at Remediation? College Remedial Coursetaking, Failure and Long-Term Student Outcomes
Research in Higher Education published online (24 March 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s11162-020-09590-z.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11162-020-09590-z
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Wage Determination

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Colleges offer remedial coursework to help students enrolling in post-secondary education who are not adequately prepared to succeed in college-level courses. Despite the prevalence of remediation, previous research presents contradictory findings regarding its short- and long-term effects. This paper uses a doubly robust inverse probability weighting strategy to examine whether the degree completion and wage outcomes associated with remedial education vary by passing or failing remedial coursework. Using the NLSY Postsecondary Transcript-1997 data, we find that almost 30% of remedial course takers fail a remedial course. Students who took and passed their remedial coursework at both 2-year and 4-year colleges were more likely to graduate from college than similar students who did not take remediation. For both 2-year and 4-year college entrants, students who failed remedial coursework were less likely to obtain a bachelor's degree and, among degree receivers, took longer to graduate. Students who entered 2-year or 4-year colleges and who failed remedial coursework earned lower wages over time compared to similar students who never took remediation. Among 4-year college entrants, these wage differences seem to be explained completely by degree completion. However, wage differences for 2-year college entrants still remain after accounting for degree receipt. Our findings thus suggest that while many students may benefit from remedial education, a substantial number of students struggle with remedial coursework and fail to realize the intended benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Sanabria, Tanya, Andrew M. Penner and Thurston Domina. "Failing at Remediation? College Remedial Coursetaking, Failure and Long-Term Student Outcomes." Research in Higher Education published online (24 March 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s11162-020-09590-z.
1562. Sandberg-Thoma, Sara
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Serial Cohabitation and Depressive Symptoms in Emerging Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Depression (see also CESD); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The prevalence of serial cohabitation has increased within the United States; additionally, the rates of serial cohabitation, or cohabiting with more than one partner, have also risen. However, serial cohabitation may have adverse emotional health consequences. In general, cohabitation has been associated with mental health declines, yet serial cohabitation may be driving this effect. Using a contemporary sample of emerging adults, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97; n = 7,528), we examine the influence of serial cohabitation on depressive symptoms. Pooled fixed effects regressions indicated that serial cohabitation is associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the cumulative number of serial cohabitations did moderate the association between experiencing a specific cohabitation transition (from no reported cohabiting unions to one cohabitation, and from one cohabitation to two cohabitations)and depressive symptoms; future cohabitations did magnify the association between each single cohabitation transition and depressive symptoms.
Bibliography Citation
Sandberg-Thoma, Sara and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "Serial Cohabitation and Depressive Symptoms in Emerging Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
1563. Sandberg-Thoma, Sara
Kotila, Letitia
Life Events and Mental Health at the Transition to Parenthood
Presented: Phoenix AZ, National Council on Family Relations Annual Conference, October-November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Council on Family Relations
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Health, Mental; Parenthood; Stress

The transition to parenthood is a normative, yet stressful life event, where some individuals appear more at-risk for declines in mental health. The accumulation of undesirable life events at this critical time period may explain the occurrence of mental health discrepancies.Using the NLSY97 dataset, we assess relations between life events and mental health at the transition to parenthood. Preliminary results indicate that undesirable life events experienced during the time of childbirth are associated with poor mental health; no association was found for desirable life events. Future analyses plan to address the nature of these associations. Practical implications are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sandberg-Thoma, Sara and Letitia Kotila. "Life Events and Mental Health at the Transition to Parenthood." Presented: Phoenix AZ, National Council on Family Relations Annual Conference, October-November 2012.
1564. Sandberg-Thoma, Sara
Snyder, Anastasia R.
Jang, Bohyun
Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids
Journal of Marriage and Family 77,3 (June 2015): 806-818.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12183/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Independence; Exits; Health, Mental; Life Course; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood

Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162) and returns to (n = 6,530) the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from and returns to the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from and earlier returns to the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Sandberg-Thoma, Sara, Anastasia R. Snyder and Bohyun Jang. "Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids." Journal of Marriage and Family 77,3 (June 2015): 806-818.
1565. Sanderson, Zachary W.
Burning a Hole in Your Pocket: the Effect of Smoking Cigarettes on Wages
Master's Thesis, Department of Economics, Miami University, 2018.
Also: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?::NO:10:P10_ETD_SUBID:174792
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: OhioLINK
Keyword(s): Modeling, OLS; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study measures the impact of smoking on wages for young adults, aged 18 to 30. Economic theory would suggest that smoking can potentially carry a negative wage effect. Smoking carries a number of health effects that have the ability to decrease a person's productivity, reducing their marginal product of labor. Economic theory states that employers set a worker's wage at the marginal product of labor. Therefore, if an individual experiences decreased productivity due to smoking, they theoretically could have a low wage. By applying OLS and first differences methods to individual and sibling pair cross-section data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and following the research method outlined in Levine et al. (1997), I find that smoking cigarettes does not have a statistically significant impact on the wages of young adults. The point estimates from the OLS and first differences models lie between 6% and 11%, which match the results of previous studies that have found between a 4% and 11% negative wage effect associated with smoking. These results are confirmed by a series of robustness tests. In addition, the results of the OLS and first difference models are extremely similar to the results obtained by Levine et al., who find a statistically significant negative wage effect associated with smoking. The fact that my results line up with previous literature may suggest that smoking does carry a negative wage effect. This paper adds to the current literature by providing more research on the effects of smoking on a younger population, as well as providing more research to help validate the results of Levine et al. (1997).
Bibliography Citation
Sanderson, Zachary W. Burning a Hole in Your Pocket: the Effect of Smoking Cigarettes on Wages. Master's Thesis, Department of Economics, Miami University, 2018..
1566. Sands, Emily Glassberg
Essays in Applied Microeconomics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Harvard University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the second chapter, I examine growth in educational attainment over the past thirty years by gender and demographic characteristics. I show that both the rise in educational attainment and the rise of the female advantage in educational attainment occurred relatively similarly across socioeconomic status (SES). I also demonstrate how a prior result showing an increased gradient of education by SES used incorrect sampling weights and is not robust to a more permanent measure of SES.
Bibliography Citation
Sands, Emily Glassberg. Essays in Applied Microeconomics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Harvard University, 2014.
1567. Sandy, Jonathan
Duncan, Kevin Craig
Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap Between Urban and Suburban Students
Education Economics 18,3 (September 2010): 297-315.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09645290903465713
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Carfax Publishing Company ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Disadvantaged, Economically; Neighborhood Effects; Private Schools; School Quality; Socioeconomic Factors; Urbanization/Urban Living

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience for Youth (1997 cohort) are used to examine the urban school achievement gap. Specifically, we use the Blinder-Oaxaca technique to decompose differences in Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores for students who attended urban and suburban schools. We find that approximately 75% of the gap in this achievement measure is explained by the high concentration of disadvantaged students in urban schools. Broken down further, 36% of the gap can be attributed to differences in family background. The lower income of urban families alone explains 25% of the gap. Differences in measures of school quality, such as small classes, large schools, and private school attendance, explain very little of the gap. While current policy focuses on schools and school reform, our results are a reminder that meaningful efforts to improve performance in urban schools must address socioeconomic conditions in urban areas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Sandy, Jonathan and Kevin Craig Duncan. "Examining the Achievement Test Score Gap Between Urban and Suburban Students." Education Economics 18,3 (September 2010): 297-315.
1568. Sanga, Sarath
Essays in Law and Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, 2011.
Also: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5w57z5cr
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; State-Level Data/Policy; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 2, which is coauthored with Justin McCrary, presents evidence from six data sets on the participation of youth in crime near the age of criminal majority. The evidence suggests smooth behavior through the transition to adulthood, despite substantial changes in punitiveness, and is consistent with small deterrence effects of long prisons sentences for young offenders.
Bibliography Citation
Sanga, Sarath. Essays in Law and Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, 2011..
1569. Sansale, Rebecca
DeLoach, Stephen B.
Kurt, Mark
Unemployment Duration and the Personalities of Young Adult Workers
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics 79 (April 2019): 1-11.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214804318302325
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Unemployment Duration

As in many countries, young adult workers in the United States have experienced tremendous employment volatility in recent years. In this paper, we examine the role personality plays in determining the duration of unemployment among young adults in the United States between 2008 and 2015. Evidence from estimation of a Competing Risks Model shows that when faced with unemployment, conscientious individuals are significantly more likely to find employment. Individuals scoring higher in neuroticism are more likely to leave the workforce and less likely to go back to school, while more agreeable individuals are more likely to go back to school. Because personality remains malleable for young adults, these results have implications for the literature related to job-search behavior as well as for educational and job-training programs.
Bibliography Citation
Sansale, Rebecca, Stephen B. DeLoach and Mark Kurt. "Unemployment Duration and the Personalities of Young Adult Workers." Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics 79 (April 2019): 1-11.
1570. Saunders, Randi
Early Life Parental Loss and Obesity Risk in the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Obesity; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood; Trauma/Death in family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large proportion of U.S. young adults are classified as obese today, with African-Americans experiencing the greatest obesity prevalence. Various forms of disadvantage, including residential segregation, food insecurity, and exposure to chronic stress have been linked to obesity risk. This study examines an under-explored form of disadvantage in the form of early life parental loss, and investigates whether the disproportionate risk of losing a parent early in life experienced by African-Americans contributes to heightened obesity risk. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, this study finds that early parental death significantly contributes to risk of obesity in the transition to adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Saunders, Randi. "Early Life Parental Loss and Obesity Risk in the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2019.
1571. Saw, Guan
Remedial Enrollment During the 1st Year of College, Institutional Transfer, and Degree Attainment
Journal of Higher Education 90,2 (2019): 298-321.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00221546.2018.1493668
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Attainment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined whether remediation enrollment during the 1st year of college influenced individuals' college transfer and attainment and if effects varied by racial and socioeconomic subgroups. Results based on analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 data indicated that for 2-year college students, remediation enrollment in both mathematics and English improved the likelihood of transferring to a 4-year college and earning a bachelor's degree. For 4-year college students, however, enrolling in any postsecondary remediation--only math, only English, or both subjects--during their 1st year in college increased their chances of transferring to a 2-year college in the following years. Enrolling in at least 1 math remedial class (i.e., only math and both subjects) appeared to hinder 4-year college students from graduating on time. Subgroup analyses showed no strong evidence that remediation enrollment played a significant role in increasing or reducing the racial and socioeconomic gaps in college attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Saw, Guan. "Remedial Enrollment During the 1st Year of College, Institutional Transfer, and Degree Attainment." Journal of Higher Education 90,2 (2019): 298-321.
1572. Saw, Guan
Three Essays on Estimating the Effects of School and Student Improvement Interventions
Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Attainment; Propensity Scores; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The second chapter evaluates whether postsecondary remediation influences college persistence, transfer, and attainment, and if effects vary by racial and socioeconomic subgroups. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth of 1997 (NLSY97), propensity score analysis results indicate that while remediation in only mathematics or only English has no impact on student outcomes, the effect of remediation in both subjects is positive for students who started postsecondary education in two-year colleges but it is negative for their four-year college counterparts. Sensitivity tests show that the estimates for four-year colleges are quite robust but they are less so for two-year colleges. Subgroup analyses reveal that in two-year colleges high-socioeconomic students benefited the most from remediation in the long run, whereas in four-year colleges remediation appears to hinder nonwhite and low-socioeconomic students from completing college. Findings suggest that postsecondary remediation plays a critical role in the social stratification process in higher education.
Bibliography Citation
Saw, Guan. Three Essays on Estimating the Effects of School and Student Improvement Interventions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, 2016.
1573. Schenck, Samantha Marie
Labor Force Attachment and Maternity Leave Usage of Cohabiting Mothers in the United States
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 40,4 (December 2019): 729-746.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-019-09635-1
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Motherhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper studies the labor supply decisions of new mothers in cohabiting relationships in the United States. Using cross-sectional data from the 1997 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth as well as from the March Current Population Survey Annual Demographic Supplement, this paper analyzes how the birth of a child impacts a mother's labor supply. Different subgroups of women based on relationship status are analyzed and compared. Both cross-sectional analyses show that new mothers in cohabiting households behave differently than their married counterparts when it comes to their labor supply after the birth of a child, taking significantly shorter leaves and working more hours in the year of birth. The results also suggest that their partner's income is not a significant factor in determining their labor supply, which differs from married mothers. This research gives us important insights into the economic decision-making behavior of these nontraditional households.
Bibliography Citation
Schenck, Samantha Marie. "Labor Force Attachment and Maternity Leave Usage of Cohabiting Mothers in the United States." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 40,4 (December 2019): 729-746.
1574. Scherpf, Erik
The Path to SNAP: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Dynamics Among Young Adults
Presented: Washington DC, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association AAEA & CAES Joint Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association (AAEA)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parenthood; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates young adults’ first experience with the Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), examining the determinants of first program entry and exit. It makes use of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which follows respondents from adolescence into adulthood. This study estimates discrete-time hazard models of program entry and exit with and without unobserved heterogeneity. Unobserved heterogeneity is modeled using both a parametric approach, in which a gamma distribution is assumed, and a non-parametric approach with two mass points. The results are broadly consistent across models, indicating that, for the cohort in this study, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity does not substantially alter the results from a basic discrete-time hazard model. The results show that expanded categorical eligibility increased the hazard of SNAP entry in the six years following high school, while the absence of vehicle exclusions decreased the entry hazard. For program exit, however, state SNAP policies had no statistically significant effect. The recent birth of a child, prior participation in WIC and low educational attainment were each strongly associated with an increased “risk” of SNAP entry, and decreased “risk” of exit. Somewhat, surprisingly, higher unemployment rates in the local labor market were not significantly associated with higher entry risk, but were strongly associated with a lower exit risk.
Bibliography Citation
Scherpf, Erik. "The Path to SNAP: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Dynamics Among Young Adults." Presented: Washington DC, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association AAEA & CAES Joint Annual Meeting, August 2013.
1575. Schindler, Holly S.
Coley, Rebekah Levine
Predicting Marital Separation: Do Parent–Child Relationships Matter?
Journal of Family Psychology 26,4 (August 2012): 499-508.
Also: DOI: 10.1037/a0028863
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Status; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

This study used a family systems perspective in modeling predictors of marital separation within married-parent families with adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether mother–adolescent closeness and negativity, father–adolescent closeness and negativity, and couple relationship quality (mothers' and fathers' positive marital behaviors) prospectively predicted the likelihood of marital separation, operationalized as the father moving out of the household. Data were derived from the first 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (n = 1649), assessing both biological and stepfather families. Results from complementary log–log analyses revealed that marital separations were related to complex family relationships. Specifically, greater mother–adolescent closeness predicted a higher likelihood of marital separation, whereas greater father–child closeness predicted a lower likelihood. In addition, mothers' more positive marital behaviors toward fathers predicted a lower likelihood of marital separation. Patterns were largely similar between biological and stepfather families, with the exception that mothers' positive marital behaviors toward fathers were more influential within biological father families.
(PsycINFO Database Record © 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Schindler, Holly S. and Rebekah Levine Coley. "Predicting Marital Separation: Do Parent–Child Relationships Matter? ." Journal of Family Psychology 26,4 (August 2012): 499-508.
1576. Schneider, Daniel J.
Harknett, Kristen S.
What's to Like? Facebook as a Tool for Survey Data Collection
Sociological Methods and Research published online (14 November 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0049124119882477.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0049124119882477
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Comparison Group (Reference group); Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Data Quality/Consistency; Job Tenure; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, we explore the use of Facebook targeted advertisements for the collection of survey data. We illustrate the potential of survey sampling and recruitment on Facebook through the example of building a large employee-employer linked data set as part of The Shift Project. We describe the workflow process of targeting, creating, and purchasing survey recruitment advertisements on Facebook. We address concerns about sample selectivity and apply poststratification weighting techniques to adjust for differences between our sample and that of "gold standard" data sources. We then compare univariate and multivariate relationships in the Shift data against the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Finally, we provide an example of the utility of the firm-level nature of the data by showing how firm-level gender composition is related to wages. We conclude by discussing some important remaining limitations of the Facebook approach, as well as highlighting some unique strengths of the Facebook targeted advertisement approach, including the ability for rapid data collection in response to research opportunities, rich and flexible sample targeting capabilities, and low cost, and we suggest broader applications of this technique.
Bibliography Citation
Schneider, Daniel J. and Kristen S. Harknett. "What's to Like? Facebook as a Tool for Survey Data Collection." Sociological Methods and Research published online (14 November 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0049124119882477.
1577. Schneider, Daniel J.
Harknett, Kristen S.
Stimpson, Matthew
Job Quality and the Educational Gradient in Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation
Working Paper Series, Washington Center for Equitable Growth, November 27, 2018.
Also: https://equitablegrowth.org/working-papers/job-quality-and-the-educational- gradient-in-entry-into-marriage-and-cohabitation/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Washington Center for Equitable Growth
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Cohabitation; Educational Attainment; Job Characteristics; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men's and women's economic resources are important determinants of marriage timing. Prior demographic and sociological literature has often measured resources in narrow terms, considering employment and earnings and not more fine-grained measures of job quality. Yet, scholarship on work and inequality focuses squarely on declining job quality and rising precarity in employment and suggests that this transformation may matter for the life course. Addressing the disconnect between these two important areas of research, this paper analyzes data on the 1980-1984 U.S. birth cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationships between men's and women's economic circumstances and their entry into marital or cohabiting unions. We advance existing literature by moving beyond basic measures of employment and earnings and investigating how detailed measures of job quality matter for union formation. We find that men and women in less precarious jobs -- jobs with standard work schedules and jobs that provide fringe benefits -- are more likely to marry. Further, differences in job quality explain a significant portion of the educational gradient in entry into first marriage. However, these dimensions of job quality are not predictive of cohabitation.
Bibliography Citation
Schneider, Daniel J., Kristen S. Harknett and Matthew Stimpson. "Job Quality and the Educational Gradient in Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation." Working Paper Series, Washington Center for Equitable Growth, November 27, 2018.
1578. Schneider, Daniel J.
Harknett, Kristen S.
Stimpson, Matthew
Job Quality and the Educational Gradient in Entry Into Marriage and Cohabitation
Demography 56,2 (April 2019): 451-476.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0749-5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Cohabitation; Educational Attainment; Job Characteristics; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men's and women's economic resources are important determinants of marriage timing. Prior demographic and sociological literature has often measured resources in narrow terms, considering employment and earnings and not more fine-grained measures of job quality. Yet, scholarship on work and inequality focuses squarely on declining job quality and rising precarity in employment and suggests that this transformation may matter for the life course. Addressing the disconnect between these two important areas of research, this study analyzes data on the 1980-1984 U.S. birth cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationships between men's and women's job quality and their entry into marital or cohabiting unions. We advance existing literature by moving beyond basic measures of employment and earnings and investigating how detailed measures of job quality matter for union formation. We find that men and women in less precarious jobs--both jobs with standard work schedules and those that provide fringe benefits--are more likely to marry. Further, differences in job quality explain a significant portion of the educational gradient in entry into first marriage. However, these dimensions of job quality are not predictive of cohabitation.
Bibliography Citation
Schneider, Daniel J., Kristen S. Harknett and Matthew Stimpson. "Job Quality and the Educational Gradient in Entry Into Marriage and Cohabitation." Demography 56,2 (April 2019): 451-476.
1579. Schnorr, Geoffrey C.
My Brother's (Bar)keeper? Sibling Spillovers in Alcohol Consumption at the Minimum Legal Drinking Age
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Preliminary results based on a sample of roughly 2,000 sibling pairs from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth suggest that the [minimal legal drinking age] MLDA-induced increase in alcohol consumption among older siblings has either no effect or small positive effects on the alcohol consumption of the younger siblings. Sensitivity analyses considering the effect on the older sibling when the younger sibling turns 21 and the effect within various subgroups of sibling pairs (e.g. same gender pairs) produce similar results. These estimates rely on self-reports of past month consumption and are somewhat heterogeneous. However, my preferred specifications are able to rule out meaningfully large peer effects in drinking days between siblings. If unobserved factors related to the alcohol consumption of both siblings are not changing discontinuously when one sibling turns 21, then these results are causally interpretable.
Bibliography Citation
Schnorr, Geoffrey C. "My Brother's (Bar)keeper? Sibling Spillovers in Alcohol Consumption at the Minimum Legal Drinking Age." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
1580. Schofield, Lynne Steuerle
Correcting for Measurement Error in Latent Variables Used as Predictors
Annals of Applied Statistics 9,4 (December 2015): 2133-2152.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26977218
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute of Mathematical Statistics
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Methods/Methodology; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Structural Equation; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper represents a methodological-substantive synergy. A new model, the Mixed Effects Structural Equations (MESE) model which combines structural equations modeling and item response theory is introduced to attend to measurement error bias when using several latent variables as predictors in generalized linear models. The paper investigates racial and gender disparities in STEM retention in higher education. Using the MESE model with 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I find prior mathematics proficiency and personality have been previously underestimated in the STEM retention literature. Pre-college mathematics proficiency and personality explain large portions of the racial and gender gaps. The findings have implications for those who design interventions aimed at increasing the rates of STEM persistence among women and under-represented minorities.
Bibliography Citation
Schofield, Lynne Steuerle. "Correcting for Measurement Error in Latent Variables Used as Predictors." Annals of Applied Statistics 9,4 (December 2015): 2133-2152.
1581. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
Mowen, Thomas
The Marriage Effect Revisited: Desistance from Crime, or Desistance from Arrest?
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Life Course; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The marriage effect on criminal desistance has received a considerable amount of attention in the criminological literature over the past two decades. The main conclusion reached is that marriage increases the likelihood of criminal desistance. The vast majority of prior studies on the marriage effect, however, have used arrest counts as the outcome measure. In the current study, we contend that a shift in criminal justice contacts is not a reliable indicator of actual behavioral change. Drawing on opportunity theory and the Black’s theory of law, we examine the extent to which marriage redirects offending away from the streets and to opportunistic crimes within the home. In this sense, we investigate the possibility that the marriage effect observed in prior research accounts for desistance from official offending but fails to address the hidden crimes that occur outside the purview of the justice system. Using data from the first seven waves of the National Youth Survey, we document patterns of behavioral change from adolescence to adulthood, focusing on the degree to which offending shifts away from high-arrest-risk crimes and narrows to offenses within the home during periods of marriage. Results and implications for life course theory are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D., Bianca Elizabeth Bersani and Thomas Mowen. "The Marriage Effect Revisited: Desistance from Crime, or Desistance from Arrest?" Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2013.
1582. Schroeder, Ryan D.
Mowen, Thomas
Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency
Youth and Society 46,2 (March 2014): 228-254.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/46/2/228.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show that parenting style transitions are common across the first and third waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. Furthermore, specific parenting style shifts are associated with changes in juvenile delinquency, most notably the shifts characterized by a decrease in responsiveness or an increase or decrease in demandingness. Last, changes in maternal attachment associated with parenting style changes partially mediate the effect of such transitions on delinquent outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Schroeder, Ryan D. and Thomas Mowen. "Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency." Youth and Society 46,2 (March 2014): 228-254.
1583. Schult, Johannes
Sparfeldt, Jorn R.
Do Non-g Factors of Cognitive Ability Tests Align with Specific Academic Achievements? A Combined Bifactor Modeling Approach
Intelligence 59 (November-December 2016): 96-102.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616302422
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Attainment; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Intelligence; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Bifactor models can clarify how general and specific intelligence factors relate to general and specific academic achievements. By modeling specific group factors that are orthogonal to the general factors one can establish systematic correlations between corresponding non-g residuals of general intelligence and achievement factors. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97; n = 2155), bifactor models were estimated for cognitive ability tests (intelligence, scholastic aptitude) and high school grade point averages (GPA), presuming group factors for numeric/mathematics and for verbal/language content, respectively. The three general factors (intelligence, scholastic aptitude, GPA) were highly correlated. The group factors evidenced convergent validity for numeric abilities and mathematics achievement; the remaining group factor correlations were small. The results demonstrate that besides substantial correlations of the general factors, specific non-g abilities can be successfully linked to specific group factors of academic achievement.
Bibliography Citation
Schult, Johannes and Jorn R. Sparfeldt. "Do Non-g Factors of Cognitive Ability Tests Align with Specific Academic Achievements? A Combined Bifactor Modeling Approach." Intelligence 59 (November-December 2016): 96-102.
1584. Schultz, Melinda Joy
Taylor, Brennan
Depression and Military Enlistment
Presented: Reno/Sparks NV, Undergraduate Poster Presentation, Pacific Sociological Association Meeting, March 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Pacific Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Happiness (see Positive Affect/Optimism); Life Course; Military Enlistment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a fixed effects model, we will analyze self-reported depression indicators, such as happiness, sadness, friends/family connections, and military enlistment of respondents from waves 1 through 14 of National Longitudinal Survey 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997 to 2010 for any association between the variables. The nature of this dataset will provide insight into the long- term mental health histories of respondents who were 12 to 16 years old when the survey began in 1997. Following these adolescents from such a young age until their time of enlistment (age 17 at the youngest) will allow us to track their self-reported levels of depression, identifying patterns correlated with their time of enlistment. The results will be discussed in relation to life course theory in how the outcomes of events that effect life happiness throughout one’s adolescence may lead them to decide to enlist in the military, as well as the process of “knifing off” that acts as a turning point in the transition from adolescence to adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Schultz, Melinda Joy and Brennan Taylor. "Depression and Military Enlistment." Presented: Reno/Sparks NV, Undergraduate Poster Presentation, Pacific Sociological Association Meeting, March 2013.
1585. Schwartz, Jeremy
The Job Search Intensity Supply Curve: How Labor Market Conditions Affect Job Search Effort
Working Paper 14-215, Upjohn Institute Working Papers, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014.
Also: http://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1232&context=up_workingpapers
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Job Search; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Supply; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the Great Recession of 2007, unemployment reached nearly 10 percent and the ratio of unemployment to open positions (as measured by the Help Wanted OnLine Index) more than tripled. The weak labor market prompted an unprecedented extension in the length of time in which a claimant can collect unemployment insurance (UI) to 99 weeks, at an expense to date of $226.4 billion. While many claim that extending UI during a recession will reduce search intensity, the effect of weak labor market conditions on search remains a mystery. As a result, policymakers are in the dark as to whether UI extensions reduce already low search effort during recessions or perhaps decrease excessive search, which causes congestion in the labor market. At the same time, modelers of the labor market have little empirical justification for their assumptions on how search intensity changes over the business cycle. This paper develops a search model where the impact of macro labor market conditions on a worker’s search effort depends on whether these two factors are substitutes or complements in the job search process. Parameter estimates of the structural model using a sample of unemployment spells from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 indicate that macro labor market conditions and individual search effort are complements and move together over the business cycle. The estimation also reveals that more risk-averse and less wealthy individuals exhibit less search effort.
Bibliography Citation
Schwartz, Jeremy. "The Job Search Intensity Supply Curve: How Labor Market Conditions Affect Job Search Effort." Working Paper 14-215, Upjohn Institute Working Papers, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014.
1586. Scott-Clayton, Judith
Wen, Qiao
Estimating Returns to College Attainment: Comparing Survey and State Administrative Data–Based Estimates
Evaluation Review 43, 5 (October 2019): 266-306.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0193841X18803247
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; College Enrollment; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Geocoded Data; Migration Patterns; Mobility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: In this article, we use recent waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to provide new, nationally representative, nonexperimental estimates of the returns to degrees, as well as to assess the possible limitations of single-state, administrative data–based estimates.

Research design: To do this, we explore the sensitivity of estimated returns to college, by testing different sample restrictions, inclusion of different sets of covariates, and alternative ways of treating out-of-state earnings to approximate the real-world limitations of state administrative databases.

Results: We find that failure to control for measures of student ability leads to upward bias, while limiting the sample to college enrollees only leads to an understatement of degree returns. On net, these two biases roughly balance out, suggesting that administrative data-based estimates may reasonably approximate true returns.

Conclusions: We conclude with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of survey versus administrative data for estimating returns to college as well as implications for research and policy efforts based upon single-state administrative databases.

Bibliography Citation
Scott-Clayton, Judith and Qiao Wen. "Estimating Returns to College Attainment: Comparing Survey and State Administrative Data–Based Estimates." Evaluation Review 43, 5 (October 2019): 266-306.
1587. Scott, Mindy E.
Steward-Streng, Nicole R.
Barry, Megan C.
Neighborhood, Family and School Environments: Associations with the Timing of Adolescent First Sex
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Council
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Marriage; Family Environment; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; School Quality

A major focus of policy and research is on delaying the timing of first sex to help reduce high rates of teenage pregnancy and STDs in the U.S. This study uses data from Rounds 1-8 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to examine whether and how different adolescent environments including neighborhood, family, school, and the surrounding physical environment are associated with an earlier timing of first sex. We also examine whether micro-level factors (e.g., parent involvement) are more or less protective against early sexual experience in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. County-level indicators of neighborhood disadvantage (e.g., poverty, unemployment, single motherhood, educational attainment) are used. Preliminary results suggest that many contexts matter for the timing of adolescent sex (e.g., neighborhood, parent involvement, family structure, youth's perceptions of their school and physical environments, parent background) and that these contexts vary depending on the level of neighborhood disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Scott, Mindy E., Nicole R. Steward-Streng and Megan C. Barry. "Neighborhood, Family and School Environments: Associations with the Timing of Adolescent First Sex." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
1588. Seals, Richard Alan
Are Gangs a Substitute for Legitimate Employment? Investigating the Impact of Labor Market Effects on Gang Affiliation
Kyklos 62,3 (August 2009): 407-425.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1432262
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Labor Market Demographics; Local Labor Market; Underemployment; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper adds to the literature estimates of local labor market effects on gang participation. The local unemployment rate is a proxy for the availability of legitimate employment. I use data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to model the probability of gang involvement. The effect of the local unemployment rate is statistically significant and positive. Robustness checks reveal gang participation of individuals less than sixteen years of age (the legal minimum age for most jobs) is not responsive to the local unemployment rate. However, the effect of the local unemployment rate on sixteen- and seventeen-year-olds is statistically significant and positive, which suggests juvenile gang participation depends on economic incentives. Gang participation among individuals with lower ASVAB scores is more sensitive to the local unemployment rate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Seals, Richard Alan. "Are Gangs a Substitute for Legitimate Employment? Investigating the Impact of Labor Market Effects on Gang Affiliation." Kyklos 62,3 (August 2009): 407-425.
1589. Seals, Richard Alan
Cognitive Ability and Street Gang Participation: Evidence from the NLSY and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
Working Paper (2009), Oklahoma City, OK: Meinders School of Business, Oklahoma City University, 2009.
Also: http://ocu-stars.okcu.edu/aseals/index_files/Cognitive_Ability_and_Street_Gang_Participation.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: School of Business (Meinders), Oklahoma City University
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Bullying/Victimization; Cognitive Ability; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; I.Q.; Neighborhood Effects; Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN); Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A voluminous literature investigates the social processes that generate gang activity. A parallel literature investigates the linkage between IQ scores and a range of deviant behavior. In this paper, I examine the effects of measured cognitive ability on individual gang participation. I use data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to estimate survival models of gang participation. Results indicate low IQ is a robust predictor of gang participation.
Bibliography Citation
Seals, Richard Alan. "Cognitive Ability and Street Gang Participation: Evidence from the NLSY and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods." Working Paper (2009), Oklahoma City, OK: Meinders School of Business, Oklahoma City University, 2009.
1590. Seals, Richard Alan
Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence from Gang Activity in U.S. Data
Working Paper No. 2011-03. Department of Economics, Auburn University, 2011.
Also: http://cla.auburn.edu/econwp/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Economics, Auburn University
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; I.Q.; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I examine the link between IQ and an individual’s decision to join a gang. Data from the NLSY97 and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) are used to estimate time-to-first gang participation. Results from a variety of models which account for sibling effects, neighborhood effects, and non-cognitive traits indicate low IQ is a robust predictor of gang participation. However, the PHDCN results reveal gang participation is affected by a person’s relative IQ, with respect to one’s neighborhood peers. Because the majority of trade and industry is underground, official statistics overlook that neighborhoods where gang activity is prevalent are often at full employment. If gangs provide security and enforce contracts where civil government does not, then low-IQ individuals may have comparative advantage in gang activities. Because gangs are often well-defined social groups within neighborhoods, cognitive traits could be expressed at the neighborhood level through this same economic channel.
Bibliography Citation
Seals, Richard Alan. "Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence from Gang Activity in U.S. Data." Working Paper No. 2011-03. Department of Economics, Auburn University, 2011.
1591. Seals, Richard Alan
Stern, Liliana V.
Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence from Gang Activity in U.S. Data
Journal of Socio-Economics 44 (June 2013): 140-149.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535712001151
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Neighborhood Effects; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)

Hernstein and Murray (1994) famously argued that the division of labor in modern society is determined by individual differences in cognitive ability. This paper shows differences in cognitive ability can also determine the division of labor in poor urban areas. I estimate the effect of IQ on time-to-first gang participation with data from NLSY97 and Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Results from the NLSY97, which account for sibling effects and non-cognitive traits, indicate low-IQ is a robust predictor of gang participation. However in the PHDCN, a person's relative IQ, with respect to one's neighborhood peers, determines gang participation. The sorting of individuals with lower intelligence into gangs may also affect beliefs of non-gang members concerning expected returns to human capital investment. Hence, a variety of social pathologies often associated with inner-city ghettos and low IQs of the inhabitants may instead be caused by an absence of the rule of law.
Bibliography Citation
Seals, Richard Alan and Liliana V. Stern. "Cognitive Ability and the Division of Labor in Urban Ghettos: Evidence from Gang Activity in U.S. Data." Journal of Socio-Economics 44 (June 2013): 140-149.
1592. Seamon, Matthew P.
The "Cleaning up" Effect of Marriage on Health-risk Behaviors: The Role of Marital and Spousal Factors
M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large body of literature has established a clear link between marriage and health. Despite this wealth of research, surprisingly few studies have attempted to explore the exact mechanisms behind this marriage-health connection. Previous research has focused solely on changes in marital status while failing to consider factors like the quality of the marriage or the characteristics of the spouse. This paper utilizes longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to isolate the effect of marriage on the health-risk behaviors of binge drinking and marijuana use, and then assess the impact of marital and spousal factors on this "marriage effect." The results also show that marital quality has a significant impact on health behaviors. Higher self-assessed measures of marital quality are generally associated with lower rates of both binge drinking and marijuana use. The effect of spousal characteristics seems less significant. These results should provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind the effects of marriage on health and help policymakers determine the appropriate policy response as the norms surrounding marriage continue to shift and evolve.
Bibliography Citation
Seamon, Matthew P. The "Cleaning up" Effect of Marriage on Health-risk Behaviors: The Role of Marital and Spousal Factors. M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2015.
1593. Sen, Bisakha
Does Alcohol-Use Increase the Risk of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents? Evidence from the NLSY97
Journal of Health Economics 21,6 (November 2002): 1085-1094.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629602000796
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Sexual Activity

This study investigates the causal link between alcohol-use and adolescent sexual activity. In a recent paper, using data from the 1995 wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Rees et al. [Journal of Health Economics 20 (5) (2001)] found little evidence of such a link. The data used here are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97), and results indicate that alcohol-use increases the probability of sexual intercourse, even after accounting for the potential endogeneity. However, consistent with Rees et al., there is less evidence that heavy drinking has a significant effect on sexual intercourse. [Copyright: 2002 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Sen, Bisakha. "Does Alcohol-Use Increase the Risk of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents? Evidence from the NLSY97." Journal of Health Economics 21,6 (November 2002): 1085-1094.
1594. Sen, Bisakha
Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Body Weight Status: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997
Obesity Research 14,12 (2006): 2266-2276.
Also: http://www.obesityresearch.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/12/2266
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Family Influences; Obesity; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To explore associations between overweight status and the frequency of family dinners (FFD) for adolescents and how those associations differ across race and ethnicity.
Research Methods and Procedures: A sample of 5014 respondents between 12 and 15 years of age from the 1997 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) was used. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight; 13.3% of respondents qualified as overweight, 16.4% qualified as at-risk-of-overweight, and 1.9% qualified as underweight. The remainder were normal weight. FFD was defined as the number of times respondents had dinner with their families in a typical week in the past year. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated separately for non-Hispanic whites vs. blacks and Hispanics for odds of belonging to the other weight categories compared with normal weight. A supplementary longitudinal analysis estimated the odds of change in overweight status between 1997 and 2000.
Results: In 1997, the FFD distribution was as follows: 0, 8.3%; 1 or 2, 7.3%; 3 or 4, 13.4%; 5 or 6, 28.1%; 7, 42%. For whites, higher FFD was associated with reduced odds of being overweight in 1997, reduced odds of becoming overweight, and increased odds of ceasing to be overweight by 2000. No such associations were found for blacks and Hispanics.
Discussion: Reasons for racial and ethnic differences in the relationship between FFD and overweight may include differences in the types and portions of food consumed at family meals. More research is needed to verify this.
Bibliography Citation
Sen, Bisakha. "Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Body Weight Status: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997." Obesity Research 14,12 (2006): 2266-2276.
1595. Sen, Bisakha
Frequency of Sexual Activity Among Unmarried Adolescent Girls: Do State Policies Pertaining To Abortion Access Matter?
Eastern Economic Journal 32,2 (Spring 2006): 313-330.
Also: http://econpapers.repec.org/article/eejeeconj/v_3a32_3ay_3a2006_3ai_3a2_3ap_3a313-330.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Journals
Keyword(s): Abortion; Contraception; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The article focuses on a study about the frequency of sexual activity, as well as non-contracepted sexual activity, among unmarried adolescent women in the U.S. It reviews existing literature related to the impact of existing restrictions on abortion, as well as existing literature on adolescent sexual activity. The 1997 data from the first round of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was employed in the study. It presents explanations for the non-effects of abortion policies on adolescent sexual behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Sen, Bisakha. "Frequency of Sexual Activity Among Unmarried Adolescent Girls: Do State Policies Pertaining To Abortion Access Matter?" Eastern Economic Journal 32,2 (Spring 2006): 313-330.
1596. Sen, Bisakha
The Relationship Between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors After Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics
Journal of Adolescence 33,1 (February 2010): 187-196.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197109000372
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavioral Problems; Family Characteristics; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Modeling, Logit; Runaways; Substance Use

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. METHODS: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary variable of interest is self-reported FFD in a typical week. Problem behaviors studied are substance-use, physical violence, property-destruction, stealing, running away from home, and gang membership. Multivariate logistic models are estimated for each behaviors. Linear regression models are estimated for behavior-frequency for the sub-samples engaging in them. Analysis is done separately by gender. RESULTS: FFD is negatively associated with substance-use and running away for females; drinking, physical violence, property-destruction, stealing and running away for males. CONCLUSION: Family meals are negatively associated to certain problem behaviors for adolescents even after controlling rigorously for potentially confounding factors. Thus, programs that promote family meals are beneficial.

Copyright of Journal of Adolescence is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Sen, Bisakha. "The Relationship Between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors After Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics." Journal of Adolescence 33,1 (February 2010): 187-196.
1597. Seo, Dong-Chul
Li, Kaigang
Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood
American Journal of Health Behavior 36,2 (March 2012): 242-253.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22370261
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: PNG Publications
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE:To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender.

METHODS: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus.

RESULTS: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks had a lower perceived weight for their actual weight and a slower rate of increase in perceived weight than did whites.

CONCLUSION: Intervention programs designed to prevent or reduce obesity should evaluate weight perceptions for both adolescents and young adults prior to implementing each intervention.

Bibliography Citation
Seo, Dong-Chul and Kaigang Li. "Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood." American Journal of Health Behavior 36,2 (March 2012): 242-253.
1598. Serafini, Brian
The Declining Significance of Motherhood? Differential Effects of Children on Boomer and Millennial Women's Wages
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Maternal Employment; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Motherhood; Mothers, Income; Parenthood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although studies demonstrate that mothers earn lower wages than childless women among older cohorts of workers, questions remain as to whether parenthood still leads to the same earnings disparities for millennial women and men as it has for the baby boomer cohort. To answer this question, we apply decomposition and hybrid mixed effects models to National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 data to examine the intracohort effects of parenthood across generations of baby boomers and millennials. We find that parenthood does not affect earnings among millennials in the same way as it has for baby boomer women, but, even with changing relationships, motherhood is still very much a factor for millennial women. Although OLS models show a similar motherhood penalty among millennial women, more detailed decomposition models highlight the employment factors contributing to these trends and hybrid mixed effects models indicate that selection into parenthood has also played a role in these changes.
Bibliography Citation
Serafini, Brian. "The Declining Significance of Motherhood? Differential Effects of Children on Boomer and Millennial Women's Wages." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
1599. Serang, Sarfaraz
A Comparison of Three Approaches for Identifying Correlates of Heterogeneity in Change
New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development published online (17 January 2021): DOI: 10.1002/cad.20390.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cad.20390
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Methods/Methodology; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Structural Equation; Mothers, Education; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Longitudinal research is often interested in identifying correlates of heterogeneity in change. This paper compares three approaches for doing so: the mixed‐effects model (latent growth curve model), the growth mixture model, and structural equation model trees. Each method is described, with special focus given to how each structures heterogeneity, attributes that heterogeneity to covariates, and the kinds of research questions each can be used to address. Each approach is used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to understand the similarities and differences between methods in the context of empirical data. Specifically, changes in weight across adolescence are examined, as well as how differences in these change patterns can be explained by sex, race, and mother's education. Recommendations are provided for how to select which approach is most appropriate for analyzing one's own data.
Bibliography Citation
Serang, Sarfaraz. "A Comparison of Three Approaches for Identifying Correlates of Heterogeneity in Change." New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development published online (17 January 2021): DOI: 10.1002/cad.20390.
1600. Sfekas, Andrew
New Evidence on Whether Cigarette Taxes Reduce Youth Smoking
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Methods/Methodology; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We present new evidence on the extent to which cigarette prices and taxes affect a youth's decision to start smoking. We use longitudinal data from the Tobacco-Use Supplements to the CPS, PSID, and NLSY97 to show that prices and taxes matter. We also resolve a puzzle in the empirical literature. Most studies that use longitudinal data find that the probability of initiation is uncorrelated with changes in taxes. This result contradicts standard economic theory that demand falls when prices increase and it stands in contrast with cross-sectional evidence showing lower smoking prevalence among youth when taxes are higher. We resolve this puzzle by showing that taxes reduce smoking uptake, affects casual smoking much less than regular smoking, and that some of the empirical contradictions stem from basic specification errors flowing from the particular longitudinal data used. The findings have important implications for domestic and international tobacco control and public health policy.
Bibliography Citation
Sfekas, Andrew. "New Evidence on Whether Cigarette Taxes Reduce Youth Smoking." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
1601. Shamsuddin, Shomon
Berkeley or Bust? Estimating the Causal Effect of College Selectivity on Bachelor's Degree Completion
Research in Higher Education 57,7 (November 2016): 795-822.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11162-016-9408-0
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Degree; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Geocoded Data; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many students enroll in less selective colleges than they are qualified to attend, despite low graduation rates at these institutions. Some scholars have argued that qualified students should enroll in the most selective colleges because they have greater resources to support student success. However, selective college attendance is endogenous, so student outcomes could be due to individual ability, not institutional characteristics. Previous work on college selectivity has focused on the earnings effects of attending elite private universities, overlooking both college graduation impacts and the public institutions that educate most students. I estimate the effect of selective colleges on the probability of bachelor's degree completion using a restricted-access national dataset and an instrumental variables approach to address the endogeneity of college choice. I find that a 100-point increase in the average SAT score for admitted students is associated with an increase in the probability of graduation by 13 percentage points. In addition, I find suggestive evidence that enrolling in a selective public college has a positive effect on degree completion. The results are robust to a series of sensitivity tests and alternate specifications. The findings suggest strong benefits to enrolling in the most selective colleges that students are qualified to attend and have important implications for decisions to pursue postsecondary education in the face of high student loan debt.
Bibliography Citation
Shamsuddin, Shomon. "Berkeley or Bust? Estimating the Causal Effect of College Selectivity on Bachelor's Degree Completion." Research in Higher Education 57,7 (November 2016): 795-822.
1602. Shamsuddin, Shomon
Essays on Housing, Education, and Inequality
Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Graduates; Colleges; Income; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Motivation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to standard economic theory, more people will obtain postsecondary education in response to the rising college wage premium. However, students from low income families remain less likely to earn a college degree than high income students, even controlling for academic preparation. My dissertation provides empirical evidence on the puzzle of low college attainment among low income students. First, I estimate the effects of motivational qualities on college graduation by performing multivariate regression analysis using National Education Longitudinal Study data. I find that motivational qualities measured in 8 th grade, i.e. causally prior to postsecondary participation, predict college degree completion, independent of grades and demographic characteristics. Further, the positive impact is concentrated among disadvantaged students. Second, I examine if students possess adequate information about college preparation and the application process by conducting observations and over 50 interviews with high school guidance counselors, advisors, and students in public schools serving poor neighborhoods. I find that students are familiar with college applications but they are unaware of their own academic performance and lack context to make effective use of college guidance. Third, I identify the causal effect of college selectivity on degree completion by using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data and instrumental variable estimation. I find that attendance at selective public universities increases the probability of graduation, controlling for grades and family background. This dissertation contributes to the literature by identifying the role of motivational qualities on college outcomes, increasing our understanding of student information about college, and assessing the impact of college quality on degree completion. The results have important public policy implications: 1) colleges can both improve graduation rates and increase student diversity by attaching more weight to motivation qualities in the admissions process, 2) schools must instill strong academic habits earlier so students can obtain higher grades and benefit from college guidance, and 3) students should enroll in the most selective colleges they are qualified to attend. Understanding the barriers to higher education for low income students is essential for increasing the proportion of college graduates and improving individual socioeconomic mobility, urban revitalization, and national economic competitiveness. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)
Bibliography Citation
Shamsuddin, Shomon. Essays on Housing, Education, and Inequality. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2013.
1603. Shandra, Carrie L.
Job Characteristics and Job Retention of Young Workers With Disabilities
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Job Characteristics; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

People with disabilities experience lower labor force participation than people without disabilities in the US. Despite the focus on work promotion among this population, less is known about factors increasing job retention. This study utilizes longitudinal employment histories from NLSY97 to evaluate: How job characteristics differ by adolescent disability status, what job characteristics associate with the hazard of separation, and if the characteristics associated with the hazard of separation differ by adolescent disability status. Young workers with adolescent disabilities have a higher baseline hazard of separation than workers without disabilities. These results persist for involuntary separations (serious disability) and voluntary health-related separations (mild or serious disability), net of job characteristics. Employment benefits--medical, scheduling, leave, retirement--negatively associate with the hazard of separation for workers with disabilities. However, these effects persist for all workers, whereas job satisfaction, job sector, and work hours further condition the hazard of separation among workers with disabilities.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. "Job Characteristics and Job Retention of Young Workers With Disabilities." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
1604. Shandra, Carrie L.
Life-Course Transitions Among Adolescents With and Without Disabilities
International Journal of Sociology 41,1 (Spring 2011): 67-86.
Also: http://mesharpe.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,5,6;journal,2,30;linkingpublicationresults,1:110910,1
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Keyword(s): Disability; Education; Educational Outcomes; Employment; Life Course; Parenthood; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on adolescents suggests that young people are able to form reasonable expectations about future life-course transitions-and that these expectations are predictive of future outcomes. However, less is known about how these expectations might vary for adolescents with disabilities, who might face additional challenges when transitioning to adulthood. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to suggest that young people's expectations about pregnancy, parenthood, education, and employment do vary according to disability status. Furthermore, disability status conditions the relationship between these expectations and their future outcomes. In general, adolescents with disabilities are more proficient in the prediction of educational outcomes than employment or pregnancy outcomes. However, their expectations about education are significantly lower-and expectations about teenage parenthood much higher-than those of adolescents without disabilities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of International Journal of Sociology is the property of M.E. Sharpe Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. "Life-Course Transitions Among Adolescents With and Without Disabilities." International Journal of Sociology 41,1 (Spring 2011): 67-86.
1605. Shandra, Carrie L.
Chowdhury, Afra R.
The First Sexual Experience Among Adolescent Girls With and Without Disabilities
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 41,4 (April 2012): 515-532.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k6347173572k2635/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Contraception; Disability; Life Course; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

First sexual intercourse is an important experience in the young adult life course. While previous research has examined racial, gender, and socioeconomic differences in the characteristics of first sexual intercourse, less is known about differences by disability status. Using a racially diverse (27% Black, 20% Hispanic, and 53% non-Hispanic white) sample of 2,729 adolescent girls aged 12-24 at first sexual intercourse from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this article examines the association between disability and type of first sexual relationship, degree of discussion about birth control, and pregnancy wantedness. Regression analyses indicate that girls with mild or learning or emotional disabilities experience first sexual intercourse in different types of relationships than girls without disabilities. Adolescents with learning or emotional conditions have greater levels of discussion about birth control with their first sexual partners than those without disabilities. In addition, among those who do not use birth control at first sexual intercourse, girls with multiple or seriously limiting conditions are more likely to want a pregnancy-versus not want a pregnancy-at first sexual intercourse. Findings indicate that disability status is important to consider when examining adolescent sexuality; however, not all youth with disabilities have equal experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. and Afra R. Chowdhury. "The First Sexual Experience Among Adolescent Girls With and Without Disabilities." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 41,4 (April 2012): 515-532.
1606. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
Delinquency Among Adolescents with Disabilities
Child Indicators Research 5,4 (December 2012): 771-788.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-012-9135-9
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Disability; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study expands upon previous research by utilizing nationally representative data and multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between an adolescent's disability status and their likelihood of engaging in a spectrum of delinquent behaviors through age 16. Logistic regression models of 7,232 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 are used to investigate the association between the presence of a learning disability or emotional condition, chronic health condition, sensory condition, physical disability, or multiple conditions and ten delinquent acts, including violence-related delinquency, property crimes, drug offenses, and arrest. Additional analyses explore differences in delinquency prevalence by more specific types of limiting conditions. Results indicate that adolescents with learning disabilities or emotional conditions are particularly at risk of committing delinquent acts. Findings suggest that disability status is important to consider when examining adolescent delinquency; however, not all youth with disabilities have equal experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. and Dennis P. Hogan. "Delinquency Among Adolescents with Disabilities ." Child Indicators Research 5,4 (December 2012): 771-788.
1607. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
Educational Attainment Process Among Adolescents with Disabilities and Children of Parents with Disabilities
International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 56,4 (December 2009): 363-379.
Also: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a916860946
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Routledge ==> Taylor & Francis (1998)
Keyword(s): Disability; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; School Performance

This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between disability, parental and youth university expectations in 1997, and youth high school completion and university enrolment by 2003. Results indicate that educational attainment is not equal for young adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Parents--but not adolescents--are likely to reduce their educational expectations when adolescents have a mild or serious disability, net of school performance. These parental--but not adolescent--expectations are significantly associated with high school completion. Finally, even after controlling for educational expectations and school performance, youth with serious disabilities are much less likely to graduate from high school than youth without disabilities. Despite the considerable strides made in the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, students with disabilities are not achieving educational parity in graded schooling. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. and Dennis P. Hogan. "Educational Attainment Process Among Adolescents with Disabilities and Children of Parents with Disabilities." International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 56,4 (December 2009): 363-379.
1608. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
School-to-Work Initiatives and the Early Employment of Young Adults with Disabilities
Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Benefits, Fringe; Disability; Disabled Workers; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Guidance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transition from school to work is a critical juncture in the life course of all adolescents. However, this transition is particularly critical for young persons with disabilities – a disproportionate percentage of whom leave high school and neither work nor continue their education. This study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to consider how participation in various school-based and work-based programs affects the post-high school employment of young persons with disabilities. Longitudinal analyses indicate that school-based programs are associated with many positive employment outcomes while work-based programs are related to employer-offered health insurance and paid sick days. Results suggest that school-to-work programs are effective in facilitating vocational success for this population; however, efficacy varies by program type and employment outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. and Dennis P. Hogan. "School-to-Work Initiatives and the Early Employment of Young Adults with Disabilities." Presented: Boston MA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, July 2008.
1609. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
School-To-Work Program Participation and the Post-High School Employment of Young Adults with Disabilities
Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 29,2 (January 2008): 117-130.
Also: http://iospress.metapress.com/content/p1w5n64231776046/?p=05209d2dc8af4b8499b8a73279550ade&pi=9
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: IOS Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Benefits, Fringe; Disabled Workers; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Probability judgments (also see Risk Perception); Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Guidance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research on the education-to-employment transition for students with disabilities has suggested that participation in school-to-work programs is positively associated with post-high school success. This article utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to extend these findings in several ways. First, we assess the efficacy of specific types of school-based and work-based initiatives, including job shadowing, mentoring, cooperative education, school-sponsored enterprise, technical preparation, internships, and career major. Next, we extend the usual focus on the employment outcomes of work status and financial compensation to consider job-specific information on the receipt of fringe benefits. Overall, results from longitudinal multivariate analyses suggest that transition initiatives are effective in facilitating vocational success for this population; however, different aspects of school-to-work programs are beneficial for different aspects of employment. School-based programs are positively associated with stable employment and full-time work while work-based programs most consistently increase the likelihood that youth with disabilities will be employed in jobs that provide fringe benefits. Analyses also indicate that - once individuals with disabilities are stably employed - they can be employed in "good" jobs that provide employee benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L. and Dennis P. Hogan. "School-To-Work Program Participation and the Post-High School Employment of Young Adults with Disabilities ." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 29,2 (January 2008): 117-130.
1610. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
Chowdhury, Afra R.
Differences in Young Women's First Sexual Experience by Disability Status
Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Contraception; Disability; Family Planning; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

First intercourse is an important experience in the young adult life course. While previous research has examined racial, sex, and socioeconomic differences in the characteristics of first sex, less is known about differences by disability status. Using a sample of women from the NLSY97, this paper examines the association between disability and type of first sexual relationship, degree of discussion about birth control, use of birth control, and--among those who do not contracept--pregnancy wantedness. Regression analyses indicate that women with disabilities experience first intercourse in different types of relationships than women without disabilities. While we find no differences in discussion about or use of birth control by disability status, women with disabilities who do not contracept are more likely to want a pregnancy than women without disabilities. Results suggest family planning assistance might be most beneficial for young women with disabilities if provided before they become sexually active.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L., Dennis P. Hogan and Afra R. Chowdhury. "Differences in Young Women's First Sexual Experience by Disability Status." Presented: Dallas, TX, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2010.
1611. Shandra, Carrie L.
Hogan, Dennis P.
Spearin, Carrie E.
Parenting a Child with a Disability: An Examination of Resident and Non-Resident Fathers
Journal of Population Research 25,3 (October 2008): 357-377
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Children; Disability; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Biological; Fathers, Presence

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children with disabilities often require, more extensive family involvement and greater paternal support than other children. Yet these children are the children least likely to live with their fathers. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from the United States to examine the association between child disability and resident and non-resident biological fathers' supportiveness, relationship, and monitoring of their children. Regression analyses indicate significant challenges for all fathers of children with disabilities. Children of resident fathers report more positive interactions than children of non-resident fathers. However, earlier co-residence and more frequent contact significantly improve the quality, of father-youth relationships among men who do not live with their children.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L., Dennis P. Hogan and Carrie E. Spearin. "Parenting a Child with a Disability: An Examination of Resident and Non-Resident Fathers." Journal of Population Research 25,3 (October 2008): 357-377.
1612. Shandra, Carrie L.
Shameem, Masra
Ghori, Sadaf J.
Disability and the Context of Boys' First Sexual Intercourse
Journal of Adolescent Health 58,3 (March 2016): 302-309.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X15004085
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Contraception; Disability; Health, Chronic Conditions; Male Sample; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

The context in which first sexual intercourse takes place has lasting implications for subsequent sexual behavior. This study examines how adolescent disability associates with boys' age of sexual debut, relationship at first sexual intercourse, degree of discussion about birth control before first sexual intercourse, and contraceptive use at first sexual intercourse.
Bibliography Citation
Shandra, Carrie L., Masra Shameem and Sadaf J. Ghori. "Disability and the Context of Boys' First Sexual Intercourse." Journal of Adolescent Health 58,3 (March 2016): 302-309.
1613. Shang, Ce
The Effect of Smoke-Free Air Law in Bars on Smoking Initiation and Relapse among Teenagers and Young Adults
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12,1 (2015): 504-520.
Also: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/12/1/504
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Existing evidence has shown that most smoking uptake and escalation occurs while smokers are teenagers or young adults. Effective policies that reduce smoking uptake and escalation will play an important role in curbing cigarette smoking. This study aims to investigate the effect of smoke-free air (SFA) laws in bars on smoking initiation/relapse while controlling for other confounders.

Methods: The national longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) from 1997-2009 was linked to state-level scores for the strength of SFA laws in order to carry out the analysis.

Results and Conclusion: We find that SFA laws in bars with exemptions significantly reduce (p ≤ 0.01) the probability of smoking initiation (one-puff, daily, and heavy smoking initiation). The 100% SFA law in bars without exemption significantly deters smoking relapse from abstinence into daily smoking (p ≤ 0.05) or relapse from abstinence into heavy smoking (p ≤ 0.01) among people age 21 or older. The reduction of one-puff and daily smoking initiation is larger among ages 20 or younger than ages 21 or older, while the reduction in relapse does not differ by whether respondents reach the drinking age. Results also indicate that higher cigarette taxes significantly reduce daily smoking initiation and relapse into nondaily and light smoking.

Bibliography Citation
Shang, Ce. "The Effect of Smoke-Free Air Law in Bars on Smoking Initiation and Relapse among Teenagers and Young Adults." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12,1 (2015): 504-520.
1614. Sharkey, Patrick
Graham, Bryan
Mobility and the Metropolis: How Communities Factor into Economic Mobility
Report, Economic Mobility Project, Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, DC., 2013.
Also: http://www.pewstates.org/uploadedFiles/PCS_Assets/2013/Mobility-and-the-Metropolis.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Pew Charitable Trust
Keyword(s): Family Income; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Income; Mobility, Economic; Neighborhood Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); State-Level Data/Policy; Urbanization/Urban Living

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To measure differences in economic mobility across American metro areas over the last generation, this research uses three nationally representative, longitudinal data sets: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Each data set follows and collects information on a sample of individuals over time, allowing for measurement of family income during an individual’s childhood and again in adulthood. Across the data sets, which collectively include individuals residing in 96 metro areas, the same pattern emerged: Levels of economic mobility varied substantially among the places studied.
Bibliography Citation
Sharkey, Patrick and Bryan Graham. "Mobility and the Metropolis: How Communities Factor into Economic Mobility." Report, Economic Mobility Project, Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, DC., 2013.
1615. Shattuck, Rachel
Early Employment and Family Formation in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Formation; Marriage; Military Service; Racial Differences; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this dissertation, I examine three scenarios by which U.S. young adults' early employment and access to material resources intersect with their family formation behavior. I first address how educational attainment and early employment prospects enable and constrain young women's ability to enter into the kind of family forms they prefer. I investigate the relationship between women's preferences as stated in adolescence for or against having children while unmarried, their socioeconomic resources in young adulthood, and their eventual likelihood of having marital first birth, having a nonmarital first birth, or continuing to postpone childbearing. I find that after accounting for individual resource acquisition and early partner characteristics, women's preferences play a stronger role in whether or not they postpone childbearing than in whether they have a marital versus a nomarital first birth. I next address the role of early employment experiences and early family formation behavior as they affect the accuracy of young women's retrospective reporting on the timing of their first stable employment. I use panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 (NLSY97) to evaluate the accuracy of responses to retrospective questions about first stable employment from three surveys that interview respondent retrospectively about their first substantial employment. I find that women with higher early employment history salience and lower complexity, and those who have "anchoring" biographical details of early family formation report more accurately the timing of their first employment. I next address the topic of how early employment in the military affects veterans' likelihood of entering into race/ethnic intermarriages, which are more common among military veterans than in the general population, and have increased at a faster rate among veterans than non-veterans from the 1960s to the present. I show that a combination of exposure to diverse race/ethnic composition in a military setting, training and benefits that facilitate veterans' socioeconomic advancement, and military policies and norms that hold personnel to standards of nondiscriminatory behavior jointly contribute to increasing veterans' likelihood of intermarriage relative to non-veterans. These effects are strongest for black and white veterans.
Bibliography Citation
Shattuck, Rachel. Early Employment and Family Formation in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, 2015.
1616. Shattuck, Rachel
Patterns of Childcare Use for Young Children within Women's Work/Family Pathways: A Group-Based Multi-Trajectory Modeling Approach
Social Forces published online (3 May 2021): DOI: 10.1093/sf/soab034.
Also: 10.1093/sf/soab034
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Child Care; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Trajectory analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately 65 percent of US mothers with children aged six and under are employed. Although their ability to maintain employment generally depends on nonparental childcare, childcare has been relatively little-studied as it relates to mothers' employment in the United States. With the NLSY97 (N = 2,108), I track childcare use, employment, second births, and coresidential partnership among women who are initially employed following a first birth. I use Group-Based Multi-Trajectory Modeling to identify the five most common pathways by which women combine and sequence these behaviors. I investigate the sociodemographic characteristics predicting each pathway.
Bibliography Citation
Shattuck, Rachel. "Patterns of Childcare Use for Young Children within Women's Work/Family Pathways: A Group-Based Multi-Trajectory Modeling Approach." Social Forces published online (3 May 2021): DOI: 10.1093/sf/soab034.
1617. Shattuck, Rachel
Rendall, Michael S.
Retrospective Reporting of First Employment in the Life-courses of U.S. Women
Sociological Methodology 47,1 (August 2017): 307-344.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abstract/10.1177/0081175017723397
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Comparison Group (Reference group); Data Quality/Consistency; Employment, History; Life Course; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors investigate the accuracy of young women's retrospective reporting on their first substantial employment in three major, nationally representative U.S. surveys, examining hypotheses that longer recall duration, employment histories with lower salience and higher complexity, and an absence of "anchoring" biographical details will adversely affect reporting accuracy. The authors compare retrospective reports to benchmark panel survey estimates for the same cohorts. Sociodemographic groups--notably non-Hispanic white women and women with college-educated mothers--whose early employment histories at these ages are in aggregate more complex (multiple jobs) and lower in salience (more part-time jobs) are more likely to omit the occurrence of their first substantial job or employment and to misreport their first job or employment as occurring at an older age. Also, retrospective reports are skewed toward overreporting longer, therefore more salient, later jobs over shorter, earlier jobs. The relatively small magnitudes of differences, however, indicate that the retrospective questions nevertheless capture these summary indicators of first substantial employment reasonably accurately. Moreover, these differences are especially small for groups of women who are more likely to experience labor-market disadvantage and for women with early births.
Bibliography Citation
Shattuck, Rachel and Michael S. Rendall. "Retrospective Reporting of First Employment in the Life-courses of U.S. Women." Sociological Methodology 47,1 (August 2017): 307-344.
1618. Shattuck, Rachel
Rendall, Michael S.
Retrospective Versus Panel Reports of First Employment in the Life Courses of U.S. Women
Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Employment, History; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Research Methodology; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates accuracy of reporting on young women's first employment, comparing retrospective reports in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the first wave of the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income Program Participation (SIPP) to annual panel reports in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). We evaluate differences in recall accuracy by time elapsed between period reported on and interview. We also evaluate differences in reporting accuracy by race/ethnicity, nativity and mother's education, juxtaposed with the salience and complexity of each group's employment histories. We find relatively small, but statistically-significant differences between reporting in the SIPP and NSFG versus the NLSY97, in a direction that suggests some forgetting of episodes of first job or employment spell of at least six months duration in retrospective reports. We also find some evidence that more complex and less salient (part-time) employment experiences result in more recall errors: Young women with a mother who did not graduate from high school and young women with a college-graduate mother had both the highest proportions of their early employment in part-time jobs and the largest magnitudes of error in recalling first stable job or employment spell. We found no indications of substantial race/ethnic differences in reporting. Overall, our results are reassuring with respect to the ability of surveys to capture accurately summary indicators of first stable employment in retrospective questions.
Bibliography Citation
Shattuck, Rachel and Michael S. Rendall. "Retrospective Versus Panel Reports of First Employment in the Life Courses of U.S. Women." Presented: Chicago IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2015.
1619. Sheely, Amanda
Criminal Justice Involvement and Employment Outcomes Among Women
Crime and Delinquency published online (11 July 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0011128719860833.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0011128719860833
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Labor Market Outcomes; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article investigates the potentially cumulative effects of being arrested, convicted, and incarcerated on labor market outcomes among women, as well as whether decreased employment levels are due to labor market exclusion or detachment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that arrested women have reduced levels of employment, due to both labor market exclusion (unemployment) and labor market detachment (not in the labor force). Once the effect of being arrested is taken into account, women who are convicted or incarcerated do not face any additional negative employment consequences. These results demonstrate that policymakers must look beyond incarceration to reduce the impact of criminal justice involvement on women.
Bibliography Citation
Sheely, Amanda. "Criminal Justice Involvement and Employment Outcomes Among Women." Crime and Delinquency published online (11 July 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0011128719860833.
1620. Shippee, Nathan
Cumulative Exposure to Violence Predicting Risk and Rate of Future Violent Behavior
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Siblings; Social Contacts/Social Network

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines exposure to multiple experiences with crime and violence-- including bullying, witnessing gun violence, having acquaintances in gangs, and having gangs in the surrounding neighborhoods-- and how these risk factors accumulate to affect the risk and rate of future violence. Drawing from perspectives on cumulative adversity, and utilizing the 1997 and 2005 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study uses logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial models to assess the accumulation of exposure to violence. Important controls include recent gang membership of one's own in 2005 and recent binge drinking. Witnessing a shooting, particularly when the victim is a non-stranger, and having siblings in gangs in adolescence significantly increase the odds of engaging in future violence, while only witnessing a shooting significantly increases the rate of future violence. Adverse experiences with violence do indeed accumulate, with the highest-risk teens being those who have been exposed to shootings and to gangs in their social networks. Findings suggest that intervention for these youths should be a high priority, as the ubiquity of violence in their lives provides multiple instances in which to develop violent behavioral adaptations.
Bibliography Citation
Shippee, Nathan. "Cumulative Exposure to Violence Predicting Risk and Rate of Future Violent Behavior." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2009.
1621. Shollenberger, Tracey L.
Essays on Schools, Crime, and Punishment
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Policy, Harvard University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation consists of three essays on schools, crime, and punishment. The first essay -- stemming from collaborative work with Christopher Jencks, Anthony Braga, and David Deming -- uses longitudinal school and arrest records to examine the long-term effects of winning the lottery to attend one's first-choice high school on students' arrest outcomes in the Boston Public Schools. The second essay uses quasi-experimental regression and matching techniques to examine the effect of out-of-school suspension on serious delinquency using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The third essay examines the increasing use of exclusionary school discipline and incarceration since the 1970s from a life course perspective. It advances the notion of a "disciplinary career," which captures disciplinary experiences across three domains: home, school, and the juvenile and criminal justice systems. In this essay, I use the NLSY97 to estimate the prevalence of various disciplinary experiences across the early life course and draw on qualitative data from the Boston Reentry Study to explore how individuals who experience high levels of harsh discipline perceive the interplay between offending and punishment over time. I close the dissertation by discussing these essays' implications for theory and policy.
Bibliography Citation
Shollenberger, Tracey L. Essays on Schools, Crime, and Punishment. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Policy, Harvard University, 2015.
1622. Shollenberger, Tracey L.
Racial Disparities in School Suspension and Subsequent Outcomes: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997
Report, The Civil Rights Project, Center for Civil Rights Remedies, University of California at Los Angeles, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of California at Los Angeles
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Racial Equality/Inequality; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using NLSY97 data, I examine the prevalence and intensity of suspension among nationally representative samples of white, black, and Hispanic youth attending secondary school during the late 1990s. I find that suspension was a common experience, affecting more than one in three youth for a typical total of five days during K-12. Black boys were suspended most frequently and most intensely, with fully two in three suspended at some point during K-12 and nearly one in five suspended from school for a full month or more. Following youth into early adulthood reveals a strong correlation between suspension and negative outcomes in education and criminal justice. Among boys suspended for 10 total days or more, less than half had obtained a high school diploma by their late 20s; more than three in four had been arrested; and more than one in three had been sentenced to confinement in a correctional facility. Controlling for the behavior of youth – including property offenses, drugs sales, and violent behaviors – does not eliminate the race and gender disparities evident in suspension. In addition, substantial shares of suspended youth—especially black and Hispanic youth—had not engaged in serious delinquency by the time they were first suspended from school. Thus, for these youth, any involvement in delinquency or crime that led to future arrest or incarceration began only after their careers of punishment. In light of these findings, policymakers interested in improving outcomes for youth in both education and in criminal justice should promote alternatives to suspension, identify and support schools with high rates of exclusionary discipline, and facilitate the evaluation of recent efforts to reduce the use of suspension and related racial disparities. Future research should investigate the possibility of a causal relationship between suspension and subsequent outcomes, focusing on missed instructional time, reduced bonding to school, and official labeling as potential mechanisms.
Bibliography Citation
Shollenberger, Tracey L. "Racial Disparities in School Suspension and Subsequent Outcomes: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997." Report, The Civil Rights Project, Center for Civil Rights Remedies, University of California at Los Angeles, April 2013.
1623. Shollenberger, Tracey L.
School Discipline and Delinquency: Suspension, Arrest, and Incarceration in the NLSY97
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Outcomes; Incarceration/Jail; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Academics and youth advocates alike have described a “school-to-prison pipeline” through which youth who experience difficulty in school are more likely than their peers to experience arrest and incarceration. While the negative association between educational achievement and juvenile/criminal justice sanctions is nothing new, recent shifts in educational policy and practice have heightened the need for criminologists to focus explicitly on schooling as a process with features that can influence delinquency and crime. In particular, the expanded use of exclusionary school discipline in recent decades warrants further investigation. In this paper, I focus on out-of-school suspension, which has become the taken-for-granted approach to addressing serious student misbehavior in many U.S. schools. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine careers of suspension among nationally representative samples of white, black, and Hispanic youth, following their educational and criminal justice outcomes through age 28. After examining disparities in prevalence and intensity of punishment across racial and ethnic groups, I compare punishment to self-reported behavior, examining how careers of delinquency unfold over time for suspended and non-suspended youth. Among other issues, I investigate whether suspension represents a “snare” (Moffitt 1993) that interferes with educational attainment and the desistance process.
Bibliography Citation
Shollenberger, Tracey L. "School Discipline and Delinquency: Suspension, Arrest, and Incarceration in the NLSY97." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
1624. Shrestha, Vinish
Estimating the Price Elasticity of Demand for Different Levels of Alcohol Consumption among Young Adults
American Journal of Health Economics 1,2 (Spring 2015): 224-254.
Also: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/AJHE_a_00013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Modeling, MIxture Models/Finite Mixture Models; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Understanding the effect of higher alcohol prices on alcohol demand according to one's level of alcohol consumption is crucial while evaluating the effectiveness of using alcohol taxes as an alcohol-control medium. In this study, I estimate the differential responses to alcohol prices on alcohol demand for young adults by asking whether heavy drinkers are more responsive to higher alcohol prices than light and moderate drinkers. To conduct the analysis, I use the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) for the years 1997 to 2008. To answer the research question on hand, I implement three different econometric methods: (1) pooled quantile regression; (2) quantile regression for panel data; and (3) finite mixture models. Findings from these methods consistently suggest that heavy drinkers respond to higher alcohol prices by lowering their alcohol intake. Since alcohol-related externalities are likely to be caused by heavy drinkers, the results emphasize the possibility of higher alcohol taxes curbing alcohol-related externalities associated with young adults by lowering the alcohol consumption among the heavy drinkers.
Bibliography Citation
Shrestha, Vinish. "Estimating the Price Elasticity of Demand for Different Levels of Alcohol Consumption among Young Adults." American Journal of Health Economics 1,2 (Spring 2015): 224-254.
1625. Shrestha, Vinish
Understanding the Demand for Alcohol in the United States
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Emory University, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Modeling, MIxture Models/Finite Mixture Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Chapter 1] In this study, I estimate the differential responses to alcohol prices on alcohol demand for young adults by asking whether heavy drinkers are more responsive to higher alcohol prices than light and moderate drinkers. To conduct the analysis, I use the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) for the years 1997 to 2008.
Bibliography Citation
Shrestha, Vinish. Understanding the Demand for Alcohol in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Emory University, 2015.
1626. Shulman, Elizabeth P.
Steinberg, Laurence D.
Piquero, Alex R.
The Age–Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 42,6 (June 2013): 848-850.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10964-013-9950-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the “age–crime curve”—the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1–30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males’ proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51 % female; 26 % Black, 21 % Hispanic, 52 % non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12–18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males’ claim that the age–crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.
Bibliography Citation
Shulman, Elizabeth P., Laurence D. Steinberg and Alex R. Piquero. "The Age–Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 42,6 (June 2013): 848-850.
1627. Siahaan, Freddy
An Exploration of the Relationship Between Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use by Teenagers and Young Adults
Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 2006. DAI-A 67/08, Feb 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Risk-Taking; Substance Use; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between substance use and risky sexual behavior among teenagers and young adults is causal. That is, does the use of marijuana and alcohol cause young people to be less likely to use condoms or other methods of birth control and to have had more sexual partners? Establishing a causal effect of substance use on sexual behavior is essential to the design of effective public policies targeted at improving public health by affecting sexual behavior. Using panel data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 with four observations on each person in the period from 1997 through 2000, we take a Granger causality model to establish causality. The idea here is to see whether past substance use influences current sexual behavior, with past sexual behavior held constant. Results show that binge drinking and marijuana use cause males to have multiple sexual partners, but there is no evidence that they causally affect the number of sexual partners for female teenagers and young adults. In the case of risky sex, binge drinking increases the likelihood of having risky sex among males, while it does not causally affect the likelihood of having risky sex among females. Marijuana use, on the other hand, increases the likelihood of having risky sex among females, while it is not causally affect that likelihood among males.
Bibliography Citation
Siahaan, Freddy. An Exploration of the Relationship Between Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use by Teenagers and Young Adults. Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, 2006. DAI-A 67/08, Feb 2007.
1628. Siahaan, Freddy
Effects of Alcohol Use on Teenager and Young Adult Sexual Behaviors
Working Paper, The Graduate Center of The City University of New York, October 2004.
Also: http://www.disc.wisc.edu/reports/CDERR/cderr59.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: City University of New York
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Alcohol Use; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the causal relationship between alcohol use and teenager and young adult sexual behaviors. The data used in this paper are from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and National Longitudinal Survey Young Adult Sample (NLSYAS). OLS and TSLS estimates by gender show that there is a positive causal relationship between alcohol use and teenage and young adult sexual behaviors. However, the validity of the TSLS estimates is questionable. This confirms the difficulty in establishing causal relationship between substance use and sexual behaviors. Even though, we cannot definitely rule it out.
Bibliography Citation
Siahaan, Freddy. "Effects of Alcohol Use on Teenager and Young Adult Sexual Behaviors." Working Paper, The Graduate Center of The City University of New York, October 2004.
1629. Siahaan, Freddy
Lee, Daniel Y.
Kalist, David E.
Educational Attainment of Children of Immigrants: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Economics of Education Review 38 (February 2014): 1-8.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775713001349
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences

This study investigates the educational attainment of children of immigrants in the United States. By employing a more detailed classification of children of immigrants, we examine whether a foreign place of birth of either parent or child affects the child's educational attainment. Our results indicate that the full-second generation (U.S.-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the highest educational attainment, while the full-first generation (foreign-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the second highest educational attainment compared to the other groups of children of immigrants and native children. Full-first and full-second generation females also achieve higher educational attainment than their native female peers. The results support the optimism theory of assimilation in which the educational attainment of children of immigrants relies on the combination of their foreign-born parents’ strong values on education and the children's English proficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Siahaan, Freddy, Daniel Y. Lee and David E. Kalist. "Educational Attainment of Children of Immigrants: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Economics of Education Review 38 (February 2014): 1-8.
1630. Siennick, Sonja E.
Tough Love? Crime and Parental Assistance in Young Adulthood
Criminology 49,1 (February 2011): 163-195.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00221.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Delinquency/Gang Activity; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Parental Investments

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The writer explored the limits of others' willingness to help offenders by analyzing parents' financial assistance of grown offending and nonoffending offspring. Data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health showed that despite their strained relationships with their parents, young adult offenders received more parental assistance than do their nonoffending peers and even their own nonoffending siblings. This was partly because they tend to have a variety of other life circumstances that trigger parental assistance. The writer suggested that parents' reactions to offending offspring are curtailed by role norms and obligations of familial duty.
Bibliography Citation
Siennick, Sonja E. "Tough Love? Crime and Parental Assistance in Young Adulthood." Criminology 49,1 (February 2011): 163-195.
1631. Siennick, Sonja E.
Widdowson, Alex O.
Juvenile Arrest and Later Economic Attainment: Strength and Mechanisms of the Relationship
Journal of Quantitative Criminology published online (25 November 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s10940-020-09482-6.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-020-09482-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Arrests; Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Net Worth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We tested the impact of juvenile arrest on asset accumulation, debt accumulation, and net worth from ages 20-30. We also examined whether indicators of family formation, school and work attainment, and subsequent justice system contacts explained any effects.

Methods: We used longitudinal data on 7916 respondents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort. Our treatment variable was a dichotomous indicator of whether respondents were arrested as juveniles. Our focal outcomes were combined measures of the values of 10 types of assets, 6 types of debt, and net worth (assets minus debt) at ages 20, 25, and 30. We used propensity score methods to create matched groups of respondents who were and were not arrested as juveniles, and we compared these groups on the outcomes using multilevel growth curve analyses.

Results: Arrested juveniles went on to have lower assets, debts, and net worth during young adulthood compared to non-arrested juveniles. These differences were most pronounced at age 30. The differences were largely explained by educational attainment, weeks worked, and income.

Bibliography Citation
Siennick, Sonja E. and Alex O. Widdowson. "Juvenile Arrest and Later Economic Attainment: Strength and Mechanisms of the Relationship." Journal of Quantitative Criminology published online (25 November 2020): DOI: 10.1007/s10940-020-09482-6.
1632. Silver, Ian A.
D'Amato, Christopher
Wooldredge, John
The Cycle of Reentry and Reincarceration: Examining the Influence on Employment over a Period of 18 Years
Journal of Criminal Justice 74 (May-June 2021): 101812.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235221000325
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Employment; Incarceration/Jail

Methods: Using the NLSY97 birth cohort, the current study evaluated the influence of time spent incarcerated (an approximation of the reentry-reincarceration cycle) on future employment outcomes over an 18-year period. Specifically, two cross-lagged panel models were estimated to examine the between-individual effects of the number of months incarcerated on employment and the number of weeks employed, while two lagged latent growth models were estimated to examine the within-individual effects.

Results: In addition to suggesting that the reentry-reincarceration cycle exists, the findings illustrated that the reentry-reincarceration cycle influences between-individual differences on employment outcomes and within-individual changes in employment outcomes over time.

Bibliography Citation
Silver, Ian A., Christopher D'Amato and John Wooldredge. "The Cycle of Reentry and Reincarceration: Examining the Influence on Employment over a Period of 18 Years." Journal of Criminal Justice 74 (May-June 2021): 101812.
1633. Silver, Ian A.
Kelsay, James D.
Examining an Indirect Pathway from the Variety of Stressful Life Events to Violent Victimization through Acquired Psychological Symptoms
Justice Quarterly published online (17 May 2021): DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2021.1916062.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07418825.2021.1916062
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Arrests; Bullying/Victimization; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Modeling, Structural Equation; Psychological Effects; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The effects of stressful life events on violent victimization have been well established. The existing literature, however, remains relatively limited in examining the indirect association between stressful life events and violent victimization through acquired psychological processes. The current study examines the mediating effects of the co-occurrence of negative psychological symptoms (adverse psychological effects) on the association between stressful life events and violent victimization. The results of two structural equation models, estimated using the NLSY 1997 cohort, demonstrate that a variety of stressful life events and violent victimization had a positive indirect effect on violent victimization through adverse psychological effects. The results were only slightly attenuated when self-reported number of arrests was introduced as a covariate of violent victimization in the SEM. The findings suggest that exposure to a variety of stressful life events and violent victimization can influence psychological symptoms and increase subsequent violent victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Silver, Ian A. and James D. Kelsay. "Examining an Indirect Pathway from the Variety of Stressful Life Events to Violent Victimization through Acquired Psychological Symptoms." Justice Quarterly published online (17 May 2021): DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2021.1916062.
1634. Simon, Jessica
Way, Megan McDonald
Returns to Education for Self-Employed US Millennials and the Self-Employment Gender Earnings Gap: A Quantile Regression Approach
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Modeling, OLS; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Self-employed women, though more highly educated than self-employed men, earn approximately 75% of male counterparts' earnings on an hourly basis. Could differing returns to education for self-employed men and women explain some of this gap? We examine economic returns to education for the most highly educated working generation, the Millennials, considering both human capital and signaling theory. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, we apply OLS and quantile regression to samples of both wage-employed and self-employed Millennial women and men. We find that, generally, returns to education do not differ between self-employed and wage-employed, or between male and female self-employed in this age group, suggesting that women would be experiencing an even higher gender wage gap without their educational edge over men. We also find some differences in returns to education along the income distribution, which may indicate a breakdown of signaling theory when applied to self-employment.
Bibliography Citation
Simon, Jessica and Megan McDonald Way. "Returns to Education for Self-Employed US Millennials and the Self-Employment Gender Earnings Gap: A Quantile Regression Approach." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
1635. Simon, Jessica
Way, Megan McDonald
Why the Gap? Determinants of Self-Employment Earnings Differentials for Male and Female Millennials in the US
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,2 (June 2016): 297-312.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-015-9452-5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Motherhood; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated gender differences in self-employment earnings for US Millennials, and whether differences could be attributed to individual characteristics, business characteristics, or factors related to household formation, such as marriage and parenthood. Using a nationally representative dataset of US youth, we found significant earnings differences favoring men and suggestive evidence of a "motherhood earnings penalty" (Budig and England 2001, p. 204–225). After controlling for business characteristics, however, the effect of gender itself was not statistically significant and the effect of motherhood only approached statistical significance, suggesting that gendered choices and paths explain earnings differences, not gender or motherhood per se. Future work would benefit from a larger dataset and should explore the role of work location and education in earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Simon, Jessica and Megan McDonald Way. "Why the Gap? Determinants of Self-Employment Earnings Differentials for Male and Female Millennials in the US." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,2 (June 2016): 297-312.
1636. Simon, Jessica
Way, Megan McDonald
Working from Home and the Gender Gap in Earnings for Self-employed US Millennials
Gender in Management: An International Journal 30,3 (2015): 206-224.
Also: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/GM-07-2014-0067
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Emerald
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Gap; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper aims to explore gender differences in terms of self-employment for US Millennials, relating them to working from home as well as other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Simon, Jessica and Megan McDonald Way. "Working from Home and the Gender Gap in Earnings for Self-employed US Millennials." Gender in Management: An International Journal 30,3 (2015): 206-224.
1637. Simpson, Janelle Rottweiler
The Effect of Serving in the Military on Family Size: Evidence from the NLSY97
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Wyoming, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Family Size; Fertility; Gender Differences; Marital Status; Military Service; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fertility is an important sociological topic because of its impact on population structure and aging, and the associated societal consequences. The United States military is a major institution playing a critical role for the safety and sovereignty of the nation. Although theoretically the military institution is not compatible with family life, membership in the United States military institution has previously been found to be associated with higher rates of marriage and larger family size. This research uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 data, analyzed using generalize linear regression and propensity score analysis to measure the effect of the military on family size. The data showed that men in the military had significantly more children than their civilian counterparts. This finding held regardless of the analytical approach used. Further exploration revealed that these fertility patterns likely operate through differences in marital status, with men in the military marrying more frequently and at younger ages than civilian men. Women in the military were also more likely to marry, but they had a comparable or even lower number of offspring than their civilian counterparts. These findings suggest that there is a strong military institutional effect on marriage and family size, but that the effect operates differently for men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Simpson, Janelle Rottweiler. The Effect of Serving in the Military on Family Size: Evidence from the NLSY97. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Wyoming, 2014.
1638. Simpson, Sally S.
Gibbs, Carole
Making Sense of Intersections
In: Gender and Crime: Patterns in Victimization and Offending. K. Heimer and C. Kruttschnitt, eds. New York, NY: NYU Press, 2005: pp. 269-302.
Also: http://www.nyupress.org/books/Gender_and_Crime-products_id-3826.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: New York University Press
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Modeling; Racial Differences; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Annotation: This study examined whether four general theories of delinquency--strain, low self-control, social learning, and control theories--explained juvenile offending better than an intersectional model that accounted for how gender, race, and class impact delinquency.

Overall, the findings suggest that the intersectional (class, gender, race) breakdown analysis provided a better fit to the data than the pooled sample across the four gender-neutral theories. Results of the quantitative analysis of each theory demonstrated significant differences in delinquency based on gender, race, and class, suggesting that the four so-called gender-neutral theories could account for how these factors might impact delinquency. However, the analysis also revealed factors that differed across these groups, suggesting limitations within the four general theories of delinquency. For example, having multiple sex partners was a better predictor of delinquency among the higher social classes than among the disenfranchised, but self-control theory could not explain why. Similarly, mother's social control was a stronger crime inhibitor for Blacks than for Whites, which was better explained by intersectional models than by control theory. The findings suggest that quantitative analysis is an effective tool for detecting intersectional differences resulting from gender, class, and race and can support feminist assertions that general theories of delinquency are less universal than their proponents claim. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) and concentrated on the responses provided by the 2,716 males and females aged 15 to 16 years who responded to wave 1 and wave 2 interviews. The analysis focused on delinquent acts committed between the first and second interview and included factors relevant to the four theories under examination. Control variables included age, urban area, and prior delinquency. Statistical analysis of the data included the calculation of chi-square estimates to test the overall model fit.

Bibliography Citation
Simpson, Sally S. and Carole Gibbs. "Making Sense of Intersections" In: Gender and Crime: Patterns in Victimization and Offending. K. Heimer and C. Kruttschnitt, eds. New York, NY: NYU Press, 2005: pp. 269-302.
1639. Simpson, Sally S.
Gibbs, Carole
Making Sense of Intersections: Does Quantitative Analysis Enlighten or Obfuscate?
Presented: Nashville, TN, American Society of Criminology, 56th Annual Meeting, November 17-20, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

See also , Citation # 5419: "Making Sense of Intersections" Simpson & Gibbs.
Bibliography Citation
Simpson, Sally S. and Carole Gibbs. "Making Sense of Intersections: Does Quantitative Analysis Enlighten or Obfuscate?." Presented: Nashville, TN, American Society of Criminology, 56th Annual Meeting, November 17-20, 2004.
1640. Singletary, Michelle
Making No Allowance for Values
Washington Post, Sunday, (Jan 9, 2000): H01
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Washington Post
Keyword(s): Allowance, Pocket Money; Income Level; Parenthood; Teenagers; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

These days, however, millions of kids are on their parents' payroll. In a survey by researchers at Ohio State University, half the children surveyed get a regular allowance, according to a survey by researchers at Ohio State University. But half of all teens aren't getting any money, and of the half that do, 25 percent get less than $7 a week. Not surprisingly, parents who earned less gave smaller allowances. As income rose, so did the allowance. The allowance survey was based on lengthy personal interviews conducted with nearly 9,000 randomly chosen teenagers participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It was sponsored in part by the Labor Department and profiled in last month's issue of American Demographics magazine. "Allowance" was defined as any money disbursed to children by parents, other relatives or guardians.
Bibliography Citation
Singletary, Michelle. "Making No Allowance for Values." Washington Post, Sunday, (Jan 9, 2000): H01.
1641. Sipsma, Heather L.
Future Expectations and Adolescent Risk Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Epidemiology, Yale University, December 2010.
Also: http://search.proquest.com/docview/847250500/abstract/130471AF98C282CEA44/1?accountid=9783
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Expectations/Intentions; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As individuals navigate through the opportunities and responsibilities of adolescence, many begin experimenting with risky behaviors. Behaviors such as substance use, delinquency, and sexual risk often begin in adolescence and generally increase in frequency before decreasing in later adulthood. The frequency of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in the United States is particularly troublesome. American adolescents account for approximately half of all sexually transmitted infections and new HIV infections every year, despite making up only 25% of the sexually active population. Furthermore, the US also has one of the highest teenage pregnancy and childbirth rates among developed countries. Although many interventions designed to reduce risk behavior among adolescents have been successful, more recent strategies - especially those aiming to reduce sexual risk - have been less effective. Disproportionately high rates of risk and limited recent success call for innovative approaches for reducing risk behaviors among adolescents.

Some literature suggests that using theory-driven, multilevel frameworks to address future expectations among young adults may be a promising approach. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, have been shown to influence goal setting and planning and thus may guide behavior. Future expectations have been linked to several psychosocial outcomes, but the literature examining its associations with behavior is limited by small, homogenous samples and cross-sectional designs. Furthermore, its measurement tends to focus on single dimensions and may be missing important components of this construct. This dissertation, therefore, seeks to improve our understanding of future expectations and its relationship with adolescent risk behavior using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). Specifically, this research aims to 1) identify subclasses of future expectations defined b y clustering of unique combinations of expectations related to education, work, family, and delinquency, to test the associations between these subclasses and risk factors derived from an ecological model, and to determine how these classes relate to risk behaviors (delinquency, substance use, and sexual experience); 2) prospectively examine the relationship between future expectations and sexual risk behavior (number of sexual partners, inconsistent contraception use, and adolescent parenthood); and 3) determine how parental future expectations influence three risk behaviors (delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk) and school attainment, and to determine if youth future expectations mediate the proposed relationship between parental expectations and behavior. These analyses used interview data collected annually from 1997 through 2007 among approximately 3,000 youth ages 15 and older. Statistical techniques included latent class analysis, latent growth modeling, and various regression models.

Results of this dissertation support the empirical and practical importance of future expectations in understanding adolescent risk behavior. In my first chapter, latent class analysis supported the emergence of four distinct classes of future expectations. These classes were labeled the Student Expectations, Student/Delinquent Expectations, Victim Expectations, and Work/Delinquent Expectations classes according to their indicator profiles. Classes differed with respect to the sociodemographic characteristics associated with membership. Each class was also statistically associated with at least one adolescent risk behavior. In my second chapter, the prospective relationship between future expectations and sexual risk behavior was explored. Results indicated that these classes were uniquely associated with age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The Work/Delinquent Expectations class was consistently associate d with the greatest sexual risk among all outcomes when compared to the Student Expectations class. Membership in the Student/Delinquent Expectations class was associated with increased number of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use, but not age at first biological child. The Victim Expectations class was not associated with any outcome when compared to the Student Expectations class. Lastly, the mechanism of parental influence was explored in my third chapter. Results suggest that parental expectations were strongly associated with adolescent behavior at baseline and over time; however, different parental expectations emerged as important for different behaviors and times. Furthermore, youth expectations partially mediated this relationship.

Bibliography Citation
Sipsma, Heather L. Future Expectations and Adolescent Risk Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Epidemiology, Yale University, December 2010..
1642. Sipsma, Heather L.
Biello, Katie Brooks
Cole-Lewis, Heather
Kershaw, Trace
Like Father, Like Son: The Intergenerational Cycle of Adolescent Fatherhood
American Journal of Public Health 100,3 (March 2010): 517-524
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Dating; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Fatherhood; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Studies; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. Strong evidence exists to support an intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood, yet such a cycle has not been studied. We examined whether paternal adolescent fatherhood (i.e., father of study participant was age 19 years or younger when his first child was born) and other factors derived from the ecological systems theory predicted participant adolescent fatherhood.

Methods. Data included 1496 young males who were interviewed annually from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine the effect of paternal adolescent fatherhood on participant adolescent fatherhood.

Results. Sons of adolescent fathers were 1.8 times more likely to become adolescent fathers than were sons of older fathers, after other risk factors were accounted for. Additionally, factors from each ecological domain-individual (delinquency), family (maternal education), peer (early adolescent dating), and environment (race/ethnicity, physical risk environment)-were independent predictors of adolescent fatherhood.

Conclusions. These findings support the need for pregnancy prevention interventions specifically designed for young males who may be at high risk for continuing this cycle. Interventions that address multiple levels of risk will likely be most successful at reducing pregnancies among partners of young men.

Bibliography Citation
Sipsma, Heather L., Katie Brooks Biello, Heather Cole-Lewis and Trace Kershaw. "Like Father, Like Son: The Intergenerational Cycle of Adolescent Fatherhood." American Journal of Public Health 100,3 (March 2010): 517-524 .
1643. Sipsma, Heather L.
Hebert, Luciana
Predicting Teenage Birth: A Latent Class Analysis
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rates of teenage births in the United States remain one of the highest among industrialized nations. Traditionally, regression modeling is used to determine risk factors, but this approach assumes each factor is independent from one another. As this scenario is often unrealistic, latent class analysis may confer additional value for identifying teenagers at risk for births under age 20. The current study uses secondary data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Analyses indicated the presence of 8 latent classes, which varied significantly across class indicators. Our unadjusted Cox proportional hazards model suggests class significantly predicts age at first birth under 20 years old (p<0.001). Furthermore, class membership remained significant after adjusting for the independent effects of the indicators used to construct the latent classes. Public health and health care practitioners should consider the clustering of effects as this approach confers important value for understanding risk of teenage births.
Bibliography Citation
Sipsma, Heather L. and Luciana Hebert. "Predicting Teenage Birth: A Latent Class Analysis." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
1644. Sipsma, Heather L.
Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Lin, Haiqun
Kershaw, Trace
Future Expectations Among Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis
American Journal of Community Psychology 50,1-2 (September 2012): 169-181.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a16u01682300063x/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Expectations/Intentions; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Future expectations have been important predictors of adolescent development and behavior. Its measurement, however, has largely focused on single dimensions and misses potentially important components. This analysis investigates whether an empirically-driven, multidimensional approach to conceptualizing future expectations can substantively contribute to our understanding of adolescent risk behavior. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to derive subpopulations of adolescents based on their future expectations with latent class analysis. Multinomial regression then determines which covariates from Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory are associated with class membership. After modeling these covariates, we examine whether future expectations is associated with delinquency, substance use, and sexual experience. Our analysis suggests the emergence of four distinct classes labeled the Student Expectations, Student/Drinking Expectations, Victim Expectations, and Drinking/Arrest Expectations classes according to their indicator profiles. These classes differ with respect to covariates associated with membership; furthermore, they are all statistically and differentially associated with at least one adolescent risk behavior. This analysis demonstrates the additional benefit derived from using this multidimensional approach for studying future expectations. Further research is needed to investigate its stability and role in predicting adolescent risk behavior over time.
Bibliography Citation
Sipsma, Heather L., Jeannette R. Ickovics, Haiqun Lin and Trace Kershaw. "Future Expectations Among Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis ." American Journal of Community Psychology 50,1-2 (September 2012): 169-181.
1645. Sipsma, Heather L.
Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Lin, Haiqun
Kershaw, Trace
The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,1 (January 2015): 170-183.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-013-0082-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Contraception; Expectations/Intentions; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Sexual Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.
Bibliography Citation
Sipsma, Heather L., Jeannette R. Ickovics, Haiqun Lin and Trace Kershaw. "The Impact of Future Expectations on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,1 (January 2015): 170-183.
1646. Sironi, Maria
The Transition to Adulthood in the Developed Western World: A Focus on the Achievement of Economic Independence and on the Role of Family Background
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Economic Independence; Family Background and Culture; Socioeconomic Background; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The second half of the twentieth century has been characterized by substantial changes in demographic behaviors. Among these transformations also the process by which adolescents and teenagers transition to adulthood has changed greatly in many countries of the Western world. All the events of the transition to adulthood have been delayed and life course trajectories became more diverse. There are some aspects concerning the mentioned changes that have not been extensively studied in the literature. This dissertation is a collection of three papers that have the aim to investigate these neglected aspects concerning life course trajectories of young adults. In particular, the first two papers look at trends over time in the achievement of economic independence, a crucial event in the transition to adulthood that has not received enough attention so far. The first paper is a cross-national comparison describing the situation in six different developed societies. The second paper studies only the United States, going back to the 1970s and tracing changes over time until 2007. The third paper, instead, focuses on the role of parental social class in the transition to adulthood. The exact mechanisms by which socio-economic status affects the transition to economic self-sufficiency and family formation are largely unknown. A better understanding of these issues can highlight additional information to understand why and how the transition to adulthood has changed in the last five decades.

Analyses were carried out using survey data from the Luxemburg Income Study (LIS), the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS, NLSY79, NLSY97), and the Multipurpose ISTAT (FSS 2003). A first main finding of this study is that the transition to economic independence has been delayed together with all the other events of the transition to adulthood. This process has occurred in all developed Western countries even if with some differences. A second finding is that parental social class can explain some of the variation in life courses, and that a higher social class is associated with a postponement in the transition. Also the role of family background, however, differentiates based on welfare state regimes, institutions, and the strength of family ties.

Bibliography Citation
Sironi, Maria. The Transition to Adulthood in the Developed Western World: A Focus on the Achievement of Economic Independence and on the Role of Family Background. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 2013.
1647. Sironi, Maria
Billari, Francesco
Leaving Home, Moving to College, and Returning Home: Economic Outcomes in the United States
Population, Space and Place published online (1 December 2019): DOI: 10.1002/psp.2302.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/psp.2302
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Economic Well-Being; Income; Labor Market Outcomes; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Leaving the parental home is a milestone in the transition to adulthood. Historical changes in leaving home have been well documented in the literature. However, research investigating the consequences associated with the timing and pathway of leaving (and returning) home is still scant. Building mainly on capital accumulation and life course theories, we analyse data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 on young Americans born between 1980 and 1984, who are 27-31 years old in 2011. We find an M‐shaped relationship between age at leaving home and working and economic conditions later on: Leaving "too early," "too late," or at nonnormative ages is negatively associated with labour market outcomes. Also, among those who have been enrolled in college, leaving home to go to college, during college, or after college is positively associated with subsequent income, compared with leaving before college. Moving back in with parents is negatively associated with economic outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Sironi, Maria and Francesco Billari. "Leaving Home, Moving to College, and Returning Home: Economic Outcomes in the United States." Population, Space and Place published online (1 December 2019): DOI: 10.1002/psp.2302.
1648. Sironi, Maria
Billari, Francesco
Stay with Mommy and Daddy or Move Out? Consequences of the Age at Leaving Home in the United States
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Residence; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Leaving the parental home is a milestone in the transition to adulthood. Changes over time in the timing of leaving and the increasing share of young adults who return back home have been well documented. However, there is little research investigating the consequences of the timing and pathway of leaving home. We address this gap, examining the relationship between the timing and pathway of leaving home and economic and employment outcomes in early thirties. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), taking advantage of its longitudinal design and study young Americans born between 1980 and 1984, who are 27-31 years old in 2011. We find that the higher the age at leaving home the better are the working and especially the economic conditions of individuals between 27 and 31 years of age, albeit with a potential reversal of the effect at later ages of leaving home.
Bibliography Citation
Sironi, Maria and Francesco Billari. "Stay with Mommy and Daddy or Move Out? Consequences of the Age at Leaving Home in the United States." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
1649. Sironi, Maria
Furstenberg, Frank
Trends in the Economic Independence of Young Adults in the United States: 1973–2007
Population and Development Review 38,4 (December 2012): 609-630.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00529.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Population Council
Keyword(s): Economic Independence; Economic Well-Being; Employment; Transition, Adulthood

One of the major milestones of adulthood is achieving economic independence. Without sufficient income, young people have difficulty leaving their childhood home, establishing a union, or having children—or they do so at great peril. Using the National Longitudinal Survey, this article compares the employment and economic circumstances of young adults aged 22–30 in 1973, 1987, and 2007, and their possible determinants. The results show that achieving economic independence is more difficult now than it was in the late 1980s and especially in the 1970s, even for the older age groups (age 27–28). The deterioration is more evident among men. From the 1970s there has been convergence in the trajectories for the achievement of economic self-sufficiency between men and women, suggesting that the increase in gender parity, especially in education and labor market outcomes, is making their opportunities to be employed and to earn good wages more similar. This convergence also suggests that union formation increasingly may depend on a capacity to combine men's and women's wages.
Bibliography Citation
Sironi, Maria and Frank Furstenberg. "Trends in the Economic Independence of Young Adults in the United States: 1973–2007." Population and Development Review 38,4 (December 2012): 609-630.
1650. Sironi, Maria
Kashyap, Ridhi
Internet Access and Partnership Formation in the United States
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Computer Use; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Dating; Marriage; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Unlike older communication technologies, the internet has broadened the scope for social interaction and enabled people to meet with people outside their existing social network. This feature of the technology is perhaps most salient for its role in helping people search for mates. While the internet may enlarge the pool of prospective partners, access to a larger pool may also delay the transition to partnership as the option for alternatives may induce individuals to search longer. We examine this effect of the internet on both heterosexual and homosexual partnership formation using nationally-representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey from the US. We find that while the effect of the internet on the transition to partnership is negative at younger ages, the effect of the internet on increasing the propensity to partner becomes positive as individuals become older, for both homosexual and heterosexual partnerships.
Bibliography Citation
Sironi, Maria and Ridhi Kashyap. "Internet Access and Partnership Formation in the United States." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
1651. Skalamera, Julie
Hummer, Robert A.
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Humphries, Melissa
Highest Earned Degree, Education in Years, and Health Behavior among U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); College Degree; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Highly educated U.S. adults have better health and this relationship has strengthened among recent cohorts. One key pathway relating education to health is health behavior. This study describes the relationships between highest degree obtained, years of education, and health behavior among young adults; examines whether socioeconomic attainment mediates the relationships; and tests whether these relationships vary by gender. We focus on whether years of education, educational degrees, or both matter for more favorable health behavior. We use NLSY-97 data, which includes both quantity and credential education measures. Findings reveal that higher educational degrees are associated with more positive health behavior, while increasing years of education also matters net of degree attainment. Some differences across behaviors exist. Socioeconomic status mediates these relationships, but the effects are weak. Findings also show no notable gender differences. This research shows that both educational quantity and credentials matter quite strongly for favorable health behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Skalamera, Julie, Robert A. Hummer, Katrina Michelle Walsemann and Melissa Humphries. "Highest Earned Degree, Education in Years, and Health Behavior among U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
1652. Skolnik, Ava
Faerber, Jennifer
Harding, Jennifer
Yu, Lan
Hipwell, Alison E.
Akers, Aletha Y.
Obesity, Timing of Sexual Initiation And Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls
Journal of Adolescent Health 64,2,Supplement (February 2019): S124.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X18307213
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Risk-Taking

Purpose: Among sexually active adolescent females, obesity is associated with engagement in sexual risk behaviors, particularly with early sexual initiation. However, little research has explored the effect of obesity on the evolution of sexual risk behaviors. We seek to fill this gap by exploring whether timing of sexual initiation predicts associations between sexual risk behaviors and body mass index in early adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Skolnik, Ava, Jennifer Faerber, Jennifer Harding, Lan Yu, Alison E. Hipwell and Aletha Y. Akers. "Obesity, Timing of Sexual Initiation And Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls." Journal of Adolescent Health 64,2,Supplement (February 2019): S124.
1653. Sloan, Frank A.
Information, Risk Perceptions, and Smoking Choices of Youth
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 42,2 (April 2011): 161-193.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2683q8p634841468/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Mortality; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Conventional wisdom maintains that youths take risks because they underestimate probabilities of harm. Presumably if they knew the true probabilities, they would behave differently. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess whether differences between subjective and objective probabilities that an adverse outcome to self will occur are systematically related to a harmful behavior, initiating smoking. We find that youths are generally pessimistic about probabilities of their own deaths and being violent crime victims. After smoking initiation, youths increase subjective probabilities of death by more than the objective increase in mortality risk, implying recognition of potential harms. Virtually all 12-14 year-olds know that smoking causes heart disease. The minority who believe that smoking causes AIDS are less likely to become smokers; i.e., risk misperceptions deter rather than cause smoking initiation. Messages designed to deter smoking initiation should stress other disadvantages of smoking than just probabilities of harm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Sloan, Frank A. "Information, Risk Perceptions, and Smoking Choices of Youth." Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 42,2 (April 2011): 161-193.
1654. Sloan, Frank A.
Chepke, Lindsey
Litigation, Settlement, And the Public Welfare: Lessons from the Master Settlement Agreement
Widener Law Review 17,1 (2011): 159-226.
Also: http://widenerlawreview.org/files/2011/03/Sloan.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Widner Law
Keyword(s): Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) reached between forty-six State Attorneys General and the four major cigarette manufacturers in November 1998 represents a milestone in tobacco control policy in terms of its potential impact on public health and is also perhaps the most far-reaching example of regulation by litigation in U.S. history. In return for the states dropping their suits against the four companies, the companies agreed to pay the states $206 billion over twenty-five years. Given that the MSA has been implemented for over a decade, there is a substantial amount of qualitative and quantitative evidence available for an evaluation of this landmark settlement. The MSA raised several constitutional issues which have, a decade later, largely been resolved. The MSA contains several troublesome features, however. The MSA puts the states’ Attorneys General in the role of protecting the dominant cigarette manufacturers’ market share from potential entry of competitors. These are the same public officials who are charged with enforcing state antitrust laws. Other deficiencies include the privacy of negotiations, continued costs of enforcing settlement terms, lack of empirical evidence supporting the claim of increased medical cost to the state attributable to smoking, and the appreciably higher cost of raising the price of cigarettes than would be achievable by a cigarette excise tax increase. It is for such reasons that this article concludes that the MSA is a bad precedent as a corrective public policy.

"To ascertain whether or not there was a statistically significant decline in cigarette consumption among youths and adults after the MSA was implemented, we analyzed data from three surveys: (1) the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97); (2) the Young Adult Sample, a survey of children of women who responded to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979; and (3) the Behavioral Risk Factor Survey Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 199 0 to 2007. The MSA effect was assessed using variables for before and after it was implemented. We determined whether the MSA affected smoking with or without inclusion of an explanatory variable for cigarette prices. With price included, the MSA variables measured effects of MSA non-price policies such as those affective advertising practices. Without price, the MSA variables measured the total effect of the MSA on smoking."

Bibliography Citation
Sloan, Frank A. and Lindsey Chepke. "Litigation, Settlement, And the Public Welfare: Lessons from the Master Settlement Agreement." Widener Law Review 17,1 (2011): 159-226.
1655. Sloan, Frank A.
Platt, Alyssa
Information, Risk Perceptions, And Smoking Choices Of Youth
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 42,2 (April 2011): 161-193.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2683q8p634841468/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior; Behavior, Violent; Behavioral Problems; Crime; Mortality; Risk Perception; Risk-Taking; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Conventional wisdom maintains that youths take risks because they underestimate probabilities of harm. Presumably if they knew the true probabilities, they would behave differently. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess whether differences between subjective and objective probabilities that an adverse outcome to self will occur are systematically related to a harmful behavior, initiating smoking. We find that youths are generally pessimistic about probabilities of their own deaths and being violent crime victims. After smoking initiation, youths increase subjective probabilities of death by more than the objective increase in mortality risk, implying recognition of potential harms. Virtually all 12-14 year-olds know that smoking causes heart disease. The minority who believe that smoking causes AIDS are less likely to become smokers; i.e., risk misperceptions deter rather than cause smoking initiation. Messages designed to deter smoking initiation should stress other disadvantages of smoking than just probabilities of harm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Risk & Uncertainty is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Sloan, Frank A. and Alyssa Platt. "Information, Risk Perceptions, And Smoking Choices Of Youth." Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 42,2 (April 2011): 161-193.
1656. Smith, Anthony
Kirchner, EmmaLeigh E.
Higgins, George E.
Khey, Dave
Trajectories of Parenting Styles and Delinquency: An Examination Using a Sample of African-Americans
Open Family Studies Journal 4,S1-M5 (2011): 46-53
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Bentham Open
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The development of parenting style typologies has led to a number of studies that have linked them to delinquency. Although a number of studies have shown that parenting style typologies have a link with delinquency, studies have not shown whether there were distinct trajectories of parenting styles and delinquency. These studies have not considered this in a sample of only African-Americans. Using data from the NLSY97 that only contains 725 African- Americans, our results show that three distinct trajectory groups of parenting styles are present for residential mothers and for residential fathers. In addition, we show that three distinct trajectory groups of delinquency are present. Our results show that a joint analysis of the intersection of these trajectories does not clarify the links between parenting styles and delinquency over time. Implications and directions for future research are highlighted.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Anthony, EmmaLeigh E. Kirchner, George E. Higgins and Dave Khey. "Trajectories of Parenting Styles and Delinquency: An Examination Using a Sample of African-Americans." Open Family Studies Journal 4,S1-M5 (2011): 46-53.
1657. Smith, Chelsea
Family, Academic, and Peer Group Predictors of Adolescent Pregnancy Expectations and Young Adult Childbearing
Journal of Family Issues 39,4 (March 2018): 1008-1029.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0192513X16684894
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Expectations/Intentions; Parenthood; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Compared with previous generations, today's young people increasingly delay parenthood. Having children in the late teens and early 20s is thus a rarer experience rooted in and potentially leading to the stratification of American families. Understanding why some adolescents expect to do so can illuminate how stratification unfolds. Informed by theories of the life course, social control, and reasoned action, this study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (n = 4,556) to explore outcomes and antecedents of adolescent pregnancy expectations with logistic regressions. Results indicated that those expectations--including neither low nor high (i.e., split) expectations--predicted subsequent childbearing. These apparently consequential expectations were, in turn, most closely associated with youth's academics and peer groups. These findings illustrate how different domains can intersect in the early life course to shape future prospects, and they emphasize split pregnancy expectations reported in a nationally representative sample of young women and men.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Chelsea. "Family, Academic, and Peer Group Predictors of Adolescent Pregnancy Expectations and Young Adult Childbearing." Journal of Family Issues 39,4 (March 2018): 1008-1029.
1658. Smith, Chelsea
The Push and the Pull: Adolescents' Expectations for Early Pregnancy
Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Life Course; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Expecting to become pregnant in the near future―a major influence on later behavior—separates adolescents in terms of both their current circumstances and future prospects. The author used categorical measures and multinomial logistic regression to examine expectations for pregnancy within the next 5 years using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97). The sample consisted of respondents in late adolescents, a critical age period when young people’s future plans begin to change from hypothetical ideas to actual realities. With a foundation in theories of the life course, social control, and reasoned action, the goals of this study were: to determine how risky behavior may increase (“push up”) pregnancy expectations and academic success may decrease (“pull down”) expectations, and to examine how such associations may differ by gender and age. Overall, results suggested that risky behavior did act as a push factor and academic success did act as a pull factor, but gender differences were more pronounced for push factors and age differences were more pronounced for pull factors (though not always in the hypothesized direction). Substance use was a common factor whereas delinquency and early sexual activity mattered only for adolescent boys. Academically, gifted classes indeed acted a pull factor for boys but GPA was associated with higher pregnancy expectations for girls. Interaction effects demonstrated that these associations tended to be strongest among younger adolescents. This study revealed that the most disadvantaged young people held higher expectations for experiencing early pregnancy, especially among boys.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Chelsea. "The Push and the Pull: Adolescents' Expectations for Early Pregnancy." Presented: New York NY, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2013.
1659. Smith, Chelsea
Crosnoe, Robert
Chao, Shih-Yi
Family Background and Contemporary Changes in Young Adults' School-Work Transitions and Family Formation in the United States
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 46,A (December 2016): 3-10.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562416300099
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Family Background and Culture; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Force Participation; Marriage; Parenthood; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work

The oft-discussed lengthening of the transition into adulthood is unlikely uniform across diverse segments of the population. This study followed youth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts (n = 12,686 and 8,984, respectively) from 16 to 32 years old to investigate this trend in the United States, examining cross-cohort changes in transitions with a focus on differences by family background. Logistic regressions revealed that young adults in the most recent cohort were less likely to have completed schooling, fully entered the labor force, married, or become parents by their 30s than those in the older cohort. The cross-cohort drop in young adults completing schooling was more pronounced among youth from more disadvantaged family backgrounds, the drop in entering the labor force and having children was more pronounced among those from more advantaged backgrounds, and the drop in marriage did not differ by family background.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Chelsea, Robert Crosnoe and Shih-Yi Chao. "Family Background and Contemporary Changes in Young Adults' School-Work Transitions and Family Formation in the United States." Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 46,A (December 2016): 3-10.
1660. Smith, Christian
Kim, Phillip
Family Religious Involvement and the Quality of Parental Relationships for Families with Early Adolescents
NSYR Report Number 5, National Study of Youth and Religion, December 2003.
Also: http://www.youthandreligion.org/sites/youthandreligion.org/files/imported/publications/docs/family-report2.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR)
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenthood; Religious Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Religiously involved families of early adolescents, ages 12 to14, living in the United States appear to have significantly stronger relationships between mothers and fathers than families that are not religiously active. This report examines associations between three dimensions of family religious involvement (the number of days per week the family does something religious, parental worship service attendance and parental prayer) and the quality of the relationship between teens' mothers and fathers. All 12 of the family relationship variables examined for this report were significantly related to some dimension of family religious involvement, after controlling for the possible effects of eight control variables.

Youth with both a mother figure and a father figure living in the household were asked a series of questions about the relationship between their parents. Teens were asked questions such as whether their mothers and fathers express love for each other, compromise with each other, insult each other, and other indicators of the quality of the parental relationship. The responses to these questions indicate that family religious involvement is strongly associated with the quality of the relationship between the mothers and fathers of the youth respondents.

Bibliography Citation
Smith, Christian and Phillip Kim. "Family Religious Involvement and the Quality of Parental Relationships for Families with Early Adolescents." NSYR Report Number 5, National Study of Youth and Religion, December 2003.
1661. Smith, Jacqueline
Boone, Anniglo
Future Outlook in African American Kinship Care Families
Journal of Health and Social Policy 22,3/4 (Spring/Summer 2007): 9-30.
Also: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=235e17ff-b0d0-46b3-84a1-26e13fd9dbe4%40sessionmgr11&vid=2&hid=13h
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Ethnic Groups; Family Structure; Family Studies; Family, Extended; Kinship; Teenagers; Welfare

Orientation to the future, in the social science literature, is linked to social adaption and adjustment. This study examines the future outlook in African American kinship care families. The focus of the study was restricted to adolescents in the kinship care population and examined both youth's and parent figure's outlook for the future. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). The study describes the future orientation of African American youth who live with relative caregivers. It tests for differences in orientation to the future between kinship care parents and those with biological and other family types and tests the hypothesis of there being a significant difference in future orientation between youth and their relative acting as parent caregiver. Findings demonstrate significant variability in the future outlook of African American youth within kinship care families. The findings suggest that social workers and mental health practitioners who work with youth in goal setting behaviors should include the relative caregiver and the family in the counseling process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Health and Social Policy is the property of Haworth and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Smith, Jacqueline and Anniglo Boone. "Future Outlook in African American Kinship Care Families." Journal of Health and Social Policy 22,3/4 (Spring/Summer 2007): 9-30.
1662. Smith, Jeffrey A.
Dillon, Eleanor Wiske
Mismatch Between Students and Colleges: Evidence from the NLSY-97
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Allied Social Science Associations Annual Meeting, January 3-5, 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society of Government Economists (SGE)
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Enrollment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Smith, Jeffrey A. and Eleanor Wiske Dillon. "Mismatch Between Students and Colleges: Evidence from the NLSY-97." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Allied Social Science Associations Annual Meeting, January 3-5, 2009.
1663. Smith, Jeffrey
Vishkin, Ophira
Gender and the STEM Trajectory: Evidence from the NLSY97
Presented: New Orleans LA, Assocation for Education Finance and Policy Annual Conference, March 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Education Finance and Policy
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do the men and women who wind up in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers differ, and how do their trajectories toward these careers compare? Using high school transcript, college major, and early career data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), we present evidence on the high volume of major changes to and from STEM fields. We then present and discuss marginal effects of demographics and college quality on enroll- ment in a four-year college, STEM major declaration, and graduation in a STEM field. Our data show young men are more likely than young women to ever declare any STEM majors, and substantially more likely to ever declare a natural science, math, or engineering STEM major. If they graduate, these young men are also more likely to complete a STEM degree. Finally, we present decompositions of the effects of gender, race, parental education, and local education levels on each stage leading toward the completion of a STEM degree.

Also presented at AEA conference of the Allied Social Science Associations Jan. 2014 meeting in Philadelphia PA.

Bibliography Citation
Smith, Jeffrey and Ophira Vishkin. "Gender and the STEM Trajectory: Evidence from the NLSY97." Presented: New Orleans LA, Assocation for Education Finance and Policy Annual Conference, March 2013.
1664. Smith, Patricia K.
Zagorsky, Jay L.
"Do I Look Fat?" Self-Perceived Body Weight and Labor Market Outcomes
Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 48-58.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X17302617
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Employment; Labor Market Outcomes; Self-Perception; Wages; Weight

Research reporting that greater body weight is associated with lower wages and employment, particularly among women, focuses on how employers perceive workers. In contrast, we examine whether workers' own perceptions of body weight influence labor market outcomes. Numerous studies find that misperception of body weight influences health behaviors and health, both mental and physical. For example, anorexia nervosa involves the over-perception of weight and raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Do the health consequences of inaccurate self-perceived weight carry through to the labor market? We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to investigate patterns in weight misperception and three labor market outcomes. We find little evidence that either over-perception or under-perception of weight is associated with wages, weeks worked, or the number of jobs held for women and men.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Patricia K. and Jay L. Zagorsky. ""Do I Look Fat?" Self-Perceived Body Weight and Labor Market Outcomes." Economics and Human Biology 30 (September 2018): 48-58.
1665. Smith, Raymond B.
Patterned Adolescent Socially Deviant Behavior
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, University of South Carolina, 2021
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research suggests that most adolescent youth AY (AY) will engage in socially deviant behavior (SDB) beginning from ages 10-14, peak in rate of participation at 16-17, and begin to desist thereafter (ages 17 and older). AY participation in SDB varies by frequency and severity, ranging from minor acts such as smoking cigarettes to behaviors that threaten the safety of self and others. Most AY do not participate in SDB to harm, however, but instead are attempting to express autonomous function from parental and adult oversight. During adolescence, youth become aware of their physical transformation to adulthood and growing sense of self, yet they are simultaneously aware of the lack of autonomy afforded by parents and other social institutions within society. Thus, AY will participate in behavior that is deviant to what is expected them -- a self-perceived act of independence and autonomous decision-making. Because research suggests that most AY will participate in SDB, and that the frequency and severity of behavior will change during the adolescent period, describing how and when AY transition among SDB types is important to understanding and limiting harm to self, others and the community. Using a latent transition analysis and self-reported SDB indicators included within the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 survey, this study describes how AY participate in SDB types differently, and how these types change by rate and severity across the adolescent development period. Specifically, this study introduces and tests a conceptual model based on developmental and life-course criminology theory and describes transitional patterns of SDB measured at four timepoints: beginning adolescence (12-13), early adolescence (13-15), mid-adolescence (15-17) and late adolescence (17-19). Patterns of SDB among AY are further investigated through stratification of sex, which is then evaluated in separate moderation models by race/ethnicity, peer networks, socioeconomic status, and fathers parenting style. Results suggest that AY who participate in SDB can be categorized in one of four ways: : Minimal Deviant Behavior, Primarily Status Offense SDB, Moderate SDB, and Severe SBD, where members of Moderate and Severe statuses are most likely to participate in behaviors that victimize others. Although results indicated most AY were not involved in SDB during beginning adolescence, most AY participated in some form of SDB by late adolescence, where members of Moderate SDB were most likely to transition among statuses.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Raymond B. Patterned Adolescent Socially Deviant Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, University of South Carolina, 2021.
1666. Smith, Sandra Susan
Searching For Work with a Criminal Record
Working Paper, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, University of California, Berkeley, March 2012.
Also: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/7d56c799
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of California - Berkeley
Keyword(s): Arrests; Incarceration/Jail; Job Search; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To date, researchers have been very attentive to how the stigma of criminality informs employers’ hiring decisions, and, in the process, diminishes the employment opportunities afforded to jobseekers so stigmatized. Few researchers, however, have investigated the extent to which criminal records also shape jobseekers’ search strategies in ways that either attenuate or amplify the effects of their negative credentials. We fill this gap in the literature by investigating how arrest, conviction, and incarceration affect the scope of jobseekers’ search efforts as well as the specific methods they deploy. We then examine the extent to which gaps in job search success can be attributed to stigmatized jobseekers’ search strategies. Analysis of the NLSY97 reveals that arrestees and former prisoners (but not ex-convicts) are disadvantaged both by the scope of their search efforts and by the specific methods they use. Arrestees are less likely than non-offenders to find work during the search process because they use fewer search methods, and because they over-invest in ineffective methods while under-investing in more effective methods. Although former prisoners are also disadvantaged by over- and under-investing, we primarily attribute their lower odds of search success to the differential impacts of their search strategies. Even when the scope and nature of their searches mirror those of non-offenders, their searches are less likely to end successfully. By bringing “search” into debates on punishment and inequality, we provide a new and complementary way to understand how a criminal record negatively affects jobseekers’ chances of finding work.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Sandra Susan. "Searching For Work with a Criminal Record." Working Paper, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, University of California, Berkeley, March 2012.
1667. Smith, Sandra Susan
Broege, Nora C. R.
Searching for Work with a Criminal Record
Social Problems published online (6 May 2019): DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spz009.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/socpro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/socpro/spz009/5486336
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Job Search

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

People with a criminal record face substantial demand-side employment barriers that have clear implications for whether or not they search for work and what strategies they use. We know relatively little, however, about whether and how penal contact affects patterns of job search and how search patterns affect search success. Using the 2001-2011 waves of the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), we find that penal contact and penal dispositions--arrest, conviction, and incarceration--reduce odds of job search, decrease the number of search methods job seekers deploy, and direct job seekers away from search methods that are generally more efficient and effective at yielding offers. Further, altered search patterns contribute significantly to post-contact job seekers' lower odds of search success, especially for blacks. Taken together, our findings suggest that job search engagement is another key mechanism linking penal contact and poorer job search outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Smith, Sandra Susan and Nora C. R. Broege. "Searching for Work with a Criminal Record." Social Problems published online (6 May 2019): DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spz009.
1668. Smythe, Andria C.
Labor Market Conditions and Racial/Ethnic Differences in College Enrollment
Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 2,3 (September 2019): 173-183.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41996-019-00030-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Ethnic Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The racial/ethnic differences in college enrollment are pervasive and persistent. In this article, I provide evidence of a business cycle-driven component to the college enrollment gaps among racial/ethnic groups in the USA. Using a nationally representative sample from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths 1997 (NLSY97) and fixed-effects enrollment probability models, I find that Hispanics are more likely than non-Black-non-Hispanics to enroll in 2-year college during high unemployment periods. Similarly, I find that individuals who are Black are more likely than non-Black-non-Hispanic individuals to enroll in 2-year colleges but are less likely to enroll in 4-year colleges during periods of high unemployment. The positive effect of high unemployment rate on 2-year college enrollment for Blacks is almost entirely offset by negative effects on 4-year college enrollment. Non-Black-non-Hispanics are least sensitive to labor market conditions. The cyclicality of college enrollment rates of Blacks and Hispanics and the relatively smooth enrollment rates of non-Black-non-Hispanic individuals may be able to explain a part of the persistent gap in college enrollment.
Bibliography Citation
Smythe, Andria C. "Labor Market Conditions and Racial/Ethnic Differences in College Enrollment." Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 2,3 (September 2019): 173-183.
1669. Snidal, Matthew
Incremental Punishment: School Discipline as a Continuous Variable
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Discipline; High School Completion/Graduates; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent work in sociology of education has looked at the impact of zero-tolerance policies within schools. Though school absence has received attention as continuous variable where more days of absence means worse graduation outcomes, school suspension has continued to be looked at as a binary variable. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997), I analyze whether high school graduation outcomes are altered by the duration of suspension that students face. Results from my study show that suspension has an ongoing influence on graduation outcomes even when controlling for the number of school days missed for other reasons. This leads to a number of implications for how schools use punishment and suspension as well as how researchers should consider these school actions when studying discipline in the future.
Bibliography Citation
Snidal, Matthew. "Incremental Punishment: School Discipline as a Continuous Variable." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
1670. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Residential Differences in Non-marital Conception and Conception and Childbearing Outcomes in the U.S.
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Formation; Residence; Rural/Urban Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rise in nonmarital childbearing is one of the most important changes in the family formation process in recent decades in the United States. Numerous studies have examined this trend and found significant patterns by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education level. Few have studied geographic differences in nonmarital childbearing outcomes in the U.S., but those that do find that women from nonmetro counties have distinct behavioral outcomes related to nonmarital conceptions and childbearing. Nonmetro women have more conceptions occur within a marriage, more nonmarital conceptions that end in a live birth, and more nonmarital conceptions born in marital unions compared to either cohabiting unions or no union (Albretch & Albretch, 2004; Snyder, 2006). Unfortunately, the retrospective structure of the data and the measure of nonmetro residence in these studies are methodological problems that leave some uncertainty about these findings. This study proposes to re-examine residential differences in nonmarital conception and childbearing outcomes in the U.S. using prospective panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 and 1997 cohorts. Using both NLSY data sets will allow me to examine these outcomes across women's entire childbearing years (NLSY79) and also in a contemporary sample of young adults (NLSY97).
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R. "Residential Differences in Non-marital Conception and Conception and Childbearing Outcomes in the U.S." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
1671. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Jang, Bohyun
Failure to Launch? Exits from and Returns to the Parental Home among Emerging Adults in the U.S.
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Life Course; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines exits from and returns to the parental home across two cohorts using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97. Recent reports find that about 30% of young adults aged 25–34 lived with their parents at some point during the Great Recession, and 24% of 18–34 year olds returned to their parental home. The findings contribute to the existing literature because most recent studies documenting an alarming rise in coresidence with parents use cross sectional data and fail to take a dynamic view of home leaving and returning across the emerging adult life course. Our findings suggest that large differences in home leaving and returning do not exist between the NLSY79 and NLSY97 cohorts. Within cohort variability does however find significant variability in home leaving and returning by sex, race/ethnicity and reason for first exit.
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R. and Bohyun Jang. "Failure to Launch? Exits from and Returns to the Parental Home among Emerging Adults in the U.S." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
1672. Snyder, Anastasia R.
Mernitz, Sara E.
Jang, Bohyun
The Transition to Adulthood Among the Forgotten Half: Home Leaving and Living Arrangement Among Less Educated Young Adults in the United States
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Exits; High School Completion/Graduates; Residence; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

College experiences during emerging adulthood are associated with various life course transitions for young adults, including leaving the family home and living independently, but little is known about how these patterns differ for those who do not attend college. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examined the timing of first parental home-leaving and the type of first living arrangement for young adults who do not pursue post- secondary education, comparing young men and women. Life table estimates found that young women exit the family home sooner after finishing high school, and most exit to live with a romantic partner, motivated in large part by early pregnancy. Discrete-time competing risk models found that, controlling for individual, family and contextual factors, female young adults exited earlier to live with a partner. Individual characteristics and family context are significantly associated with the timing and type of home leaving.
Bibliography Citation
Snyder, Anastasia R., Sara E. Mernitz and Bohyun Jang. "The Transition to Adulthood Among the Forgotten Half: Home Leaving and Living Arrangement Among Less Educated Young Adults in the United States." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
1673. Solomon, Keisha T.
Mental Illness and College Educational Outcomes: Evidence from State Equal Coverage Laws
Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); College Education; Dropouts; Educational Outcomes; Geocoded Data; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Health, Mental; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research has established that state mental illness parity laws improve access to mental healthcare and, in turn, reduce mental illness. I extend this literature in two important ways. First, I study the effect of the state mental illness parity law implementation on mental illness among college-age individuals. Second, I examine the effect of state mental illness parity laws on human capital accumulation. Considering spill-overs to these educational outcomes is important as previous research shows that mental illness impedes college performance. Hence, reduced mental illness through state parity laws could have positive spill-over effects to educational outcomes that have not yet been documented.

I use differences-in-differences models to uncover the causal effects of state mental illness parity laws on mental illness and educational outcomes. I leverage plausibly exogenous variation in insurance coverage for mental healthcare using changes in state laws over the period 1998 to 2008. First, to study parity law effects on mental illness I utilize administrative data on completed suicides from National Vital Statistics System and survey data on reported mental illness from Behavioral Risk Factor System. Second, I use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort to study the effects of the mental illness parity law on two important educational outcomes: drop out decisions and grade point average (GPA).

Bibliography Citation
Solomon, Keisha T. "Mental Illness and College Educational Outcomes: Evidence from State Equal Coverage Laws." Presented: Washington DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2018.
1674. Song, Anna V.
Dutra, Lauren M.
Neilands, Torsten B.
Glantz, Stanton A.
Association of Smoke-Free Laws With Lower Percentages of New and Current Smokers Among Adolescents and Young Adults: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study
JAMA Pediatrics 169,9 (September 2015): .
Also: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2430959
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Geocoded Data; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To quantify the effect of 100% smoke-free laws on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults in a longitudinal analysis.
Bibliography Citation
Song, Anna V., Lauren M. Dutra, Torsten B. Neilands and Stanton A. Glantz. "Association of Smoke-Free Laws With Lower Percentages of New and Current Smokers Among Adolescents and Young Adults: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study." JAMA Pediatrics 169,9 (September 2015): .
1675. Song, Wei
Patterson, Margaret Becker
Key Labor Market Findings from Young GED Credential Recipients in the 21st Century: A Snapshot from NLSY97
Research Brief 2011-1, American Council on Education, Washington, DC: GED Testing Service, January 2011.
Also: http://www.acenet.edu/Content/NavigationMenu/ged/pubs/YoungGEDCredentialRecipientsinthe21stCentury_KeyFindings_Final.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: GED Institute
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Labor Market Outcomes; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) is the most recent in a series of U.S. Department of Labor longitudinal studies on the labor market behavior and educational experience of youth who transition from school to work and from adolescence to adulthood. By 2008, in the latest round of the NLSY97 data that is currently available, the respondents were aged 24 to 28. Our findings are based on analyses of these data.
Bibliography Citation
Song, Wei and Margaret Becker Patterson. "Key Labor Market Findings from Young GED Credential Recipients in the 21st Century: A Snapshot from NLSY97." Research Brief 2011-1, American Council on Education, Washington, DC: GED Testing Service, January 2011.
1676. Song, Wei
Patterson, Margaret Becker
Young GED Credential Recipients in the 21st Century: A Snapshot from NLSY97
Working Paper, American Council on Education, Washington, DC: GED Testing Service, January 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: GED Institute
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Labor Market Outcomes; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Ever since achieving a high school credential by passing the GED Tests became widely institutionalized through the adult education programs in the United States, the outcomes for GED credential recipients have continued to be of great interest to the adult education community and the general public. Does earning a GED credential bring positive life changes to the adults who did not complete a high school education? Does obtaining a GED credential help the recipients find better employment opportunities and earn higher wages? Among the studies on labor market outcomes of GED credential recipients, the most influential was the 1993 study by Cameron and Heckman, which was based on the NLSY79 data and argued that GED credential recipients are “nonequivalence of high school equivalents,” and that they are “indistinguishable in many relevant labor market dimensions” from uncredentialed high school dropouts.

Now, almost two decades after the Cameron and Heckman study, has anything changed with a new generation of American youth? Based on a new wave of NLSY data (NLSY97), this paper aims to examine how GED credential recipients compare with other young adults who had not completed a high school education and with traditional high school graduates on their labor market performance.

The study found that GED credential recipients’ hourly compensation on their most recent job is much higher than that of the high school dropouts and is closer to that of the high school graduates, both of which are in the $14 range. For GED credential recipients and high school graduates at five years or more after obtaining their credential or diploma, the hourly wages are about the same, around $15. In terms of work hours, wage income, family income, and poverty ratio, GED credential recipients seem to fall between high school dropouts and high school graduates. The study also looked into job satisfaction, employer size, fringe benefits, industry, and occupation.

The study then uses multiple regressions to assess the impact of educational status on hourly compensation and hours of work for the NLSY97 members who did not pursue postsecondary education. After controlling for individual demographic, ability, work experience, and employer industry, GED credential recipients’ hourly wages on average could be 6.7 to 9.3 percent higher than those of high school dropouts, while the high school graduates’ hourly wages could be 6.2 to 6.7 percent higher than those of GED credential recipients. GED credential recipients’ annual hours could also be 120 hours (approximately 11 percent) longer than those of high school dropouts, while high school graduates’ work hours could be 120 to180 hours (approximately 10 to 15 percent) longer than those of GED credential recipients.

Finally, this paper discusses the findings from earlier sections and suggests policy implications and future research studies.

Bibliography Citation
Song, Wei and Margaret Becker Patterson. "Young GED Credential Recipients in the 21st Century: A Snapshot from NLSY97." Working Paper, American Council on Education, Washington, DC: GED Testing Service, January 2011.
1677. Sorjonen, Kimmo
Falkstedt, Daniel
Wallin, Alma Sörberg
Melin, Bo
Nilsonne, Gustav
Dangers of Residual Confounding: A Cautionary Tale featuring Cognitive Ability, Socioeconomic Background, and Education
BMC Psychology 9, 145 (September 2021): DOI: 10.1186/s40359-021-00653-z.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40359-021-00653-z
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Cognitive ability and socioeconomic background (SEB) have been previously identified as determinants of achieved level of education. According to a "discrimination hypothesis", higher cognitive ability is required from those with lower SEB in order to achieve the same level of education as those with higher SEB. Support for this hypothesis has been claimed from the observation of a positive association between SEB and achieved level of education when adjusting for cognitive ability. We propose a competing hypothesis that the observed association is due to residual confounding.

Methods: To adjudicate between the discrimination and the residual confounding hypotheses, data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97, N = 8984) was utilized, including a check of the logic where we switched predictor and outcome variables.

Results: The expected positive association between SEB and achieved level of education when adjusting for cognitive ability (predicted by both hypotheses) was found, but a positive association between cognitive ability and SEB when adjusting for level of education (predicted only by the residual confounding hypothesis) was also observed.

Bibliography Citation
Sorjonen, Kimmo, Daniel Falkstedt, Alma Sörberg Wallin, Bo Melin and Gustav Nilsonne. "Dangers of Residual Confounding: A Cautionary Tale featuring Cognitive Ability, Socioeconomic Background, and Education." BMC Psychology 9, 145 (September 2021): DOI: 10.1186/s40359-021-00653-z.
1678. Sorjonen, Kimmo
Nilsonne, Gustav
Ingre, Michael
Melin, Bo
Spurious Correlations in Research on Ability Tilt
Personality and Individual Differences 185 (February 2022): 111268.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886921006474
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability

Ability tilt refers to a within-individual difference between two abilities (X-Y), e.g. differences between tech and verbal or verbal and math abilities. Studies have found associations between ability tilts and their constituent abilities (X or Y). Here we show that such associations may be spurious due to the non-independence of the two measures. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), we find that associations between ability and ability tilt may simply be due to more positive associations between two measures of the same or similar abilities compared to two measures of different or dissimilar abilities. This finding calls into question theoretical interpretations that have proposed that ability tilt correlations are due to differential investment of time and effort in one ability at the expense of the other ability.
Bibliography Citation
Sorjonen, Kimmo, Gustav Nilsonne, Michael Ingre and Bo Melin. "Spurious Correlations in Research on Ability Tilt." Personality and Individual Differences 185 (February 2022): 111268.
1679. Speer, Jamin D.
Essays on Occupational Choice, College Major, and Career Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Career Patterns; High School; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Job Characteristics; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Skills; Transition, School to Work; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's 1979 and 1997 cohorts, which are nationally representative panel surveys following workers from their teenage years well into their careers. The key advantage of the NLSYs for my purposes is that they also include a variety of cognitive and noncognitive pre-market skill measures, which I can then link to career outcomes. I combine these data with O*Net, which contains data on the task requirements of each occupation. I find that pre-market skills are strong predictors of the corresponding task content of the workers' occupations, both initially and much later in their careers. Career trajectories are similar across worker skill types, implying that initial differences in occupation persist over the course of a career.

The third chapter uses the weekly work history data from the NLSY's 1979 cohort to analyze the effect of leaving high school during a recession. These data allow me to precisely measure labor market outcomes and the school-to-work transition. I document severe but short-lived effects of leaving school in a recession on wages, job quality, and the transition time from school to work for men with 9 to 12 years of education. In contrast to published evidence on more educated workers, I find large effects on work hours on both the extensive and intensive margins. When workers leave high school in a recession, they work fewer total weeks and more part-time weeks in their first year in the labor market. They also take substantially longer to find a job, have less access to on-the-job training, and report lower promotion possibilities. Effects of the entry unemployment rate on wages are also large. A 4-point rise in the initial unemployment rate leads to a 21% decline in year-one average wage, a 32% fall in hours worked in the first year, and a 54% decline in first-year earnings. However, the effects of economic conditions are not persistent; by year four, there is no effect on wages, hours, or earnings.

Bibliography Citation
Speer, Jamin D. Essays on Occupational Choice, College Major, and Career Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 2014.
1680. Speer, Jamin D.
Pre-Market Skills, Occupational Choice, and Career Progression
Journal of Human Resources 52,1 (Winter 2017): 187-246.
Also: http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/52/1/187
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Layoffs; Occupational Choice; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Skills

This paper develops a new empirical framework for analyzing occupational choice and career progression. I merge the NLSYs with O*Net and find that pre-market skills (primarily ASVAB test scores) predict the task content of the workers' occupations. These measures account for 71 percent of the gender gap in science and engineering occupations. Career trajectories are similar across workers, so that initial differences in occupation persist over time. I then quantify the effect of layoffs on career trajectory and find that a layoff erases one-fourth of a worker's total career increase in task content but this effect only lasts two years.
Bibliography Citation
Speer, Jamin D. "Pre-Market Skills, Occupational Choice, and Career Progression." Journal of Human Resources 52,1 (Winter 2017): 187-246.
1681. Speer, Jamin D.
The Gender Gap in College Major: Revisiting the Role of Pre-College Factors
Presented: Seattle WA, Annual Meetings of the Society of Labor Economists (SOLE), May 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Society of Labor Economists (SOLE)
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a broader array of pre-college test scores (the ASVAB), I show that differences in college preparation can actually account for a large portion of most gender gaps in college major content, including two-thirds of the gap in science, half of the gap in humanities, and almost half of the gap in engineering. By contrast, business and education retain large gender gaps even when controlling for abilities. A smaller portion (at most 22%) of women's higher likelihood of switching out of a science or engineering major is explained by the ASVAB scores, suggesting that most ability sorting into majors occurs at the beginning of college. I show that gender gaps in test scores, particularly in science and mechanical fields, exist by the mid-teenage years and typically grow with age. While there are gender differences in middle and high school course-taking, they do not explain the increasing gender gaps in test scores.
Bibliography Citation
Speer, Jamin D. "The Gender Gap in College Major: Revisiting the Role of Pre-College Factors." Presented: Seattle WA, Annual Meetings of the Society of Labor Economists (SOLE), May 2016.
1682. Speer, Jamin D.
The Gender Gap in College Major: Revisiting the Role of Pre-college Factors
Labour Economics 44 (January 2017): 69-88.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927537116304110
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Differences; Noncognitive Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This paper considers the importance of pre-college test scores in accounting for gender gaps in college major. Large gaps in major content exist: men are more likely to study math-, science-, and business-intensive fields, while women are more likely to study humanities-, social science-, and education-intensive fields. Previous research has found that gender differences in college preparation, typically measured by SAT scores, can account for only a small portion of these differences. Using a broader array of pre-college test scores (the ASVAB), I show that differences in college preparation can actually account for a large portion of most gender gaps in college major content, including 62% of the gap in science, 66% of the gap in humanities, and 47% of the gap in engineering. SAT scores explain less than half as much as the ASVAB scores, while noncognitive skill measures appear to explain none of the gaps in major. The gender gaps in test scores, particularly in science and mechanical fields, exist by the mid-teenage years and grow with age.
Bibliography Citation
Speer, Jamin D. "The Gender Gap in College Major: Revisiting the Role of Pre-college Factors." Labour Economics 44 (January 2017): 69-88.
1683. Spiller, MIchael W.
The Family Demography of Higher Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Income; Family Size; Family Structure; Higher Education; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Patterns of educational attainment in the United States have changed over the 20th century, with a significant increase in the value of and demand for college education since the 1980s. Simultaneously, the size of families shrank and the proportion of youth living in two-parent "traditional" households decreased, leading to a proliferation of new family forms. Social scientists have long investigated the relationship between family structure and educational attainment. This dissertation contributes to prior research on families and education by examining the relationship between family structure and enrollment in and completion of 4-year college. The first chapter of the dissertation analyzes two panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to determine whether the relationship between family size and higher educational attainment changed between the birth cohort completing high school in the early 1980s and the one completing high school in the late 1990s. It also examines whether family income plays a role in determining whether family size impacts higher educational attainment. The second chapter analyzes the later panel of the NLSY to evaluate competing explanations for the negative relationship between family size and educational attainment. Additionally, it examines whether the relationship varies by youths' race/ethnicity. The final chapter presents a measure of family structure that combines the number of family transitions a youth has experienced and a qualitative measure of family type. It then uses propensity score models to examine whether the negative relationship between non-traditional family structures and higher educational attainment is causal in the later panel of the NLSY. The first chapter finds that there is a negative relationship between family size and higher educational attainment among both birth cohorts. However, it finds that the relationship is concentrated among higher income families in the early panel and lower income families in the later panel. This shift over time is likely due to large changes in higher education aid policies such as the introduction of unsubsidized Stafford loans in 1993. The second chapter finds little support for three explanations claiming that the relationship between family size and higher education is not causal or for the claim that the relationship operates via decreased intellectual ability. It also finds that there is variation in the relationship between family size and higher education by race/ethnicity, with no detectable relationship for Hispanic youth. The final chapter finds that there is a significant causal relationship between being raised in a non-traditional family structure and higher education. Additionally, it finds that the strength of the relationship varies by the likelihood of having a non-traditional family, with the effects concentrated among those who are least likely to have one. This may indicate that communities in which non-traditional families are common provide resources that moderate the impact of non-traditional family structures on educational attainment.
Bibliography Citation
Spiller, MIchael W. The Family Demography of Higher Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 2014.
1684. Srinivasan, Mithuna
Three Essays on the Role of Siblings in the Determination of Individual Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Family Resources; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parental Investments; Risk-Taking; Siblings; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

My dissertation emphasizes the role played by siblings in the determination of individual outcomes. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I study the direct effect of siblings on adolescent outcomes, while the remainder of my dissertation considers siblings in the context of family fixed effects methods of estimation.

Longitudinal data shows that the likelihood of a child smoking more than triples if the child has an older sibling who also smoked. In my first essay, ``Endogenous Sibling Effects in Adolescent Substance Use'', I unpack this striking correlation, asking whether it is causal or a result of correlated unobservables such as parental investments that are endogenous to the child's behavior. In particular, I examine whether smoking or drinking by an older sibling influences the corresponding behavior of a younger sibling. To control for endogeneity in the older child's outcome, I use differences in smoking and drinking by gender and age among older siblings as instrumental variables. While previous studies have established gender differences in teen substance use, I find that these differences vary across age. For example, gender differences in drinking are small at younger ages, but males drink consistently more than females from mid to late adolescence. The instruments are plausibly exogenous of unobservables such as parental substance use, and will control for parental investments under the assumption that the older sibling's age and gender do not directly affect resources invested in the younger child. I empirically investigate this assumption using data on measures of parental investments, and find no evidence of a correlation between the instruments and younger sibling investments. The results point toward significant and positive sibling effects for smoking as well as drinking. These findings indicate the presence of opportunities for resource constrained parents to invest efficiently in favor of their firstborn, to reduce ``bad'' behavior. Positive sibling effects imply that curtailing the older child's behavior in this way can have spillover effects on the younger sibling, leading to greater payoffs to parents in overall child quality. Within-family social multipliers may also serve to amplify the effects of public policies aimed at curtailing smoking and drinking.

For almost two decades, a vast literature has concerned itself with the association between family structure and child outcomes. These studies have typically found that individuals who grow up in traditional families (with two biological parents) are better off across several indicators such as educational attainment, health and fertility as compared to their counterparts from other types of family structures like single mother or blended families (with a biological mother but one in which the father may be step for all, or step for some and biological for others). In my second essay, ``Family Structure, Parental Investments and Child Well-Being'', I adopt a parental investment perspective and propose that differences in parental investments across varied family structures may provide one explanation for differences in child outcomes by family structure. There are several interesting findings. First, children in single mother and blended families receive lower investments as compared to traditional families, with the gap in investments being larger between single mother and traditional families. Second, among single mothers, the group driving lower investments appears to be never married single mothers. Third, I find that joint biological children of both parents in blended families do not differ significantly in the amount of investments they receive relative to their counterparts in traditional families, but non-biological children of fathers are significantly disadvantaged in investment levels. This provides indirect evidence for a biological preference motive. Investigating this further solely within blended families, I find direct evidence in favor of a biological preference motive wherein biological children receive higher investments than their half siblings.

Parental investments in children are usually motivated by models of intra-household allocation which suggest that parents, in making investment decisions, have information about their children's endowments and respond to them. One factor is that parents motivated by efficiency concerns invest more heavily in better endowed children, presumably due to greater marginal returns from the investment for them. An alternative factor is that rather than reinforcing endowment differences, equity concerns may motivate parents to make compensatory investments in their children by investing relatively more in the less endowed children. There have been several empirical studies that have tried to test these implications, but they have almost entirely assumed that all families will reinforce (compensate) child endowments to the same extent. However, we might expect to see heterogeneity in the degree of unequal treatment. In my last essay, ``Family Structure and Intra-Household Resource Allocation'', I explore one such source of heterogeneity namely, family structure. For example, single mothers, experiencing greater resource constraints might have more incentives to make efficient investments in their children as compared to traditional families with two biological parents present. Studying how investment allocation varies across family structure can be viewed as an important link to understand why individuals from varied types of family structure have such different outcomes on a variety of indicators.

Bibliography Citation
Srinivasan, Mithuna. Three Essays on the Role of Siblings in the Determination of Individual Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The Ohio State University, 2011.
1685. Stafford, Allison McCord
Tsumura, Hideyo
Pan, Wei
Race/Ethnicity, Parental Support, and Youth Depressive Symptoms: A Moderated Longitudinal Mediation Analysis
Journal of Youth and Adolescence published online (17 May 2021): DOI: 10.1007/s10964-021-01447-7.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-021-01447-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Immigrants; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Racial/ethnic disparities in depression exist among youth in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine if parental support trajectories in adolescence explain the relationship between race/ethnicity and depressive symptom trajectories in adulthood. A two-step longitudinal parallel process analysis with multigroup structural equation modeling was conducted with a nationally representative sample of youth (N = 5300; 48.5% female; M = 13.33 (Range:12-15) years at baseline). While parental support trajectories did not mediate the relationship between race/ethnicity and depressive symptoms, parental support trajectories were related to depressive symptom trajectories in adulthood. Immigrant generation status also moderated the relationship between race/ethnicity and depressive symptom trajectories. The results demonstrate the impact of parental support on later mental health outcomes regardless of race/ethnicity.
Bibliography Citation
Stafford, Allison McCord, Hideyo Tsumura and Wei Pan. "Race/Ethnicity, Parental Support, and Youth Depressive Symptoms: A Moderated Longitudinal Mediation Analysis." Journal of Youth and Adolescence published online (17 May 2021): DOI: 10.1007/s10964-021-01447-7.
1686. Stafford, Diane
Study: Over Half of Teens 14, 15 Work
Houston Chronicle, June 27, 1999, Business; Pg. 5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Houston Chronicle Publishing Company
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Employment, Youth; Wages, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article reports on NLSY97 data indicating that 57% of 14 year-olds and 64% of 15 year-olds work.
Bibliography Citation
Stafford, Diane. "Study: Over Half of Teens 14, 15 Work." Houston Chronicle, June 27, 1999, Business; Pg. 5.
1687. Stansfield, Richard
A Multilevel Analysis of Hispanic Youth, Exposure to the United States, and Retail Theft
Race and Social Problems 4,2 (June 2012): 121-132.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/8118040418m42363/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Crime; Hispanic Youth; Home Environment; Immigrants; Modeling, Random Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Panel data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) provide an excellent opportunity to examine the relationship between Hispanic immigration, assimilation, and retail theft. This study examines the relationship between length of time Hispanic youth have spent in America, with the probability of stealing from a store. After controlling for traditional predictors of crime that are correlated with adolescence and immigrant status, random effects logistic regression models indicate that immigrants are less likely to steal than non-immigrants. However, calculating the marginal effects of time spent in the United States reveals that their probability increases with assimilation. Supplementary analyses specify that Hispanic youth who enter the United States within their first 5 years of age will have higher odds of engaging in retail theft. Supportive parenting and a structured home environment is a consistent protective factor in the models. Policies targeting pro-family and social identification are likely to benefit immigrant youth as they acculturate to America.
Bibliography Citation
Stansfield, Richard. "A Multilevel Analysis of Hispanic Youth, Exposure to the United States, and Retail Theft." Race and Social Problems 4,2 (June 2012): 121-132.
1688. Stebbins, Richard Adiger
An Empirical Analysis of Informal Human Capital Investments in Adolescence as a Predictor of Life Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Activities, After School; Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Human Capital; Labor Force Participation; Television Viewing; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential impact of informal human capital investments made outside of the K-12 curriculum required for youth in the United States of America. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, this study examined the potential impact of three informal human capital investments made in adolescence on four life outcomes for those youths. Informal human capital investments outside of the classroom were measured by (1) the minutes youths spent reading for pleasure, (2) taking extra lessons, or (3) watching television. The four life outcomes examined were (1) educational attainment, (2) wages, (3) employment status, and (4) cognitive ability. The data were analyzed using several hierarchical regressions to assess the impact of these informal human capital investments made in adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Stebbins, Richard Adiger. An Empirical Analysis of Informal Human Capital Investments in Adolescence as a Predictor of Life Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University, 2019.
1689. Steidl, Ellyn
Raley, Kelly
Marital Quality and Educational Differences in Divorce
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Divorce; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marital Stability; Relationship Conflict

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past 30 years, the risk of divorce has increasingly diverged according to educational attainment. The purpose of this article is to understand why higher education is protective of marital stability. Two common theories--economic gains and non-cognitive skills--implicitly suggest that college graduates enjoy more stable marriages because of better marital quality. While the mechanism of marital quality is theoretically plausible, it has not been formally tested. Using the NLSY97 and Post-Secondary Transcript Study, we employ survival analysis to study whether closeness, conflict, and commitment explain educational differences in divorce. We find evidence that relationship characteristics do mediate some of the association between having a bachelor's degree and a lower divorce risk. Findings also suggest that certain relationship characteristics may be more important than others for marital stability. Our results support the idea that closeness has a stronger influence than either conflict or commitment in reducing the risk of divorce.
Bibliography Citation
Steidl, Ellyn and Kelly Raley. "Marital Quality and Educational Differences in Divorce." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
1690. Stein, Jillian
Does Industry Sector Matter? An Examination of the Relationship between Industry and Rearrest
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Industrial Classification

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Gainful employment is a crucial and normative force that can help individuals desist from crime and avoid repeat justice system contact (recidivism). Despite the importance of employment, people with prior justice contact are often unemployed or marginally employed in low-wage jobs, typically clustered within one of seven industries. This study hypothesized that working in certain industries would be more conducive to desistance than working in others, holding important variables like occupation constant. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and discrete-time hazard analysis with individual-fixed effects, this study tested whether working in particular industries was associated with risk of rearrest for adults with at least one prior arrest. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, this study also tested whether greater job availability in industries typically willing to hire people with prior justice contact was associated with risk of rearrest. After controlling for a number of important time-varying covariates such as educational attainment, occupation, and criminal history, being employed in the construction industry was associated with lower odds of rearrest relative to being employed in the food services industry or being unemployed. No other industries were significantly related to risk of rearrest across the full sample. Subgroup analyses revealed statistically significant differences in the correlation between industry of employment, job availability, and rearrest by gender, age, race and ethnicity, as well as by offense history. Supplemental analyses showed a nuanced interplay between industry and occupation that differed according to the industry and the subgroup examined. Potential explanations for these findings, limitations of the current study, and areas of future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Stein, Jillian. Does Industry Sector Matter? An Examination of the Relationship between Industry and Rearrest. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 2018.
1691. Stevens Andersen, Tia
Juvenile Arrest and Court Outcomes using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97)
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The literature of the last three decades shows the impact of race and ethnicity on police behavior and juvenile justice processing. One method of examining DMC with the justice system that has been neglected in research is the analysis of longitudinal individual-level data. This presentation will focus on the author's efforts to examine youth contact with the justice system using the NLSY97, a large, longitudinal, nationally-representative sample of individuals born between 1980 and 1984 who resided in the United States when data collection began in 1997. Although designed to examine school-to-labor force transitions among respondents, the NLSY97 collects extensive information on respondents' personal characteristics, migration patterns, delinquent and criminal behaviors, and contact with the justice system. The author will discuss advantages and challenges of working with the NLSY97 justice system contact data, as well as the results of recent research framed within racial/ethnic threat perspective that emphasizes the importance of community structural conditions that may partially explain disparities in youth arrest, intake, adjudication, and placement in a correctional institution.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens Andersen, Tia. "Juvenile Arrest and Court Outcomes using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97)." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2016.
1692. Stevens Andersen, Tia
Race, Ethnicity, and Structural Variations in Youth Risk of Arrest: Evidence From a National Longitudinal Sample
Criminal Justice and Behavior 42,9 (September 2015): 900-916.
Also: http://cjb.sagepub.com/content/42/9/900
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Geocoded Data; Racial Differences; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Missing from the considerable body of literature on disproportionate minority contact is an examination of the factors that influence risk of juvenile arrest. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the author examines racial/ethnic disparities in youth arrest, net of self-reported delinquency. Drawing from research using a minority threat perspective, this study examines whether disparities are exacerbated by macro levels of the relative size of the minority population and minority economic inequality. The results indicate Black youth have a higher risk of arrest than White youth in all contextual climates, but this disparity is magnified in predominantly non-Black communities. Differences between Hispanic and White youths' risk of arrest did not reach statistical significance or vary across communities. The findings failed to yield support for the threat perspective but strongly supported the benign neglect thesis. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens Andersen, Tia. "Race, Ethnicity, and Structural Variations in Youth Risk of Arrest: Evidence From a National Longitudinal Sample." Criminal Justice and Behavior 42,9 (September 2015): 900-916.
1693. Stevens, Heidi
Study: Financially Dependent Spouses Are More Likely to Cheat
Chicago Tribune, Life and Style Section, June 1, 2015.
Also: http://www.chicagotribune.com/lifestyles/ct-cheating-spouse-financial-dependency-balancing-20150601-column.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Chicago Tribune
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Economic Independence; Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Excerpt from the news article] People are more like to cheat as they become more economically dependent on their spouses, according to a study released Monday in the June issue of the American Sociological Review. (See journal article by Christin L. Munsch, "Her Support, His Support: Money, Masculinity, and Marital Infidelity." American Sociological Review 80,3 (June 2015): 469-495).

Other media outlets posted similar articles about the research. See, for instance, The Washington Post's 6/4/2015 Wonkblog article "The Fascinating Connection between How Much Married People Make and How Likely They Are to Cheat" by Max Ehrenfreund.

Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Heidi. "Study: Financially Dependent Spouses Are More Likely to Cheat." Chicago Tribune, Life and Style Section, June 1, 2015.
1694. Stevens, Tia
Effects of County and State Contextual Factors on Youth Disproportionate Contact with the Justice System
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Modeling, Multilevel; Racial Differences; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study identifies the county- and state-level political, economic, and social factors associated with severity of justice system response to youth. It also identifies which contextual factors moderate relationships between individual-level characteristics and severity of the justice system response. The data analyzed was created by joining the public-use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) with county- and state-specific data via the restricted use county-level NLSY97 geocode data. To take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 data, a combination of multilevel modeling techniques and generalized linear modeling was employed to examine the effects of individual characteristics and contextual conditions on youths’ hazard of arrest and probabilities of charge, a court appearance, conviction, and placement, controlling for self-reported delinquent behavior. This project has the potential to show whether economic, political, and social contexts have a disproportionate impact on the arrest, conviction, and placement of minority youth, especially young women of color. Knowing this may explain the high levels of disproportionate minority penetration into the juvenile justice system as well as girls’ increased proportion of juvenile justice system caseloads.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia. "Effects of County and State Contextual Factors on Youth Disproportionate Contact with the Justice System." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2013.
1695. Stevens, Tia
Effects of County and State Economic, Social, and Political Contexts on Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Youth's Penetration into the Justice System
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Racial Differences; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study is designed to extend the empirical and theoretical research on disproportionate youth contact with the justice system. Missing from the considerable body of work examining the effects of extralegal factors on police behavior and justice system processing is an examination of the social, political, and economic contextual factors that may influence disparities in justice system contact. The current study addresses this gap by identifying contextual factors associated with severity of justice system response to youth and by identifying the macro-structural environments that disproportionately affect young women and youth of color. Specifically, it examines the direct effects of county and state characteristics on youth risk of arrest and probabilities of charge, a court appearance, conviction, and placement and how the effects of individual characteristics and county and state characteristics interact to disproportionately impact certain groups of youth in certain environments.

The main dataset for this study was constructed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Using the confidential NLSY97 Geocode File, the NLSY97 was appended with county- and state-specific data from various publically available sources indicating structural disadvantage, population composition, political conservatism, prosecutor's office characteristics, delinquency petition and crime rates, gender inequity, child health and well-being, and juvenile justice policy punitiveness. To take advantage of the longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 data, a combination of multilevel modeling techniques, event history analysis, and generalized linear modeling was employed to examine the effects of individual characteristics and contextual conditions on youths' risk of arrest and probabilities of charge, a court appearance, conviction, and placement. The findings suggest that the effects of gender and racial/ethnic group on youth penetration into the justice system are more pronounced at some decision-making levels and depend on contextual environment.

The results of the analyses by race, gender, and ethnicity suggest three major findings. First, racial disparities are present in youth risk of arrest, which are magnified in predominately non-Black communities. However, this study also found evidence of a compensatory effect whereby Black youth receive more favorable court dispositions than their non-Black counterparts. Second, the gender gap in youth justice system processing depends on state climates of women and children's health and wellbeing. Specifically, as women and children's health and wellbeing decrease, the gender gap in processing narrows and, in the case of court appearance, reverses. Third and finally, Hispanic youth are treated disproportionately more harshly in states with poor climates of children's health and wellbeing and in states with less punitive juvenile justice systems. Overall, the findings indicate that the reduction of gender and racial/ethnic disparities is unlikely without commitment to the structural reform of inequalities. Intervention efforts to reduce disparities should be multifaceted and include community-based youth-serving organizations and human services agencies, in addition to criminal and juvenile justice agencies.

Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia. Effects of County and State Economic, Social, and Political Contexts on Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Youth's Penetration into the Justice System. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 2013.
1696. Stevens, Tia
Morash, Merry
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Boys' Probability of Arrest and Court Actions in 1980 and 2000: The Disproportionate Impact of "Getting Tough" on Crime
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 13,1 (January 2015): 77-95.
Also: http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/13/1/77.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Male Sample; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study was designed to examine whether the shift in juvenile justice policy toward punitive sanctioning disproportionately impacted racial and ethnic minority boys. Using a nationally representative sample derived from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 (NLSY79, NLSY97), this study examines 1980-2000 differences in contact with the justice system, controlling for self-reported delinquency. Results confirmed that boys in 2000 were significantly more likely than those in 1980 to report being charged with a crime. Once charged, they were less likely to be diverted and more likely to be convicted and placed in a correctional institution. Consideration of interaction effects revealed these effects were magnified for Black and Hispanic males. These findings provide evidence of a general trend toward more punitive treatment of boys in the juvenile justice system, especially racial and ethnic minority boys.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia and Merry Morash. "Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Boys' Probability of Arrest and Court Actions in 1980 and 2000: The Disproportionate Impact of "Getting Tough" on Crime." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 13,1 (January 2015): 77-95.
1697. Stevens, Tia
Morash, Merry
The Roles of School-Level and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics in Explaining Delinquency and Involvement with the Criminal Justice System: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Analysis
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the public-use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data, the confidential NLSY97 School Survey, the confidential NLSY97 Geocode data, and the public-use U.S. Census data to examine the effects of school and neighborhood context on delinquency, net of the effects of early delinquency, demographic characteristics, and individual risk and protective factors. We analyze the data using cross-classified multilevel models, because, although youth are nested within schools, schools are not perfectly nested within communities. A key early contribution of criminological theory and related research is that at the neighborhood level, ecological conditions are highly related to illegal activity, including delinquency. However, there is limited research examining the effects of school context after controlling for neighborhood contextual variables and individual risk/protective factors. It is important to identify school contextual influences that are negatively and positively related to delinquency. In an era of shrinking financial support for schools and an increasingly punitive juvenile justice system that in many jurisdictions has shifted away from rehabilitation, knowing whether certain features of schools have direct effects on delinquency or affect the connection of other variables to delinquency can inform decisions about investments in schools that might prevent or reduce delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia and Merry Morash. "The Roles of School-Level and Neighborhood-Level Characteristics in Explaining Delinquency and Involvement with the Criminal Justice System: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Analysis." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
1698. Stevens, Tia
Morash, Merry
Chesney-Lind, Meda
Are Girls Getting Tougher, or Are We Tougher on Girls? Probability of Arrest and Juvenile Court Oversight in 1980 and 2000
Justice Quarterly 28,5 (2011): 719-744.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418825.2010.532146
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Girls suspected or convicted of assaults make up an increasing proportion of juvenile arrests and court caseloads. There is indication that changes in domestic violence arrest policies, school handling of student rules infractions, and practices of charging youth for assaults rather than status offenses account for these trends. To determine whether girls were treated more harshly for assaults after these policies changed, the present study compared the probabilities of conviction and institutionalization, net of the effect of self-reported attacks on persons, for 1980 and 2000. Data were from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts. Girls experienced a unique increase in the probabilities of justice system involvement that was replicated only for Black males. The increase was magnified for Black girls. Additional research is needed to better connect specific policies to drawing selected subgroups more deeply into the justice system and on the consequences for affected youth.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia, Merry Morash and Meda Chesney-Lind. "Are Girls Getting Tougher, or Are We Tougher on Girls? Probability of Arrest and Juvenile Court Oversight in 1980 and 2000." Justice Quarterly 28,5 (2011): 719-744.
1699. Stevens, Tia
Morash, Merry
Park, Suyeon
Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence
Youth and Society 43,4 (December 2011): 1433-1458.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/43/4/1433.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Poverty; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of late-adolescent delinquency were compared for girls in and below the top 10% in self-reported early-adolescent delinquency. Girls who were higher in delinquency in early adolescence were resilient by 2002 if they had no incarcerated family members and high parental monitoring. Girls with little or no early delinquency were at risk for illegal activity by age 17 primarily due to contextual adversities, low hope for the future, poverty status, and minority racial status. Persistently delinquent girls require programming to address multiple risk and protective factors over an extended time. To prevent delinquency beginning later in adolescence, girls need safe community and school contexts.
Bibliography Citation
Stevens, Tia, Merry Morash and Suyeon Park. "Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence." Youth and Society 43,4 (December 2011): 1433-1458.
1700. Stewart, Holly
Modrek, Sepideh
Harrati, Amal
Work-Life Trajectories in Young Adulthood: Insights Across Generations of American Women
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, generations of women differ substantially in their labor market and socialization experiences when young, and a rich social sciences literature registers salient changes in labor market participation, cohabitation, marriage, and parenthood over the past half-century. A more concerted study of patterning of sociodemographic variables in time may provide key insights regarding patterns of social stratification across generations as well as long-run outcomes including lifetime earnings, risk of poverty in old age, life-expectancy, and overall health. In the present study, we explore work-life trajectories in young adulthood across two generations of American women using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 and identify sociologically meaningful, parsimonious set of work-life trajectories within each generation using sequence analysis. The present study adds to previous efforts to characterize work-life trajectories through inclusion of "disemployment" and "cohabitation" in our definitions of employment status and marital status, respectively.
Bibliography Citation
Stewart, Holly, Sepideh Modrek and Amal Harrati. "Work-Life Trajectories in Young Adulthood: Insights Across Generations of American Women." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
1701. Stillo, Marco
Rosenbaum, Janet E.
Sexual Double Standard and Men's Depression: Assessing the Association between Late Sexual Debut during Adolescence and Subsequent Depression in Two Nationally Representative Cohorts
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Depression (see also CESD); Gender Differences; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Introduction: Past research shows that adolescents who initiate sexual activity at a later age have lower risk of subsequent depression. However, this association is likely highly confounded. Our study evaluates whether male and female adolescents who have later sexual debut are less likely to become depressed, as well as whether this association varies by age cohort.

Methods: We used nearest neighbor matching on the NLSY79 and NLSY97 surveys, to evaluate the association between age of sexual debut and positive depression screening. We stratified by gender and matched on 11 baseline demographic, family, and sociocultural covariates. We then conducted logistic regressions to predict depression 8-10 years after first coitus was surveyed, based on whose sexual debut came before vs. after the age of eighteen.

Bibliography Citation
Stillo, Marco and Janet E. Rosenbaum. "Sexual Double Standard and Men's Depression: Assessing the Association between Late Sexual Debut during Adolescence and Subsequent Depression in Two Nationally Representative Cohorts." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2019.
1702. Stimpson, Matthew
Schneider, Daniel J.
Harknett, Kristen S.
Precarious Employment and Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Benefits, Fringe; Cohabitation; Employment, Intermittent; Job Characteristics; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men's and women's economic resources are important determinants of marriage timing. However, these resources have been measured in very narrow terms in the prior demographic and sociological literature, which generally only considers employment and earnings and does not incorporate more fine-grained measures of job precarity. And yet, scholarship on work and inequality focuses exactly on rising precarity in employment and suggests that this transformation may matter for the lifecourse. There is a notable disconnect then between these two important areas of research. In this paper, we analyze data on a nationally representative sample of the 1980-1984 U.S. birth cohort from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and examine the relationships between men's and women's economic circumstances and their entry into marital or cohabiting unions. We advance existing literature by moving beyond basic measures of employment and earnings to investigate how detailed measures of job quality matter for union formation. We find that men and women in less precarious jobs -- as measured by fringe benefits, compensation structures, and work schedules -- are more likely to marry. Further, differences in job precarity explain a portion of the educational gradient in entry into first marriage. We find that both men's and women's job quality matters for marriage entry. However, poor job quality is much less of a barrier to cohabitation than it is to marriage. Similar paper also presented Chicago IL, APPAM Fall Research Meeting, November 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Stimpson, Matthew, Daniel J. Schneider and Kristen S. Harknett. "Precarious Employment and Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
1703. Stone, Debra M.
Predictors of Military Enlistment: Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Socio-economic Status, Educational Achievement, and Delinquency
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, The Catholic University of America, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Military Enlistment; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Department of Defense enlists approximately 180,000 new military recruits each year and is considered the largest employer of young adults in the United States. Socio-economic support and educational tuition assistance are the two primary reasons indicated to enlist in the military. In recent studies, two other variables, delinquency and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), have also been shown to be linked to military enlistment. This study investigates these four variables as predictors of military enlistment. Predictors of military enlistment represent critical human and social influences on young adults making the transition from adolescence to adulthood and this knowledge is important for effective clinical and macro social work practice. For young adults with a history of delinquency and ACEs, the military may be one of the only organizations able to facilitate this transition. To investigate these variables as predictors of military enlistment, the study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) (1997) dataset to conduct a logistic regression analysis of four independent variables (socio-economic status, educational achievement, delinquency, and ACEs) on the dependent variable, military enlistment. The sample was formed through random selection of matching military enlistees with the same age, race, and gender characteristics to those who never enlisted. The independent variables were defined using data from the NLSY97 dataset for household income, educational level, delinquency index, and an ACEs score was constructed from ten variables from the NLSY97 dataset. The results of the study found that the interaction of delinquency with ACEs produced the strongest predictive factor of military enlistment (p < .05), which was followed by the interaction of delinquency with educational achievement (p < .05).
Bibliography Citation
Stone, Debra M. Predictors of Military Enlistment: Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Socio-economic Status, Educational Achievement, and Delinquency. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Social Work, The Catholic University of America, 2017.
1704. Stone, James R., III
The Impact of School-to-Work and Career and Technical Education in the United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997
Journal of Vocational Education and Training 54,4 (December 2002):532-574.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10042870&db=aph
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Triangle Journals Ltd
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Returns; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study explores changes in school-to-work and career and technical education participation between the 1996-97 and 1998-99 school years in the United States. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the author focused on changes in student characteristics. The study concludes that there are fewer differences between participants in school-to-work in the two years after the initial data collection. There also appears to be a trend toward less participation at each grade level in activities identified as school-to-work although there has been an increase in the proportion of students identified as a career and technical education (CTE) concentrator. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Stone, James R., III. "The Impact of School-to-Work and Career and Technical Education in the United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997." Journal of Vocational Education and Training 54,4 (December 2002):532-574.
1705. Stone, James R., III
Aliaga, Oscar A.
Career and Technical Education and School-to-Work at the End of the 20th Century: Participation and Outcomes
Career and Technical Education Research (CTER) 30,2 (2005): 125-143.
Also: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/CTER/v30n2/pdf/stone.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Career and Technical Education Research (ACTER)
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Ethnic Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Curriculum; High School Transcripts; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examined participation in the Career and Technical Education concentration (CTE), and School-to-Work activities at the end of the century following more than a decade of education reform in the United States. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we also explored whether school-to-work activities have extended beyond their traditional CTE curricular base and have become part of the high school experience for all youth. We explored the relationship between students' background characteristics and curriculum concentration and key education outcomes, including course-taking patterns, high school GPA, school completion, and post-school expectations. We concluded that there are ethnic, racial and socioeconomic differences among youth in the four curriculum concentrations. CTE concentrators, more than general concentrators, appear to benefit from changes aimed at increasing the academic rigor of their high school programs, as evidenced by their enrollment in math and science courses, high school GPA, and school completion.
Bibliography Citation
Stone, James R., III and Oscar A. Aliaga. "Career and Technical Education and School-to-Work at the End of the 20th Century: Participation and Outcomes." Career and Technical Education Research (CTER) 30,2 (2005): 125-143.
1706. Stone, James R., III
Aliaga, Oscar A.
Participation in Career and Technical Education and School-To-Work in American High Schools
In: Improving School-to-work Transitions. Neumark, D., ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007: pp. 59-86
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Preparation; Vocational Training

Bibliography Citation
Stone, James R., III and Oscar A. Aliaga. "Participation in Career and Technical Education and School-To-Work in American High Schools" In: Improving School-to-work Transitions. Neumark, D., ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2007: pp. 59-86
1707. Stone, James R., III
Kowske, Brenda J.
Alfeld, Corinne
Career and Technical Education in the Late 1990s: A Descriptive Study
Journal of Vocational Education Research 29,3 (2004): 195-223.
Also: http://acter.metapress.com/content/q336777v4m20201w/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Vocational Education Research Association
Keyword(s): High School Completion/Graduates; High School Curriculum; High School Transcripts; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education

We examined the prevalence of specific career and technical education (CTE) programs and activities in American high schools in the late 1990s, following a decade of education reform. We also examined the extent to which CTE-oriented professional development is available to school staff and explored the other kinds of supports offered in schools to facilitate career and technical education. School Survey data from 1996 and 2000 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 showed CTE programs were created or strengthened in the early 1990s, most notably in the areas of business and technology. School administrators perceived that CTE enrollment (a) increased during the 1990s due to the availability of these programs, and (b) were not affected by changes in graduation requirements. We also found that most schools offered more career development programs than work based learning or specific CTE activities. We concluded that CTE has made significant strides in the 1990.
Bibliography Citation
Stone, James R., III, Brenda J. Kowske and Corinne Alfeld. "Career and Technical Education in the Late 1990s: A Descriptive Study." Journal of Vocational Education Research 29,3 (2004): 195-223.
1708. Storm, Caitlin
The Intergenerational Transfer of Criminal Justice Involvement: Risk and Protective Factors as Moderating Variables
Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Community and Global Health, The Claremont Graduate University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Fathers and Children; Incarceration/Jail; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 was used to analyze the effect of the father's criminal justice involvement on his child's. Using binary logistic regression models, predictor variables were included in a step-wise fashion to identify the role that a father's imprisonment, as well as risk and protective factors, play in the child's future likelihood of arrest and incarceration. The risk and protective factors served as proxies for trauma and resilience, respectively, and were analyzed to determine if they also served as moderators. The results showed that while the risk and protective factors were significant predictors of a child's future arrest and incarceration, they did not moderate the relationship between the father's imprisonment and the child’s criminal justice involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Storm, Caitlin. The Intergenerational Transfer of Criminal Justice Involvement: Risk and Protective Factors as Moderating Variables. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Community and Global Health, The Claremont Graduate University, 2019.
1709. Streeter, Jialu
Sims, Tamara
Deevy, Martha
Generational Shifts in Life Course Trajectories: Implications for Homeownership by Age 30
In: Sightlines Special Report: Seeing Our Way to Financial Security in the Age of Increased Longevity, Stanford Center on Longevity, October 2018.
Also: http://longevity.stanford.edu/sightlines-financial-security-special-report/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Stanford Center on Longevity
Keyword(s): Home Ownership; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Life Course; Marriage; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this report, we examine whether age trajectories of homeownership are changing in line with shifts observed in other significant decisions with financial implications (e.g., acquiring student debt, getting married, etc.). We also examine whether rates are likely to bounce back in line with real estate trends of the past. Two data sources were used: the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and the Stanford Center on Longevity Milestones Survey from 2017.
Bibliography Citation
Streeter, Jialu, Tamara Sims and Martha Deevy. "Generational Shifts in Life Course Trajectories: Implications for Homeownership by Age 30." In: Sightlines Special Report: Seeing Our Way to Financial Security in the Age of Increased Longevity, Stanford Center on Longevity, October 2018.
1710. Stritzel, Haley
Grandparent Coresidence and Foster Care Entry Over Time: Evidence From the NLSY79 and NLSY97
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Coresidence; Foster Care; Grandparents; Mothers, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the past few decades, an increasing proportion of children live with their grandparents, either with their parents in multigenerational households or with no parents present. At the same time, more children are entering the foster care system. Although research has considered the implications of foster care and grandparent coresidence for child well-being separately, fewer studies have considered links between these two trends. This study uses data on children born to teenage mothers in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 and multinomial discrete-time hazard models to investigate the predictors of entering foster or kinship care. Results indicated that grandparent coresidence reduced the risk of foster care entrance among children born to adolescent mothers in the 1979, but not 1997, cohort. These results support the hypothesis that the additional requirements and limitations imposed by the 1996 welfare reform weakened the role grandparents previously played in maintaining family preservation.
Bibliography Citation
Stritzel, Haley. "Grandparent Coresidence and Foster Care Entry Over Time: Evidence From the NLSY79 and NLSY97." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
1711. Studley, Sarah S.
Non-Economic Benefits of Obtaining a GED
M.A. Thesis, Georgetown University, 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Georgetown University
Keyword(s): Benefits; Criminal Justice System; Dropouts; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This thesis evaluates the non-economic benefits associated with obtaining a General Educational Development (GED) credential. I hypothesized that are be statistically significant benefits to earning a GED in an individual's substance use, criminal behavior, and sexual behavior, controlling for factors such as age and income. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), I used a fixed effects model to estimate the effect, if any, of earning a GED while holding factors such as income and age constant. Specifically, number of arrests, daily cigarette consumption, monthly marijuana consumption, yearly instances of hard drug use, number of sexual partners, general sexual activity, and sexual promiscuity were analyzed. Because of the potential correlation between earning a GED and interactions with the criminal justice system, the latter regressions were also analyzed holding number of arrests constant. Additionally, results were analyzed by GED program type in order to discern the true non-economic benefits of earning a GED beyond those caused by coincidental criminal sanctions. Although the magnitude of the effects varied depending on the model employed, the analysis suggests that there are unambiguous benefits associated with earning a GED beyond those associated with improvements in income.
Bibliography Citation
Studley, Sarah S. Non-Economic Benefits of Obtaining a GED. M.A. Thesis, Georgetown University, 2010.
1712. Sturgeon, Samuel Woolley
The Effects of Welfare Eligibility and Abortion Restrictions on the Pregnancy Decisions of Young Women
Ph.D. Dissertation, Human Development and Family Studies and Demography, The Pennsylvania State University, May 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: College of Health and Human Development, Pennsylvania State University
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Family Formation; Family History; Geocoded Data; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; State Welfare; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data on state abortion restrictions, state family formation related welfare policy stringency, and the fertility and pregnancy histories of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97), this project examined whether or not state welfare and abortion policies between 1997 and 2004 are related to one another, and whether these polices affect the decisions of young mothers regarding pregnancy and pregnancy resolution. One of the major goals of the 1996 welfare reforms was to reduce non-marital fertility as a means of reducing welfare dependence. However, some groups feared that efforts to limit non-marital fertility would lead to an increase in abortion. Moreover, economic theory suggests that strict welfare and abortion policies may be working at cross purposes with one another. In general, I find that states with more stringent abortion policies tended to adopt more stringent family formation related welfare polices; however, stringent state welfare and abortion policies were only mildly correlated over this time period ( r = 0.11). Moreover, I find some evidence to suggest that state policy stringency summary scores may be a better means of examining the effects of state policy stringency than estimating the effects of specific individual policies. In general, state welfare and abortion policies did not appear to affect either the likelihood of pregnancy among all of the women in the sample, or the likelihood that the pregnant women in the sample would elect to have an abortion over a live birth. In addition, there was little evidence to suggest that stringent state welfare and abortion polices are working at cross purposes when it comes to women's pregnancy decisions. Overall, the characteristics of the survey sample (e.g. too small, too homogeneous, not representative at the state level, etc.) made it difficult to isolate the effects of state policies on the respondents' pregnancy decisions net of other unmeasured state charact eristics, thus making it impossible to assess the effects of these policies with this data.
Bibliography Citation
Sturgeon, Samuel Woolley. The Effects of Welfare Eligibility and Abortion Restrictions on the Pregnancy Decisions of Young Women. Ph.D. Dissertation, Human Development and Family Studies and Demography, The Pennsylvania State University, May 2009.
1713. Sturgeon, Samuel Woolley
The Relationship Between Family Structure and Adolescent Sexual Activity
Special Report No 1, FamilyFacts.org, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC, November 2008.
Also: http://www.familyfacts.org/featuredfinding/ff_01.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Women
Publisher: The Heritage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Birth; Contraception; Family Structure; Household Structure; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides a systematic review of the research literature examining the relationship between family structure and adolescent sexual activity. Adolescents from intact family structures tend to delay sexual initiation until a significantly older age than their peers from non-intact family backgrounds. Adolescents from intact families are less likely to have ever had sexual intercourse, have had on average fewer sexual partners, are less likely to report a sexually transmitted disease, and are less likely to have ever experienced a pregnancy or live birth when compared to their peers from non-intact families. However, the effects of family structure on all adolescent sexual outcomes other than sexual debut tend to operate primarily through the delay in sexual debut experienced by adolescents from intact families. Age, race, and gender differences are discussed, as well as methodological challenges associated with the study of family structure and adolescent sexual outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Sturgeon, Samuel Woolley. "The Relationship Between Family Structure and Adolescent Sexual Activity." Special Report No 1, FamilyFacts.org, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC, November 2008.
1714. Subair, Lateef A.
Excess Zeros, Endogenous Binary Indicators, and Self-selection Bias with Application to First Marriage, Smoking and Drinking Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Mississippi, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Marriage; Modeling, Probit; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation examines empirical application of the zero-inflated ordered probit (ZIOP) model to the impact of first marriages on smoking and alcoholic beverage consumption. The data for this study is drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997). In my ZIOP model analysis of the impact of first marriage on smoking and alcoholic consumption, I juxtaposed the ZIOP model with popular models in health economics literature like the ordered probit (OP) model, the ordered probit endogenous dummy (OP-ED) model, the zero-inflated ordered probit model correlated (ZIOPC) and the Heckman sample selection ordered probit (SSOP) model. The analysis highlighted four sets of result. First, all the statistical tests of the model specifications, including the Vuong test, and information criteria, show that the ZIOP model of the impact of marriage on smoking and alcoholic beverage consumption is superior to the OP, OP-ED, SSOP, and ZIOPC models. Second, first marriages increase the probability of zero consumption of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. Third, conditional on participation, the probability of zero alcohol consumption is not significantly different from zero. The converse is true for the smoking sample. Last, the benefits of first marriage in terms of reduced smoking and drinking is diminishing in the ordinal levels of the intensities of tobacco and alcoholic beverage consumption.
Bibliography Citation
Subair, Lateef A. Excess Zeros, Endogenous Binary Indicators, and Self-selection Bias with Application to First Marriage, Smoking and Drinking Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Mississippi, 2018.
1715. Sugie, Naomi
Beyond Incarceration: The Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact for Mental Health
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Health, Mental; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing literature documents the deleterious consequences of incarceration for mental health. Although salient, incarceration is only one form of custodial citizenship in the United States and, accordingly, considering only incarceration may mask the extent to which the criminal justice system is associated with poor mental health. In this paper, we use the stress process paradigm, along with nationally representative survey data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), to examine the relationship between criminal justice contact--defined as arrest, conviction, and incarceration--and mental health. First, we find that arrest and conviction are more commonly experienced than incarceration and that, similar to incarceration, arrest and conviction are concentrated among race/ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged individuals. Second, results from fixed-effects models, which adjust for stable characteristics of respondents, document that arrest, conviction, and incarceration have similar deleterious consequences for mental health. Third, we find that the association between criminal justice contact and mental health is concentrated among those who resided in highly disadvantaged neighborhoods during adolescence. Taken together, these results suggest that the consequences of criminal justice system contact for mental health have been vastly underestimated.
Bibliography Citation
Sugie, Naomi. "Beyond Incarceration: The Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact for Mental Health." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
1716. Sugie, Naomi
Conner, Emma
Marginalization or Incorporation? Welfare Receipt and Political Participation among Young Adults
Social Problems published online (12 November 2020): DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spaa050/5979691.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/socpro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/socpro/spaa050/5979691
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy; Voting Behavior; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior scholarship finds that participation in means-tested welfare programs, including cash assistance and food stamps, deters political participation among groups that are already politically and socioeconomically marginalized. We revisit these findings within a contemporary context using nationally representative data, along with fixed-effects models that adjust for time-stable unobserved and time-varying observed characteristics. In contrast to prior research, we find little evidence that cash assistance is related to participation. However, food stamps--a benefits program that has undergone substantial changes in recent years--is positively associated with being registered to vote. Moreover, food stamps has countervailing associations with voting--e.g., marginalizing and incorporating--that depend on a person's attention to politics. Together, these findings revise our understanding of how welfare influences political inequalities and advances policy feedback scholarship by identifying heterogeneity by political attentiveness as a focus of future inquiry.
Bibliography Citation
Sugie, Naomi and Emma Conner. "Marginalization or Incorporation? Welfare Receipt and Political Participation among Young Adults." Social Problems published online (12 November 2020): DOI: 10.1093/socpro/spaa050/5979691.
1717. Sugie, Naomi
Turney, Kristin
Beyond Incarceration: Criminal Justice Contact and Mental Health
American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 719-743.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122417713188
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Health, Mental; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing literature documents deleterious consequences of incarceration for mental health. Although salient, incarceration is only one form of criminal justice contact and, accordingly, focusing on incarceration may mask the extent to which the criminal justice system influences mental health. Using insights from the stress process paradigm, along with nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine criminal justice contact--defined as arrest, conviction, and incarceration--and mental health. First, fixed-effects models, which adjust for stable unobserved and time-varying observed characteristics, show that arrest is deleteriously associated with mental health, and arrest accounts for nearly half of the association between incarceration and poor mental health, although certain types of incarceration appear more consequential than others. Second, the associations are similar across race and ethnicity; this, combined with racial/ethnic disparities in contact, indicates that criminal justice interactions exacerbate minority health inequalities. Third, the associations between criminal justice contact, especially arrest and incarceration, and mental health are particularly large among respondents residing in contextually disadvantaged areas during adolescence. Taken together, the results suggest that the consequences of criminal justice contact for mental health have a far greater reach than previously considered.
Bibliography Citation
Sugie, Naomi and Kristin Turney. "Beyond Incarceration: Criminal Justice Contact and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 719-743.
1718. Suh, Jingyo
Trends Over Time in the High School Dropouts
Proceedings of American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences (ASBBS) 18,1 (February, 2011): 928-944.
Also: http://asbbs.org/files/2011/ASBBS2011v1/PDF/S/SuhJ.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences
Keyword(s): High School Dropouts; Higher Education; Regions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Over the last three decades, the high school dropout rate declined and the high school completion rate increased. This study identifies causes for the decline in the dropout rate over the periods using decomposition analysis. Traditional cross-section analysis was inadequate to perform this task. Using the two cohort surveys of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in the 1980s and 2000s, we separated changes in characteristics into two parts: explained change and unexplained change. Results of the research suggest that the common explanations for the characteristic of school dropout account for little of the decline of the rate. Relatively unnoticeable factors such as location and regions contributed to the decline of the dropout rate while socioeconomic, personal, familial factors contributed to increase the dropout rate.
Bibliography Citation
Suh, Jingyo. "Trends Over Time in the High School Dropouts." Proceedings of American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences (ASBBS) 18,1 (February, 2011): 928-944.
1719. Suh, Suhyun
Suh, Jingyo
Changing Pattern and Process of High School Dropouts between 1980s and 2000s
Educational Research Quarterly 34,4 (June 2011): 3-13
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: School of Education, University of Southern California - Los Angeles
Keyword(s): Family Influences; High School Dropouts; Methods/Methodology; Regions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There has been a general decline in the dropout rate and an increase in the high school completion rate over the last three decades. This research investigates causes for the decline in the dropout rate over the periods using decomposition analysis. Traditional cross-section analysis was inadequate to perform this task. Using the two cohort surveys of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in the 1980s and 2000s, we separated changes in characteristics into two parts: explained change and unexplained change. Results of the research suggest that the common explanations for the characteristic of school dropout account for little of the decline of the rate. Relatively unnoticeable factors such as location and regions contributed to the decline of the dropout rate while socioeconomic, personal, familial factors contributed to increase the dropout rate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Educational Research Quarterly is the property of Educational Research Quarterly and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Suh, Suhyun and Jingyo Suh. "Changing Pattern and Process of High School Dropouts between 1980s and 2000s." Educational Research Quarterly 34,4 (June 2011): 3-13.
1720. Suh, Suhyun
Suh, Jingyo
Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts
Professional School Counseling 10,3 (February 2007): 297-306
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American School Counselor Association (ASCA)
Keyword(s): GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop our vary for different sources of risk, and thus there should be a range of prevention strategies offered to accommodate for this variance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) database from the U.S. Department of Labor were used in this study. Participants were selected using a nationally representative sample of approximately 9,000 youths who were 12 to 16 years old as of December 31, 1996. The Department of Labor conducted the initial survey (Round 1) in 1997. In that round, both the eligible youth and one of that youth's parents received hour-long personal interviews. Youths have been reinterviewed annually since then. Data from rounds 1-5 of the NLSY97/01 were released in August 2003. The data in this report excluded 2,792 students who either were enrolled in high school or were not enrolled but working toward a General Educational Development (GED) certificate, because they had neither completed high school nor dropped out. Composing the final sample were 3,111 males and 3,081 females who either completed high school or dropped out without receiving a diploma or a GED by December 31, 2000, Among the 6,192 students in the sample, 5,244 completed high school with a diploma or GED, and 948 did not.

Copyright of Professional School Counseling is the property of American School Counselor Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Suh, Suhyun and Jingyo Suh. "Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts." Professional School Counseling 10,3 (February 2007): 297-306.
1721. Suh, Suhyun
Suh, Jingyo
Houston, Irene
Predictors of Categorical At-Risk High School Dropouts
Journal of Counseling & Development 85,2 (Spring 2007): 196-203
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): High School Transcripts; School Dropouts; Socioeconomic Factors

The authors attempted to identify key contributing factors to school dropout among 3 categories of at-risk students: those with low grade point averages, those who had been suspended, and those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Logistic regression analysis of the data, which were derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--1997 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002) indicated that student dropout rates were affected differently by students' membership in the 3 at-risk categories [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Counseling & Development is the property of American Counseling Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Suh, Suhyun, Jingyo Suh and Irene Houston. "Predictors of Categorical At-Risk High School Dropouts." Journal of Counseling & Development 85,2 (Spring 2007): 196-203.
1722. Sullivan, Paul
To, Ted
Search and Nonwage Job Characteristics
Journal of Human Resources 49,2 (Spring 2014): 472-507.
Also: http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/49/2/472.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Job Characteristics; Job Search; Mobility, Job

This paper quantifies the importance of nonwage job characteristics to workers by estimating a structural on-the-job search model. The model generalizes the standard search framework by allowing workers to search for jobs based on both wages and job-specific nonwage utility flows. Within the structure of the search model, data on accepted wages and wage changes at job transitions identify the importance of nonwage utility through revealed preference. The estimates reveal that utility from nonwage job characteristics plays an important role in determining job mobility, the value of jobs to workers, and the gains from job search.
Bibliography Citation
Sullivan, Paul and Ted To. "Search and Nonwage Job Characteristics." Journal of Human Resources 49,2 (Spring 2014): 472-507.
1723. Sun, Shengwei
Changing Patterns, Persisting Logic: Racial Inequality in Young Men's Transition to Paid Care Work Jobs
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Occupations, Male; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men have slowly increased their presence in paid care work jobs that have long been considered as "women’s jobs" in the United States. This trend has taken place in the context of economic restructuring since the 1970s, with the U.S. job structure becoming polarized between "good" jobs and "bad" jobs in terms of pay and job security. The growth of paid care work jobs is characterized by racial disparity, but the mechanisms behind the racialized patterns remain unclear. Using individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 and 97, this study examines the determinants of entering low-paying versus well-paying care work jobs among two cohorts of young men who joined the workforce under different labor market conditions. Findings suggest changing patterns of racial inequality corresponding to larger job growth patterns since the 1980s. I argue that a persisting logic of a racialized "labor queue" underlies these changing patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Sun, Shengwei. "Changing Patterns, Persisting Logic: Racial Inequality in Young Men's Transition to Paid Care Work Jobs." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
1724. Sun, Shengwei
Intersecting Inequalities in the Paid Care Work Sector Under Changing Social and Economic Contexts
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, 2018.
Also: https://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/21305
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Maryland
Keyword(s): Gender Attitudes/Roles; Occupations, Male; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation focuses on the expanding paid care work sector as a key terrain for examining labor market inequalities in the United States and China, with three papers attending to different aspects of social stratification. In the U.S., men's presence in care work jobs remains rare despite the fast job growth in education and health care and the decline in traditionally male-dominated manufacturing sectors. Despite growing public interest, little is known about the reasons and pathways of men's transition into care work jobs. The popular discourse attributes men's reluctance to a matter of gender identity, whereas scholars adopting a structural approach argue that men have little incentive to enter care work jobs mainly because those jobs are underpaid. The first paper examines how well the structural and cultural approaches, respectively, explain why men enter care work jobs or not. Moreover, care work jobs have been increasingly polarized in terms of pay and job security since the 1970s, and the polarizing pattern of care work job growth is characterized by racial disparity. Is such pattern driven by racial disparity in education and labor market experience, and/or by racial discrimination? The second paper addresses this question by examining the changing determinants of entering into low-paying versus middle-to-high-paying care work jobs between two cohorts of young men who joined the workforce under different labor market conditions. Findings suggest a persisting logic of a racialized "labor queue" underlying the changing patterns of racial inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Sun, Shengwei. Intersecting Inequalities in the Paid Care Work Sector Under Changing Social and Economic Contexts. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, 2018..
1725. Sun, Shengwei
Who Can Access the "Good" Jobs? Racial Disparities in Employment among Young Men Who Work in Paid Care
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 688,1 (March 2020): 55-76 Article first published online: April 20, 2020; Issue published: March 1, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Male Sample; Occupational Status; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men have slowly increased their presence in paid care jobs that have long been considered as "women's jobs.” But job growth in the paid care sector is polarized between "good” jobs"and "bad” jobs in terms of pay and job security, and racial minority men are more likely to enter low-paying care-work jobs. Using work history data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997, this study examines the patterns and mechanisms of racial disparity in young men’s access to jobs of varying pay levels in the care-work sector and how such patterns have changed as the labor market has become more precarious and unequal. Findings suggest that young black men--especially those without a college education--have been increasingly excluded from accessing “good” jobs in the paid care sector. Moreover, this black-white disparity cannot be fully explained by racial differences in individual-level characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Sun, Shengwei. "Who Can Access the "Good" Jobs? Racial Disparities in Employment among Young Men Who Work in Paid Care." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 688,1 (March 2020): 55-76 Article first published online: April 20, 2020; Issue published: March 1, 2020.
1726. Sun, Xiaodong
Can Homeschooling Be an Alternative Schooling Choice?
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; College Degree; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, OLS; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 1: This chapter reviews the literature on homeschooling's historical and social origins, and, for the first time, uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 dataset to study the characteristics of homeschooling families and their homeschooled youth. I use probit and multinomial regression models to investigate if these characteristics have any correlations with homeschooling. I found that parents' education level, religion, child health and number of children have significant roles in the choice of homeschooling. The structure of homeschooling family is more fragile and both parents' education attainments are lower than parents of children attending regular schools. Finally, the homeschooled population is more homogeneous than previously thought.

Chapter 2: How homeschooling affects homeschooled youth is critical to the public acceptance of homeschooling as a viable education choice. I focus on homeschoolers' college admission tests, college enrollment and degree, and labor income in their early career. I found that generally homeschoolers fall behind regular school students. I also use OLS and probit models to test for a relationship between homeschooling and college degree and labor income. I found negative and statistically significant effects of homeschooling on both completion of college degree and labor income. To control for selection issue I use propensity score matching and a methodology developed by Altonji et al in 2005 to reexamine the relationship between college degree and homeschooling. The results confirm the negative effect from homeschooling.

Chapter 3: Previous empirical studies have not considered whether schooling type such as public, private or homeschooling influences age at first marriage. Homeschooling could be an important factor in this decision, as it could allow parents to mold their attitudes toward marriage more closely. I use Cox Hazard Model to explore the relationship between schooling style and the timing of marriage along with other factors widely used in other literatures. As I find comparable results for many other factors that could have impact on the age of marriage, it shows little evidence that different schooling modes affect the age at first marriage. I argue the reason behind this phenomenon might be due to homeschooling efficiency and homeschoolers' sociability.

Bibliography Citation
Sun, Xiaodong. Can Homeschooling Be an Alternative Schooling Choice? Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015.
1727. Sussman, Abigail B.
On Positive and Negative Attributes in Perceptions of Value
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, June 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Net Worth; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Perceptions of wealth influence a range of financial decisions. A consumer who feels wealthy may be more likely to purchase an expensive car or take an exotic vacation, and may be more likely to borrow if she needs funds to do so. Net worth (a person's assets minus her debt) is generally accepted as a concrete measure of financial wealth. However, I demonstrate that perceptions of wealth can vary when both net worth and social context are held constant. The composition of net worth--assets and debt--can affect wealth perception. Holding total wealth constant, people with positive net worth feel and are seen as wealthier when they have lower debt (despite having fewer assets). In contrast, people with equal but negative net worth feel and are considered wealthier when they have greater assets (despite having larger debt). I demonstrate that these patterns can influence important financial behaviors: those who have favored allocations of assets and debt express a higher willingness to spend on a variety of goods and a higher willingness to borrow additional money to purchase items they could not otherwise afford. This suggests the counter-intuitive outcome that borrowing and spending can appear more attractive to those who can least afford it. Next, I provide support for a shift in attention from debt for those with negative net worth to assets for those with positive net worth contributing to this pattern, and I show that parallels to these preferences can be observed in other domains where positive and negative components net against each other. I conclude by discussing policy implications of these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Sussman, Abigail B. On Positive and Negative Attributes in Perceptions of Value. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, June 2013.
1728. Swanson, Ana
Most Thieves Are Actually Really Bad at What They Do
Washington Post, October 12, 2015, Wonkblog.
Also: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/10/12/the-surprising-truth-about-how-many-of-us-are-actually-thieves/?utm_term=.26cd59c15767
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Washington Post
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Crime

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to a new study of long-term data on theft, the typical story is one of bumbling teens, most of whom quickly grow out of their bad habits. Most thieves are active only for a short period of time and make very little money at it, economist Geoffrey Fain Williams of Transylvania University has found. In fact, theft looks not so much like a way of getting free stuff or money as a stage some people experience in adolescence -- and most grow out of. [News media article based on Williams, Geoffrey. "Property Crime: Investigating Career Patterns and Earnings." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 119 (November 2015): 124-138]
Bibliography Citation
Swanson, Ana. "Most Thieves Are Actually Really Bad at What They Do." Washington Post, October 12, 2015, Wonkblog.
1729. Sweet, Corrine M. G.
Studying Unicorns: Single-Father Student Educational Attainment and Tinto's Model
Ed.D. Dissertation, Adult and Career Education, Valdosta State University, 2021
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Fathers; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This quantitative study utilized Tinto's model of academic attrition and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to explore the educational attainment of a rarely studied group, single-father students.

For the first question, "What effects do the parental status, marital status, and gender of a student have on educational attainment?" data collected for the NLSY97, n = 8,984, was utilized to compare academic attainment amongst participants in regards to gender, marital status, and parental status. Through a series of non-parametric tests, it was found that single, childless, female students had higher educational attainment than any other group, followed by married parent-students of both genders and single-mother students.

For the second question, "What effects do Tinto's pre-entry attributes of family background, skills and abilities, and prior schooling, have on educational attainment of the single-father student?" the impact of seven independent variables, representing Tinto's pre-entry attributes, on educational attainment for single-father students, n = 44 after removal of incomplete records, was studied. Non-parametric tests were utilized to study the relationship between the seven independent variables and educational attainment; an ordered logistic regression was conducted to study the relationship between the independent variables as a group and educational attainment of the single-father student. Results were largely non-significant; however, positive relationships were found to exist between educational attainment and occupation, parents in the childhood home, and average hours worked per week. While non-significant, these results do provide insight into potential future areas of research regarding the single-father student.

Bibliography Citation
Sweet, Corrine M. G. Studying Unicorns: Single-Father Student Educational Attainment and Tinto's Model. Ed.D. Dissertation, Adult and Career Education, Valdosta State University, 2021.
1730. Sweeten, Gary
Causal Inference with Group-Based Trajectories and Propensity Score Matching: Is High School Dropout a Turning Point?
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. DAI-A 67/03, September 2006.
Also: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1126791291&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; High School Dropouts; Life Course; Modeling; Scale Construction; Self-Reporting; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Life course criminology focuses on trajectories of deviant or criminal behavior punctuated by turning point events that redirect trajectories onto a different path. There is no consensus in the field on how to measure turning points. In this study I ask: Is high school dropout a turning point in offending trajectories? I utilize two kinds of matching methods to answer this question: matching based on semi-parametric group-based trajectory models, and propensity score matching. These methods are ideally suited to measure turning points because they explicitly model counterfactual outcomes which can be used to estimate the effect of turning point events over time.

It has been suggested that dropout is the end result of a process of disengagement from school. In order to assess the effect of the event of dropout, it is necessary to separate dropout from the processes that lead to it. The extent to which this is accomplished by matching is assessed by comparing dropouts to matched non-dropouts on numerous background characteristics. As such, it is desirable to use a wide range of measures to compare the two groups.

I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to address this question. Delinquency is measured in two ways: a six-item variety scale and a scale based on a graded-response model. Dropout is based on self-reports of educational attainment supplemented with official transcripts provided by high schools. Because of the breadth of topics covered in this survey, it is very well-suited to matching methods. The richness of these data allows comparisons on over 300 characteristics to assess whether the assumptions of matching methods are plausible.

I find that matching based on trajectory models is unable to achieve balance in pre-dropout characteristics between dropouts and non-dropouts. Propensity score matching successfully achieves balance, but dropout effects are indistinguishable from zero. I conclude that first-time dropout betw een the ages of 16 and 18 is not a turning point in offending trajectories. Implications for life course criminology and dropout research are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. Causal Inference with Group-Based Trajectories and Propensity Score Matching: Is High School Dropout a Turning Point? Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. DAI-A 67/03, September 2006..
1731. Sweeten, Gary
School Dropout and Subsequent Offending: Distinguishing Selection from Causation
M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2004. MAI 42/04, p. 1170, Aug 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; High School Dropouts; Modeling, Random Effects; School Dropouts

Past research on the relationship between school dropout and offending is inconclusive. In explaining their findings, researchers have focused on strain and control theories, and have been unable to rule out selection effects. A key advance in understanding the effect of high school dropout is disaggregation by reason for dropout. Waves one through five of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is used to answer the question: Does dropout have a causal impact on offending? Dropouts are divided into four groups depending on reason given for dropout: personal, school, economic and other. Estimation of a random effects model indicates that dropout for school reasons and "other" reasons causes a small temporary increase in the frequency of offending whereas dropout for personal or economic reasons does not affect frequency of offending. It also shows that youths who drop out for school reasons have higher rates of offending across all five waves compared to non-dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. School Dropout and Subsequent Offending: Distinguishing Selection from Causation. M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2004. MAI 42/04, p. 1170, Aug 2004.
1732. Sweeten, Gary
Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Education by Arrest and Court Involvement
Justice Quarterly 23,4 (December 2006): 462-480.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820600985313
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Arrests; Behavior, Antisocial; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Educational Attainment; High School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Little research has assessed the effects of juvenile justice involvement during high school on educational outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study assesses the effect of first-time arrest and court involvement during high school on educational attainment. In addition, differential effects by structural location are examined. Findings suggest support for the labeling perspective. First-time court appearance during high school increases the chances of dropping out of high school independent of involvement in delinquency. Furthermore, the effect of court appearance is particularly detrimental to less delinquent youths.
Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. "Who Will Graduate? Disruption of High School Education by Arrest and Court Involvement." Justice Quarterly 23,4 (December 2006): 462-480.
1733. Sweeten, Gary
Apel, Robert John
Incapacitation: Revisiting an Old Question with a New Method and New Data
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23,4 (December 2007): 303-326.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a260178u063702lx/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Crime; Incarceration/Jail; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to obtain estimates of the number of crimes avoided through incapacitation of individual offenders. Incarcerated individuals are matched to comparable non-incarcerated counterparts using propensity score matching. Propensity scores for incarceration are calculated using a wide variety of time-stable and time-varying confounding variables. We separately analyze juvenile (age 16 or 17) and adult (age 18 or 19) incapacitation effects. Our best estimate is that between 6.2 and 14.1 offenses are prevented per year of juvenile incarceration, and 4.9 to 8.4 offenses are prevented per year of adult incarceration. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Quantitative Criminology is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary and Robert John Apel. "Incapacitation: Revisiting an Old Question with a New Method and New Data." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23,4 (December 2007): 303-326.
1734. Sweeten, Gary
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Does Dropping Out Of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?
Criminology 47,1 (February 2009): 47-91.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00139.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Ethnic Differences; High School Diploma; High School Dropouts; Hispanic Youth; Racial Differences; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Approximately one third of U.S. high-school freshmen do not earn their high-school diploma on time. For African-American and Hispanic students, this figure nearly reaches one half. The long-term economic consequences of dropping out of school for both the student and the larger community have been well documented. It has also been argued that school dropouts put themselves at a higher risk for delinquent and criminal behavior when they leave school. Although it seems plausible that dropping out might increase the potential for delinquent conduct, another view states that dropping out is simply the final event in a long, gradual process of disenchantment and disengagement from school. Dropouts show evidence of school failure and developmental problems years in advance. It has been argued, therefore, that the actual event of finally leaving school has no causal effect on criminal or delinquent behavior because it has been so long in coming. In this article, we examine the effect of leaving school early, and the reason for dropping out, on delinquent behavior with the use of panel data models from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Through an appeal to identity theory, we hypothesize that the effect of dropping out is not uniform but varies by the reason for leaving school, gender, and time. This conjecture receives only partial empirical support. Implications for future work in the area are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Criminology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary, Shawn D. Bushway and Raymond Paternoster. "Does Dropping Out Of School Mean Dropping Into Delinquency?" Criminology 47,1 (February 2009): 47-91.
1735. Sweeten, Gary
Fine, Adam D.
Dynamic Risk Factors for Handgun Carrying: Are There Developmental or Sex Differences?
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology published online (11 August 2020): DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2020.1796679.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15374416.2020.1796679
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Handguns, carrying or using

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary and Adam D. Fine. "Dynamic Risk Factors for Handgun Carrying: Are There Developmental or Sex Differences?" Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology published online (11 August 2020): DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2020.1796679.
1736. Swensen, Isaac D.
Essays on the Economics of Health and Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Oregon, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Achievement; Alcohol Use; College Education; Educational Attainment; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; School Performance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I present empirical research considering the response of health and educational outcomes to alcohol consumption, drug abuse, and collegiate athletics. Chapter II [NLSY97] considers the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. The empirical approach identifies the effect through changes in students’ performance after gaining legal access to alcohol, controlling flexibly for the expected evolution of grades as students make progress towards their degrees. The estimates indicate that students’ grades fall below their expected levels upon being able to drink legally but by less than previously documented.
Bibliography Citation
Swensen, Isaac D. Essays on the Economics of Health and Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Oregon, 2013.
1737. Sylwestrzak, Malgorzata T.
Do Subjective Beliefs Affect Obesity?
M.A. Thesis, University of Nevada - Reno, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study evaluates whether youths' subjective beliefs in suffering the consequences of their actions influence their weight-related decisions. It uses five years of panel data from the 1997 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), where youths were asked to estimate the probability of getting arrested if they steal a car. The estimate of the probability of getting arrested is believed to describe youth's belief in suffering the consequences of his/her bad behavior, including maintaining an unhealthy weight. Weighted ordinary least squares, weighted Generalized Estimating Equations, and the fixed-effect technique are used to estimate the impact of the belief variable on youth's body mass index (BMI). Logit models are employed to evaluate the effect of the belief variable on youth's intent to lose weight. Separate models are estimated for both genders and for dependent and independent youths. A statistically significant negative relationship between the belief variable and the BMI is found for independent females in the fixed-effects model. For males and dependent females, the relationship is not statistically significant. Two models for females and one model for males discover a statistically significant positive relationship between the belief variable and the independent youths' intent to lose weight. However, it is also found that as the BMI increases, the influence of the subjective belief on the intent to lose weight diminishes.
Bibliography Citation
Sylwestrzak, Malgorzata T. Do Subjective Beliefs Affect Obesity? M.A. Thesis, University of Nevada - Reno, 2007.
1738. Sznitman, Sharon R.
Reisel, LIza
Khurana, Atika
Socioeconomic Background and High School Completion: Mediation by Health and Moderation by National Context
Journal of Adolescence 56 (April 2017): 118-126.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197117300210
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Cross-national Analysis; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School Completion/Graduates; Norway, Norwegian; Socioeconomic Background

This study uses longitudinal data from the Norwegian Health Study linked with registry data (n = 13262) and the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3604) to examine (1) whether adolescent health mediates the well-established relationship between socioeconomic background and successful high school completion, and (2) whether this mediated pathway of influence varies by national context. Adolescents from lower educated and lower income families reported poorer health, which negatively impacted their likelihood of graduating from high school. The partial mediational effect of adolescent health was stronger in the U.S. than in Norway. These results suggest that policies aimed at preventing high school dropout need to address adolescent health, in addition to the unequal opportunities derived from socioeconomic disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Sznitman, Sharon R., LIza Reisel and Atika Khurana. "Socioeconomic Background and High School Completion: Mediation by Health and Moderation by National Context." Journal of Adolescence 56 (April 2017): 118-126.
1739. Taber, Christopher Robert
Roys, Nicolas A.
Skill Prices, Occupations, and Changes in the Wage Structure for Low Skilled Men
NBER Working Paper No. 26453, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2019.
Also: https://www.nber.org/papers/w26453
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Male Sample; Occupational Choice; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Skills; Wage Levels

This paper studies the effect of the change in occupational structure on wages for low skilled men. We develop a model of occupational choice in which workers have multi-dimensional skills that are exploited differently across different occupations. We allow for a rich specification of technological change which has heterogenous effects on different occupations and different parts of the skill distribution. We estimate the model combining four datasets: (1) O*NET, to measure skill intensity across occupations, (2) NLSY79, to identify life-cycle supply effects, (3) CPS (ORG), to estimate the evolution of skill prices and occupations over time, and (4) NLSY97 to see how the gain to specific skills has changed. We find that while changes in the occupational structure have affected wages of low skilled workers, the effect is not dramatic. First, the wages in traditional blue collar occupations have not fallen substantially relative to other occupations--a fact that we can not reconcile with a competitive model. Second, our decompositions show that changes in occupations explain only a small part of the patterns in wage levels over our time period. Price changes within occupation are far more important. Third, while we see an increase in the payoff to interpersonal skills, manual skills still remain the most important skill type for low educated males.
Bibliography Citation
Taber, Christopher Robert and Nicolas A. Roys. "Skill Prices, Occupations, and Changes in the Wage Structure for Low Skilled Men." NBER Working Paper No. 26453, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2019.
1740. Tach, Laura
Amorim, Mariana
Multiple-partner Fertility and the Growth in Sibling Complexity
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility, Multiple Partners; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transformation of the American family, fueled by cohabitation, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing, has created opportunities for parents to have children with more than one partner. Family scholars have documented the extent of maternal and paternal multiple-partner fertility in the US population, but we know less about these processes from the perspective of children, for whom parental multiple-partner fertility manifests as the presence of half-siblings. This paper uses the 1979 and 1997 Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to examine cohort change in children’s exposure to sibling complexity. We find that the probability of having a half-sibling increased by 30 percent between the two cohorts, with over one in four children now having at least one half-sibling by their 18th birthday. A strong educational gradient in sibling complexity persists across both cohorts, but large racial-ethnic disparities in sibling complexity have narrowed over time. Using demographic decomposition techniques, we find that the shifting racial-ethnic and socioeconomic composition of the U.S. population cannot explain the growth in sibling complexity. We conclude by discussing the shifting relationship contexts that have fueled sibling complexity and considering the implications for child development and social stratification. [Note: Also presented at Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018]
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura and Mariana Amorim. "Multiple-partner Fertility and the Growth in Sibling Complexity." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
1741. Tach, Laura
Edin, Kathryn
Bryan, Brielle
The Family-Go-Round: Multi-Partner Fertility and Father Involvement From a Father's Perspective
Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Fathers; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility, Multiple Partners

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Multi-partner fertility leads to complex relationships that fathers must navigate. They have ongoing relationships with current and past romantic partners who are the mothers of their children; they also have children who may or may not live with them and to whom they may or may not be biologically related. In this paper, we draw on quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—1997 Cohort and qualitative data from in-depth interviews of over 100 low-income fathers to examine how fathers experience and respond to multi-partner fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura, Kathryn Edin and Brielle Bryan. "The Family-Go-Round: Multi-Partner Fertility and Father Involvement From a Father's Perspective." Presented: Washington, DC, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 7-9, 2013.
1742. Tach, Laura
Edin, Kathryn
Harvey, Hope
Bryan, Brielle
The Family-Go-Round: Family Complexity and Father Involvement from a Father's Perspective
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 654,1 (July 2014): 169-184.
Also: http://ann.sagepub.com/content/654/1/169.full
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Fathers, Involvement; Fertility, Multiple Partners; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Non-Custodial

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Men who have children with several partners are often assumed to be 'deadbeats' who eschew their responsibilities to their children. Using data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY-97), we show that most men in complex families intensively parent the children of one mother while being less involved, or not involved at all, with children by others. Repeated qualitative interviews with 110 low-income noncustodial fathers reveal that men in complex families often engage with and provide, at least to some degree, for all of the biological and stepchildren who live in one mother's household. These activities often exceed those extended to biological children living elsewhere. Interviews also show that by devoting most or all of their resources to the children of just one mother, men in complex families feel successful as fathers even if they are not intensively involved with their other biological children.
Bibliography Citation
Tach, Laura, Kathryn Edin, Hope Harvey and Brielle Bryan. "The Family-Go-Round: Family Complexity and Father Involvement from a Father's Perspective." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 654,1 (July 2014): 169-184.
1743. Tan, Kevin
Heath, Ryan D.
Das, Aditi
Choi, Yoonsun
Gender Differences in Patterns of School Victimization and Problem Behaviors During Middle School and Their Relation to High School Graduation
Youth and Society 51,3 (April 2019): 339-357.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0044118X17741143
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Bullying/Victimization; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Victimization and problem behaviors during middle school detrimentally influence student learning. However, less is known about how they may cooccur and collectively affect high school graduation and whether the interrelationships vary by gender. Using data from a nationally representative cohort of seventh-grade students from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997; N = 1,009), latent class analyses identified three groups among boys and two among girls. Results indicated that 50% of boys in the high-risk group (high victimization and problem behaviors) did not graduate from high school on time. Furthermore, boys in the moderate-risk group (high victimization, low problem behaviors) graduated from high school on time at a rate comparable with the low-risk boys. Two groups emerged for girls (i.e., low vs. high risk) in which each corresponds to graduation in an expected direction. Findings from this study underscore the importance of gender differences in intervention efforts, especially during middle school.
Bibliography Citation
Tan, Kevin, Ryan D. Heath, Aditi Das and Yoonsun Choi. "Gender Differences in Patterns of School Victimization and Problem Behaviors During Middle School and Their Relation to High School Graduation." Youth and Society 51,3 (April 2019): 339-357.
1744. Tang, Ning
Baker, Andrew
Peter, Paula C.
Investigating the Disconnect between Financial Knowledge and Behavior: The Role of Parental Influence and Psychological Characteristics in Responsible Financial Behaviors among Young Adults
Journal of Consumer Affairs 49,2 (Summer 2015): 376-406.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joca.12069/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Financial Literacy; Gender Differences; Parental Influences; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Financial knowledge is an essential component in financial decision making; however, knowledge is insufficient to ensure responsible financial behavior. We investigate the weak association between financial knowledge and behavior by simultaneously testing the roles financial knowledge, parental influence, and individual psychological characteristics (self-discipline and thoroughness) play in young adults' financial behaviors. Results from 2,712 respondents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth confirm there is a weak association between financial knowledge and behavior. Parental influence and self-discipline positively associate with responsible financial behavior. We also investigate the moderating role of gender and observe that financial knowledge and parental influence improve women's financial behavior more than men, whereas being thorough has a larger impact among males. These findings suggest that considering social and individual psychological factors in financial education programs could improve program efficiency. The results also highlight the importance of adopting tailored financial education to suit gender differences.
Bibliography Citation
Tang, Ning, Andrew Baker and Paula C. Peter. "Investigating the Disconnect between Financial Knowledge and Behavior: The Role of Parental Influence and Psychological Characteristics in Responsible Financial Behaviors among Young Adults." Journal of Consumer Affairs 49,2 (Summer 2015): 376-406.
1745. Tano, Gerard G.
Unemployment Insurance in Labor Search Model and Money Demand
Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Leisure; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Countries with unemployment insurance (UI) program can effectively conduct a labor market policy and observe the flow of unemployed-employed. But should we just hand UI over to anyone who has no job? Do individual response to the program in terms of their decision to work or to enjoy more leisure unanimously the same across leisure type characteristic individuals? In a heterogeneous constructed labor search market we derive that introduction of the UI program increases the wage gap between the different individuals when the program impacts the productivity of firm positively. In an empirical investigation of the impact of unemployment benefits on the duration of unemployment using a job search model, we specify a distribution of duration of unemployment that we estimate using maximum likelihood estimation and find that there is in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY 97) there are 3 types of individuals and the type of leisure individuals present an adverse response to the program: An increase in UI for the highest leisure type leads to a longer duration of unemployment. Whereas the lowest values of leisure do not tend to have an extended duration of unemployment from a positive change in UI. Finally, the response for the type 2 individuals is completely ambiguous as it could either see them having a prolonged duration of unemployment or a shortened period with no work. So a selective increase in unemployment insurance to those with a relatively low value of leisure may decrease the equilibrium rate of unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Tano, Gerard G. Unemployment Insurance in Labor Search Model and Money Demand. Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 2012.
1746. Tapia, Michael
Gang Membership and Race as Risk Factors for Juvenile Arrest
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48,3 (August 2011): 364-395.
Also: http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/48/3/364
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Black Youth; Crime; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Hispanic Youth; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang × Race interaction on those arrests. The focus on youth’s earliest point of contact with the juvenile justice system corresponds to the latest priority of the federal initiative on Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC). Using Poisson regression to analyze longitudinal data on a representative sample of U.S. teens, results support both main effects and interaction hypotheses. Gang membership, racial minority status, and their interaction each increase the risk of arrest, controlling for other demographic and legal items. Results suggest that bias against these groups is most pronounced with less serious crimes. Main effects for Black youth are stronger than for Hispanic youth, underscoring the importance of conducting tests for each minority group separately. Interactions for Black and Hispanic gang youth are equally robust, suggesting they warrant similar priority in policy initiatives to reduce DMC.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael. "Gang Membership and Race as Risk Factors for Juvenile Arrest ." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48,3 (August 2011): 364-395.
1747. Tapia, Michael
U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects
Youth and Society 43,4 (December 2011): 1407-1432.
Also: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/43/4/1407.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP); Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang × Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America’s gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest or whether it must be accompanied by high levels of delinquency to have an effect. There are surprisingly few tests of the arrest risk associated solely with group membership. The several studies that provide such a test have yielded mixed results. Revisiting this issue with longitudinal youth data for the nation, random effects Poisson models find main effects for gang membership and SES on arrest, controlling for demographic and legal items. However, interaction effects obtain paradoxical findings consistent with research on “out-of-place” effects for high-SES gang youth, and protective effects for low-SES gang youth. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for labeling theory and the federal initiative on disproportionate minority contact (DMC) with the juvenile justice system.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael. "U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects." Youth and Society 43,4 (December 2011): 1407-1432.
1748. Tapia, Michael
Untangling Race and Class Effects on Juvenile Arrests
Journal of Criminal Justice 38,3 (May-June 2010): 255-265.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521000036X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study employed a synthesis of conflict and labeling theory to reexamine the often observed links between race, social class, and arrest. Using longitudinal data on a representative sample of U.S. teens, random effects negative binomial regressions detected direct and indirect effects of race and class on arrest. In support of main effects hypotheses, racial minority status and low SES increased arrests, controlling for demographic and legal items. Consistent with research on “out of place” effects for minority youth in high SES contexts, and counter to expectations, interactions showed that racial minority status increased arrest risk for high SES youth significantly more than it did for low SES youth. Somewhat reminiscent of research on the “Latino paradox,” the effect of minority status on arrest at low-income levels did not exert the same interactive effect for Hispanics as it did for Blacks. Implications for theory, policy, and future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael. "Untangling Race and Class Effects on Juvenile Arrests." Journal of Criminal Justice 38,3 (May-June 2010): 255-265.
1749. Tapia, Michael
Alarid, Leanne Fiftal
Clare, Courtney
Parenting Styles and Juvenile Delinquency: Exploring Gendered Relationships
Juvenile and Family Court Journal 69,2 (June 2018): 21-36.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jfcj.12110
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the NLSY97 dataset to examine the parenting‐delinquency relationship and how it is conditioned by parents' gender, controlling for youths' gender. Generally, neglectful and authoritarian parenting styles were associated with the highest levels of delinquency in youths. When the sample was split by parent gender, authoritarianism held up across both groups, but permissive and neglectful parenting was only significant for fathers. Independent of parenting style, boys have higher delinquency levels than girls. The strength and magnitude of this relationship is nearly identical in separate equations for mothers and fathers. Parental attachment was not a significant protective factor against delinquency for either mothers or fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael, Leanne Fiftal Alarid and Courtney Clare. "Parenting Styles and Juvenile Delinquency: Exploring Gendered Relationships." Juvenile and Family Court Journal 69,2 (June 2018): 21-36.
1750. Tapia, Michael
Alarid, Leanne Fiftal
Hutcherson, Donald T., II
Youthful Arrest and Parental Support: Gendered Effects in Straining the Parent–Child Relationship
Deviant Behavior 36,8 (2015): 674-690.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2014.951584
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences

Much research confirms the importance of the quality of the parent–child relationship on youth involvement in delinquency. Yet, few have examined this in reverse order, that is, how an arrest for delinquency impacts the parent–child relationship. This article explores the effects of arrest on the child's perceived level of parental support using youth survey data for the nation. Among non-arrested youth, parental support experiences a gradual decline during the early teen years, and a considerable rebound in the late teen years. Among arrested youth, support shows sharper drops and recoveries over the teen years. Controlling for a set of social, legal, and demographic items, we examine the effects of the number of arrests on parental support with multinomial logistic regression, noting several gender effects. First, we find that arrests predict lower levels of support for mothers, but not for fathers. An equally noteworthy finding is that boys report more parental support than girls do, regardless of parent gender.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael, Leanne Fiftal Alarid and Donald T. Hutcherson. "Youthful Arrest and Parental Support: Gendered Effects in Straining the Parent–Child Relationship." Deviant Behavior 36,8 (2015): 674-690.
1751. Taska, Bledi
Early and Higher Education, Dynamic Interactions and Persistent Inequality
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, New York University, 2012
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Census of Population; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Higher Education; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational earnings mobility is a key determinant of the degree of cross-sectional inequality that will be transmitted to future generations. Low intergenerational mobility implies that inequality will be persistent. With income inequality increasing rapidly over the recent years, it is important to understand the underlying sources and mechanisms of intergenerational earnings persistence. In this dissertation I examine the mechanisms through which early and higher education (individually and jointly) impact intergenerational earnings mobility. More specifically, I explore the effects that the structure of the education system and existing methods of financing education can have on earnings persistence. In order to quantify these effects, I develop a life-cycle model of incomplete markets in which agents differ in wealth, ability, and education. Intergenerational persistence of earnings is generated endogenously as richer parents invest more in the early and higher education of their children. Early-education investments affect the cognitive ability of children. Higher-ability children earn higher wages, but also have a lower cost of enrolling in college. Higher-education investments, through parental transfers, affect college enrollment, college quality and college graduation rates.

I use PSID, NLSY, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS), and Census micro data to estimate the parameters of the model. I find that differences in higher education account for a higher percentage of the intergenerational correlation in earnings than do differences in early education. Liquidity constraints do not seem to be important for early or higher education. I also show that there exist complementarities between the two periods of investment in education. Finally, I find that early education is more important for the upward mobility of low-income families.

Bibliography Citation
Taska, Bledi. Early and Higher Education, Dynamic Interactions and Persistent Inequality. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, New York University, 2012.
1752. Taska, Bledi
The Structure of Early and Higher Education, Dynamic Interactions and Persistent Inequality
Working Paper, Department of Economics, New York University, November 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Economics, New York University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Census of Population; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational earnings mobility is a key determinant of the degree of cross-sectional inequality that will be transmitted to future generations. Low intergenerational mobility implies that inequality will be persistent. With income inequality increasing rapidly over the recent years, it is important to understand the underlying sources and mechanisms of intergenerational earnings persistence. This paper examines the mechanisms through which early and higher education (individually and jointly) impact intergenerational earnings mobility. More specifically, I explore the effects that the structure of the education system and existing methods of financing education can have on earnings persistence. In order to quantify these effects, I develop a life-cycle model of incomplete markets where agents differ in wealth, ability, and education. Intergenerational persistence of earnings is generated endogenously as richer parents invest more in the early and higher education of their children. Early education investments affect the cognitive ability of children. Higher ability children earn higher wages, but also have a lower cost of enrolling in college. Higher education investments, through parental transfers, affect college enrollment, college quality and college graduation rates. I use PSID, NLSY, NPSAS, and Census micro data to estimate the parameters of the model. I find that differences in higher education account for a higher percentage of the intergenerational correlation in earnings than do differences in early education. Liquidity constraints do not seem to be important for early or higher education. I also show that there exist complementarities between the two periods of investment in education. Finally, I find that early education is more important for the upward mobility of low income families.
Bibliography Citation
Taska, Bledi. "The Structure of Early and Higher Education, Dynamic Interactions and Persistent Inequality." Working Paper, Department of Economics, New York University, November 2011.
1753. Teachman, Jay D.
Anderson, Carter
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Military Service and Alcohol Use
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well known that enlistees and veterans are more likely to use alcohol than civilians. However, most of this research is potentially biased in that it often does not employ control variables and is based on cross-sectional data. Much of this research also fails to consider the relationship between military service and alcohol use among women. Using longitudinal data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, we investigate the relationship between military service and alcohol use using a fixed-effects approach. We find that military service appears to encourage young men to consume alcohol. Also, the effect of military service is not limited to the time that men spend in the military in that male veterans are also more likely to consume alcohol than are comparable civilians. We find, however, that women who serve, both enlistees and veterans, are less likely to drink than their civilian counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D., Carter Anderson and Lucky M. Tedrow. "Military Service and Alcohol Use." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
1754. Teachman, Jay D.
Anderson, Carter
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Military Service and Alcohol Use in the United States
Armed Forces and Society 41,3 (July 2015): 460-476.
Also: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/41/3/460.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces & Society
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well known that enlistees and veterans in the United States are more likely to use alcohol than civilians. However, most of this research is potentially biased in that it often does not employ control variables (other than age) and is based on cross-sectional data. Much of this research also fails to consider the relationship between military service and alcohol use among women. Using longitudinal data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, we investigate the relationship between military service and alcohol consumption employing a fixed-effects approach. We find that military service appears to encourage young men to consume alcohol. It is also the case that the effect of military service is not limited to the time that men spend in the military given that male veterans are also more likely to consume alcohol than are comparable nonveterans. We find, however, that women who serve, both enlistees and veterans, are less likely to drink than their civilian counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D., Carter Anderson and Lucky M. Tedrow. "Military Service and Alcohol Use in the United States." Armed Forces and Society 41,3 (July 2015): 460-476.
1755. Teachman, Jay D.
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Altering the Life Course: Military Service and Contact with the Criminal Justice System
Social Science Research 60 (November 2016): 74-87.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16301661
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Life Course; Military Service

Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the relationship between military service and contact with the criminal justice system. Drawing on the life course concept of a turning point, we show that military service does little to affect the risk of being arrested or being convicted of crimes involving violence or destructive behavior, while at the same time significantly reducing the risk of being arrested or being convicted of non-violent crimes. We find no evidence that service in a combat zone alters these relationships. Our results demonstrate how participation in a large-scale institution can serve as a turning point, altering the life course trajectories of young persons.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. and Lucky M. Tedrow. "Altering the Life Course: Military Service and Contact with the Criminal Justice System." Social Science Research 60 (November 2016): 74-87.
1756. Teachman, Jay D.
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Delinquent Behavior, the Transition to Adulthood, and the Likelihood of Military Enlistment
Social Science Research 45 (May 2014): 46-55.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X14000039
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Military Enlistment; Transition, Adulthood

Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth we examine the relationship between delinquency and enlistment in the military. We argue that delinquent behavior is positively related to enlistment because military service is an attractive alternative for delinquents to mark their transition to adulthood and their desistance from delinquent behavior. We also argue, however, that this relationship is not linear, with higher levels of delinquent behavior actually acting to reduce the likelihood of enlistment. We further suggest that the relationship between delinquency and enlistment is similar for men and women. We test and find support for our hypotheses using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D. and Lucky M. Tedrow. "Delinquent Behavior, the Transition to Adulthood, and the Likelihood of Military Enlistment." Social Science Research 45 (May 2014): 46-55.
1757. Teachman, Jay D.
Tedrow, Lucky M.
Anderson, Carter
The Relationship between Military Service and Childbearing for Men and Women
Sociological Perspectives 58,4 (December 2015): 595-608.
Also: http://spx.sagepub.com/content/58/4/595.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Pacific Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Fertility; Gender Differences; Military Service; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-97), we examine the relationship between military service and childbearing for both men and women. Using a fixed-effects procedure on longitudinal data, we find that military service reduces the fertility of male and female recruits. The negative effect of military service is much larger for women than for men. In addition, the negative effects of military service on childbearing persist after service members leave the military, although the effects diminish over time. Overall, even though military service may not lead to lower completed fertility, the evidence suggests a delaying effect on childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Teachman, Jay D., Lucky M. Tedrow and Carter Anderson. "The Relationship between Military Service and Childbearing for Men and Women." Sociological Perspectives 58,4 (December 2015): 595-608.
1758. Teahan, Brittany A.
Essays on Unemployment Insurance
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Purdue University, 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Geocoded Data; Underemployment; Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the third chapter, joint work with Robert Lantis, we investigate potential unintended consequences of unemployment insurance (UI) policy on alcohol use and abuse. Using NLSY data supplemented with Geocode data, we estimate the effect of benefit replacement rates on changes in individual alcohol consumption following job loss. Identification relies on variation in replacement rates across states and over time. Benefits provide income to the unemployed which enables individuals to smooth consumption and also may reduce the stress and anxiety of job loss. Results indicate higher levels of benefits increase the amount of alcohol unemployed individuals consume. Moreover, a higher level of benefits increases the likelihood an individual abuses alcohol following job loss. Individuals' responsiveness to changes in replacement rates varies based on drinking history with moderate drinkers the most responsive to changes.
Bibliography Citation
Teahan, Brittany A. Essays on Unemployment Insurance. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Purdue University, 2014.
1759. Tedrow, Lucky M.
Social Disengagement and Military Enlistment: A Discrete-Time Event History Analysis Using the NLSY97
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Substance Use; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous research suggests that being in the military leads veterans to engage in violent behavior. This research usually compares veterans to non-veterans, ignoring the possibility that people engaging in the troubled or violent behaviors may be more likely to enlist. The analysis presented in this paper improves upon previous research by employing a cumulative number of household moves experienced by the respondent, a comprehensive delinquency index and an index of substance use to assess the effect of social disengagement on enlistment for both males and females using the data available from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Another improvement over previous research is the use of a discrete time event history model of the time to enlistment that enables inclusion of numerous time-varying variables. Both the delinquency index and the cumulative number of moves are significantly related to military enlistment. The substance use index was not related to enlistment.
Bibliography Citation
Tedrow, Lucky M. "Social Disengagement and Military Enlistment: A Discrete-Time Event History Analysis Using the NLSY97." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
1760. Tepper, Robin L.
Parental Regulation and Adolescent Discretionary Time-Use Decisions: Findings from the NLSY97
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 79-105
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Children, School-Age; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; Teenagers; Television Viewing; Time Use

Chapter: Used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort, to explore parents' role in influencing adolescents' decisions regarding time use. The sample included 2,318 12-13 yr olds. The link between parental regulation and adolescent time use was examined, and the hypothesis that parents who regulate adolescent behavior have a positive influence on time-use decisions was tested. Three dimensions of parental regulation were identified: regulation through structure, regulation through monitoring, and regulation through rules. Three aspects of time use were explored: time spent watching TV, reading for pleasure, and doing homework. Parental regulation was found to have a significant influence on all 3 of these time-use activities. The findings also suggest that some methods of regulation may be more effective than others. Those parents who regulated via structure and monitoring were found to have greater effect on adolescent's time-use decisions than did those who regulated their adolescents' behavior primarily through the use of rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Tepper, Robin L. "Parental Regulation and Adolescent Discretionary Time-Use Decisions: Findings from the NLSY97" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 79-105
1761. Terry-Humen, Elizabeth
Manlove, Jennifer S.
Dating and Sexual Experiences Among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97
In: 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents (Summary), B. Albert, S. Brown, and C. Flanigan, eds. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2003.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED477795.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Children; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

ED477795
Abstract addresses the entire collection of papers, "14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents", of which the paper is a part. Editors of the collection are Albert, Bill; Brown, Sarah; and Flanigan, Christine M. The full report can be purchased from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy on their website: http://www.teenpregnancy.org.

This collection of papers on early adolescent sexual behavior includes seven papers in two parts. Part 1, "Papers from Nationally Representative Data Sets," includes (1) "Dating and Sexual Experiences among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" (Elizabeth Terry-Humen and Jennifer Manlove); "(2) "Dating Behavior and Sexual Activity of Young Adolescents: Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health" (Hannah Bruckner and Peter Bearman); and (3) "Sexual Activity among Girls Under Age 15: Findings from the National Survey of Family Growth" (Christine M. Flanigan). Part 2, "Papers from Small Area Data Sets," includes (4) "The Development of Sex-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceived Norms, and Behaviors in a Longitudinal Cohort of Middle School Children" (Cynthia A. Gomez, Karin K. Coyle, Steve Gregorich, Barbara VanOss Marin, and Douglas B. Kirby); (5) "Youth with Older Boyfriends and Girlfriends: Associations with Sexual Risk" (Barbara VanOss Marin, Douglas B. Kirby, Esther S. Hudes, Cynthia A. Gomez, and Karin K. Coyle); (6) "Community Concerns and Communication among Young Teens and Their Parents: Data from California Communities" (Susan Philliber); and (7) "Sexual Behavior among Young Teens in Disadvantaged Areas of Seven Cities" (Susan Philliber and Michael Carrera). The data come from surveying 12-, 13- and 14-year-olds as one group; surveying a group of 12-year-olds and then following them over time as they turned 13 and 14; and surveying older teens about their experiences when age 14 and younger. Among the findings of the studies: nearly one in five adolescents has had sex before his or her 15th birthday; contraceptive use among young adolescents is relatively low; and sexually experienced youth age 14 and younger are much more likely to smoke, use drugs and alcohol, and participate in delinquent activities than youth who have not had sex. (Papers contain references.)

Bibliography Citation
Terry-Humen, Elizabeth and Jennifer S. Manlove. "Dating and Sexual Experiences Among Middle School Youth: Analyses of the NLSY97" In: 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Young Adolescents (Summary), B. Albert, S. Brown, and C. Flanigan, eds. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2003.
1762. Thompson, Derek
The Average 29-Year-Old
The Atlantic, Business Section, April 20, 2016.
Also: http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/04/the-average-29-year-old/479139/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Atlantic Media
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Forget media archetypes of older Millennials as college-educated singles living in cities. The typical 29-year-old is living with a partner in the suburbs--without a bachelor's degree. [News media article highlighting BLS Economic Report USDL-16-0700: "America's Young Adults at 29: Labor Market Activity, Education and Partner Status: Results from a Longitudinal Survey," April 8, 2016]
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Derek. "The Average 29-Year-Old." The Atlantic, Business Section, April 20, 2016.
1763. Thompson, Melissa
Uggen, Christopher
Dealers, Thieves, and the Common Determinants of Drug and Nondrug Illegal Earnings
Criminology 50,4 (November 2012): 1057-1087.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2012.00286.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Drug Use; Earnings; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Supported Work Demonstration Project

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drug crime often is viewed as distinctive from other types of crime, meriting greater or lesser punishment. In view of this special status, this article asks whether and how illegal earnings attainment differs between drug sales and other forms of economic crime. We estimate monthly illegal earnings with fixed-effects models, based on data from the National Supported Work Demonstration Project and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Although drug sales clearly differ from other types of income-generating crime, we find few differences in their determinants. For example, the use of cocaine or heroin increases illegal earnings from both drug and nondrug crimes, indicating some degree of fungibility in the sources of illegal income. More generally, the same set of factors—particularly legal and illegal opportunities and embeddedness in criminal and conventional networks—predicts both drug earnings and nondrug illegal earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Melissa and Christopher Uggen. "Dealers, Thieves, and the Common Determinants of Drug and Nondrug Illegal Earnings." Criminology 50,4 (November 2012): 1057-1087.
1764. Thompson, Melissa
Woo, Hyeyoung
Gendering Depression, Drugs, and Crime Among Young Adults
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Drug Use; Gender Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous literature suggests that there are ‘gendered responses’ to psychological distress: Females tend to experience higher levels of depressive symptoms while males tend to exhibit disruptive behaviors (e.g., substance use). While the link substance use and criminal offending has been established, the question of whether or not the gendered responses have different influences on committing a crime has not been well understood. This study identifies the gendered effects of depression and substance abuse on self-reported criminal behavior focusing on young adults. Using data from multiple rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (N=8,984), we performed a lagged logistic regression model to estimate probability of committing crimes in their early twenties associated with depression and substance use during their teens. Our preliminary results indicate that earlier experience of depression and substance use are associated with committing crime later. However, they also revealed gendered effects of depression. While the effects of depression on crime are stronger for females, no gender difference in the link between substance use and crime was found. In order to better understand the gendered effects, we also perform multivariate logit models with various mediators/moderators progressively adjusted.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Melissa and Hyeyoung Woo. "Gendering Depression, Drugs, and Crime Among Young Adults." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2012.
1765. Thompson, Myra
Reducing Recidivism Risk for Juvenile Offenders: Contributing Risk Factors
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Incarceration/Jail; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Juvenile delinquency is a major social problem in the United States. Juvenile delinquency negatively affects families and local neighborhood morale. Further, taxpayers bear the financial burden of treating and incarcerating juveniles through adulthood when appropriate preventative and/or rehabilitative measures are not established. Many factors are thought to contribute to juvenile criminal behavior. There has been no clear consensus on which are the most influential. This study analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLYS97) in an attempt to extract pertinent factors correlated to recidivism. Data indicated that some interval-level variables of expectations. In addition, the study revealed that, except for limit breaking, parenting style was not correlated with recidivism. Factors such as family interaction and types of first offense (whether violent and non-violent) were not correlated with recidivism and non-recidivism.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Myra. Reducing Recidivism Risk for Juvenile Offenders: Contributing Risk Factors. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2013.
1766. Thompson, Owen
Drug Policy and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Contemporary Economic Policy 34,1 (January 2016): 127-145.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/coep.12109/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Legislation; Mobility, Economic; Racial Differences

A conviction for drug possession blocks some of the most common pathways through which individuals from low income families achieve upward economic mobility in the United States, such as access to higher education, entry-level employment, and military service. These considerations are of growing importance because the number of drug-related arrests have nearly quadrupled since 1980. This article estimates the effect of a conviction for drug possession on earnings mobility using a sample of individuals born between 1980 and 1984, some of the first cohorts to come of age in the context of intensive U.S. drug criminalization and enforcement. To distinguish the effect of a drug conviction from the effect of drug use or general criminality, I compare mobility among individuals with drug convictions to control groups who self-report significant drug use and who have had interactions with the criminal justice system that did not lead to a drug conviction. I find that relative to these groups, a drug conviction reduces the probability of transitioning upward from various points in the lower half of the income distribution by 10-15 percentage points, or as much as 50%, and that these effects are substantially stronger for non-whites than for whites. These findings suggest that a policy of decriminalizing nonviolent drug possession would substantially increase intergenerational mobility among low income populations, and this effect should be weighed alongside more conventional costs and benefits in formulating optimal drug policy.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Owen. "Drug Policy and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States." Contemporary Economic Policy 34,1 (January 2016): 127-145.
1767. Thompson, Owen
Human Capital and Black-White Earnings Gaps, 1966-2017
NBER Working Paper No. 28586, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2021.
Also: https://www.nber.org/papers/w28586
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97, Young Men
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Earnings; Educational Attainment; Human Capital

This paper estimates the contribution of human capital, measured using both educational attainment and test performance, to the Black-white earnings gap in three separate samples of men spanning 1966 through 2017. There are three main findings. First, the magnitude of reductions in the Black-white earnings gap that occur after controlling for human capital have become much larger over time, suggesting a growing contribution of human capital to Black-white earnings disparities. Second, these increases are almost entirely due to growth in the returns to human capital, rather than changing racial gaps in the human capital traits themselves. Finally, growth in the explanatory power of human capital has been primarily due to increases in the association between human capital and the likelihood of non-work, with no clear increases in the extent to which human capital explains Black-white differences in hourly wages or other intensive margins. These findings highlight how apparently race-neutral structural developments in the US labor market, such as increasing skill prices and falling labor force participation rates among less skilled men, have had large impacts on the dynamics of racial inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Thompson, Owen. "Human Capital and Black-White Earnings Gaps, 1966-2017." NBER Working Paper No. 28586, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2021.
1768. Thorpe, Jared
Dufur, Mikaela J.
The (Conditional) Resource Dilution Model: A Family-level Modification
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Family Resources; Family Size; Family Structure; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The negative relationship between sibship size and educational outcomes has been well documented in social science literature. The majority of studies to date have examined this relationship from the theoretical perspective of the resource dilution model, focusing on the ever-greater division of parental economic resources and time within the nuclear family as the number of children grows. Building upon this model, the conditional resource dilution model posits that the sibsize effect is conditioned by the context surrounding the family unit. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth - 1997 Cohort, we extend the conditional resource dilution model by examining whether the effect of sibsize is conditioned by family type.
Bibliography Citation
Thorpe, Jared and Mikaela J. Dufur. "The (Conditional) Resource Dilution Model: A Family-level Modification." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
1769. Thyden, Naomi
Schmidt, Nicole
Osypuk, Theresa L.
The Unequal Distribution of Nuclear Family Deaths by Race and Its Effect on Attaining a College Degree
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; College Degree; Educational Attainment; Mortality; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young adults of color may be more likely to experience the death of a parent or sibling, since early mortality is more prevalent among certain racial/ethnic groups than whites. However, little research has investigated whether the devastating experience of nuclear family death varies by race, or how this death may affect important social determinants of health. Multiple logistic regression results using the longitudinal NLSY97 data showed that experiencing the death of a parent or sibling during early adulthood (ages 19-22) was significantly and negatively associated with obtaining a Bachelor's degree by ages 29-32 (OR=0.55, 95% CI =0.38, 0.81) compared to those not experiencing a family death. Family death during adolescence (ages 13-18) was not significantly associated with obtaining a Bachelor's degree. Because family deaths during early adulthood are associated with lower educational attainment, an important social determinant of health, this exposure may contribute to subsequent health disparities by race.
Bibliography Citation
Thyden, Naomi, Nicole Schmidt and Theresa L. Osypuk. "The Unequal Distribution of Nuclear Family Deaths by Race and Its Effect on Attaining a College Degree." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
1770. Thyden, Naomi
Schmidt, Nicole
Osypuk, Theresa L.
The Unequal Distribution of Sibling and Parent Deaths by Race and its Effect on Attaining a College Degree
Annals of Epidemiology published online (3 April 2020): 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.03.002.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279720301320
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Degree; Educational Attainment; Racial Differences; Trauma/Death in family

Purpose: Examine 1) the distribution of experiencing the death of a parent or sibling (family death) by race/ethnicity, and 2) how family death affects attaining a college degree.

Methods: Participants (N=8,984) were from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 aged 13-17 at baseline in 1997, and 29-32 in 2013. We examined the prevalence of family deaths by age group and race/ethnicity, and used covariate-adjusted logistic regression to assess the relationship between a family death and college degree attainment.

Results: 4.2% of white youth experienced a family death, as did 5.0% of Hispanics, 8.3% of Blacks, 9.1% of Asians, and 13.8% of American Indians (group test p<0.001). A family death from ages 13-22 was associated with lower odds of obtaining a Bachelor's degree by ages 29-32 (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.50, 0.84), compared to no family death. The effect of a death was largest during college years (age 19-22) (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.39, 0.82).

Bibliography Citation
Thyden, Naomi, Nicole Schmidt and Theresa L. Osypuk. "The Unequal Distribution of Sibling and Parent Deaths by Race and its Effect on Attaining a College Degree." Annals of Epidemiology published online (3 April 2020): 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.03.002.
1771. Tigri, Henry B.
Reid, Shannon
Turner, Michael G.
Devinney, Jennifer M.
Investigating the Relationship Between Gang Membership and Carrying a Firearm: Results from a National Sample
American Journal of Criminal Justice 41,2 (June 2016): 168-184.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-015-9297-3/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While there is evidence that gang membership impacts an individual's gun carrying proclivities, existing research has largely focused only on males and at-risk youth. The present study investigates the role of gang membership, peer gang membership, and delinquency on whether individuals carry a firearm using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Carrying a firearm was associated with involvement in delinquency, peer gang membership, and respondent gang membership. The association between gang membership and carrying a firearm weakened with age. Few significant differences across categories of sex and race emerged suggesting that the relationship between gang membership and carrying a firearm is equivocal across these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Tigri, Henry B., Shannon Reid, Michael G. Turner and Jennifer M. Devinney. "Investigating the Relationship Between Gang Membership and Carrying a Firearm: Results from a National Sample." American Journal of Criminal Justice 41,2 (June 2016): 168-184.
1772. Tong, Xin
Zhang, Zhiyong
Diagnostics of Robust Growth Curve Modeling Using Student's t Distribution
Multivariate Behavioral Research 47,4 (2012): 493-518.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00273171.2012.692614
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Growth curve models with different types of distributions of random effects and of intraindividual measurement errors for robust analysis are compared. After demonstrating the influence of distribution specification on parameter estimation, 3 methods for diagnosing the distributions for both random effects and intraindividual measurement errors are proposed and evaluated. The methods include (a) distribution checking based on individual growth curve analysis; (b) distribution comparison based on Deviance Information Criterion, and (c) post hoc checking of degrees of freedom estimates for t distributions. The performance of the methods is compared through simulation studies. When the sample size is reasonably large, the method of post hoc checking of degrees of freedom estimates works best. A web interface is developed to ease the use of the 3 methods. Application of the 3 methods is illustrated through growth curve analysis of mathematical ability development using data on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Mathematics assessment from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2005).
Bibliography Citation
Tong, Xin and Zhiyong Zhang. "Diagnostics of Robust Growth Curve Modeling Using Student's t Distribution." Multivariate Behavioral Research 47,4 (2012): 493-518.
1773. Tong, Xin
Zhang, Zhiyong
Outlying Observation Diagnostics in Growth Curve Modeling
Multivariate Behavioral Research 52,6 (2017): 768-788.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00273171.2017.1374824
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Monte Carlo; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Statistical Analysis

Growth curve models are widely used for investigating growth and change phenomena. Many studies in social and behavioral sciences have demonstrated that data without any outlying observation are rather an exception, especially for data collected longitudinally. Ignoring the existence of outlying observations may lead to inaccurate or even incorrect statistical inferences. Therefore, it is crucial to identify outlying observations in growth curve modeling. This study comparatively evaluates six methods in outlying observation diagnostics through a Monte Carlo simulation study on a linear growth curve model, by varying factors of sample size, number of measurement occasions, as well as proportion, geometry, and type of outlying observations. It is suggested that the greatest chance of success in detecting outlying observations comes from use of multiple methods, comparing their results and making a decision based on research purposes. A real data analysis example is also provided to illustrate the application of the six outlying observation diagnostic methods.
Bibliography Citation
Tong, Xin and Zhiyong Zhang. "Outlying Observation Diagnostics in Growth Curve Modeling." Multivariate Behavioral Research 52,6 (2017): 768-788.
1774. Tong, Xin
Zhang, Zhiyong
Robust Bayesian Approaches in Growth Curve Modeling: Using Student's t Distributions versus a Semiparametric Method
Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal published online (11 November 2019): DOI: 10.1080/10705511.2019.1683014.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10705511.2019.1683014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Monte Carlo; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Tong, Xin and Zhiyong Zhang. "Robust Bayesian Approaches in Growth Curve Modeling: Using Student's t Distributions versus a Semiparametric Method." Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal published online (11 November 2019): DOI: 10.1080/10705511.2019.1683014.
1775. Torche, Florencia
Rauf, Tamkinat
The Transition to Fatherhood and the Health of Men
Journal of Marriage and Family published online (23 October 2020): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12732.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12732
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Fatherhood; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Weight

Objective: This study examines the impact of fatherhood on diverse health behaviors and outcomes among a representative sample of Millennial men in the United States.

Method: The NLSY97 longitudinal survey and a battery of novel fixed effects models are used to identify the consequences of paternity on diverse health outcomes, controlling for selectivity based on unobserved characteristics and unobserved trajectories of men who become fathers and accounting for heterogeneity of effects.

Results: Becoming a father induces weight gain and a decline in self‐reported health, but reduces alcohol consumption. Effects on weight and alcohol use varied across strata defined by race and education, but changes in self‐reported health were consistent across sub‐groups.

Bibliography Citation
Torche, Florencia and Tamkinat Rauf. "The Transition to Fatherhood and the Health of Men." Journal of Marriage and Family published online (23 October 2020): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12732.
1776. Tovar, Stephanie
Family Processes and Delinquency: The Consistency of Relationships by Race/Ethnicity
M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University, 2000. MAI 39,02 (2000): 413
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Control; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Studies; Family Studies; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Social Influences

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of family process variables and delinquency in relation to social control theory. The main objective is to examine whether the relationship between family process variables and delinquency will vary across racial/ethnic groups. A secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Data was obtained from 9,022 adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years old. The significance of using this data is that it allows for group comparisons of three racial/ethnic groups: white, African American, and Hispanic adolescents. Social control theory implies that there should be consistency across racial/ethnic groups regarding social bonding. In this study racial/ethnic differences were found in the strength of the relationships between family processes and delinquency. Therefore, future research may want to reinvestigate whether social control theory is adequate to explain delinquency for all adolescents.
Bibliography Citation
Tovar, Stephanie. Family Processes and Delinquency: The Consistency of Relationships by Race/Ethnicity. M.S. Thesis, Michigan State University, 2000. MAI 39,02 (2000): 413.
1777. Trejo, Sam
Two Roads in a Wood: An Econometric Analysis of the Major Choice of First-Generation College Students
Developing Economist: An Undergraduate Journal of Economics 3 (2016): 31-56.
Also: http://deveco.weebly.com/uploads/5/2/1/5/52151897/thedevelopingeconomist_vol3_2016.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of Texas at Austin
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Attainment; Parental Influences; Risk-Taking; Undergraduate Research

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I estimate a multinomial logit choice model for the college major decisions of first-generation college students--students who are the first in the families to attend college--and non-first-generation students. The model controls for other factors such as sex, race, ability, and family income to isolate the effect of first-generation status on major choice for two otherwise identical students. I find that first-generation college students do make statistically different college major selections than otherwise identical students. I then examine whether the estimated differences between the major selection of first-generation and non-first-generation students is systematically related to characteristics of the majors. In particular, I use data extracted from the American Community Survey to create these measures of safety and stability. First-generation college students tend to be more risk averse than otherwise identical non-first- generation students whose parents have attended college, as they are more likely to select majors with well- defined career paths, high expected wages, and low unemployment rates.
Bibliography Citation
Trejo, Sam. "Two Roads in a Wood: An Econometric Analysis of the Major Choice of First-Generation College Students." Developing Economist: An Undergraduate Journal of Economics 3 (2016): 31-56.
1778. Tripp, Sophie
The Role of Race and Gender in Topics Surrounding Job Promotions and High School Dropout Likelihood
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Politics and Economics, The Claremont Graduate University, 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): High School Dropouts; Job Promotion; Job Tenure; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Skin Tone; Supervisor Characteristics; Wage Dynamics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This dissertation is comprised of three essays. The first essay tests the role of supervisor race and gender on employees’ promotion likelihoods using a nationally representative sample of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. I use a fixed effects model to account for the selection issue of employees and supervisors self-selecting into employment with each other. I find the odds of being promoted are 1.6 times larger for black employees with a white supervisor compared to the odds of being promoted with a black supervisor. The results add to the growing literature on the role of supervisors on labor market outcomes. The second essay studies race and gender differences in the wage returns to promotions and in the role of tenure on promotions using a nationally representative sample of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a fixed effects model to account for the endogeneity of promotions and find evidence to suggest the wage returns to promotions for black males are significantly smaller compared to white males. Black males earn 44 percent of the wage return that white males earn. Our results hold important implications for the racial-wage gap. Since black males earn, on average, less than white males, the gap in wage returns to promotions creates a larger impact on the absolute returns. The third essay evaluates the role skin tone plays in the likelihood of dropping out of high school for black male respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We find that blacks are 11 percent more likely to drop out of high school. This gap almost disappears after controlling for key family background variables. In addition, we find that light skinned blacks are less likely to drop out compared to whites, while dark skinned blacks are more likely to drop out compared to whites after controlling for the same family background variables. Therefore, after controlling for family background, the dropout likelihood of both light and dark skinned blacks “cancel out” and thus the bi-racial gap mistakenly seems to disappear.
Bibliography Citation
Tripp, Sophie. The Role of Race and Gender in Topics Surrounding Job Promotions and High School Dropout Likelihood. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Politics and Economics, The Claremont Graduate University, 2016.
1779. Tripp, Sophie
Fadlon, Yariv
Promotions and Race: An Analysis of Wage Returns and Job Satisfaction
Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations published online (24 November 2019): DOI: 10.1111/labr.12169.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/labr.12169
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Job Promotion; Job Satisfaction; Racial Differences; Wage Gap; Wages

Using a nationally representative sample of workers in the United States, we find evidence to suggest the wage returns to promotions for black males are about 48 per cent of the wage returns that white males earn. As black males earn, on average, significantly less than white males, the gap in the wage returns to promotions creates a larger impact on the absolute returns. Despite the racial gap in the monetary reward to a promotion, we do not find evidence to suggest that black males are less satisfied with their job following a job promotion compared with white males.
Bibliography Citation
Tripp, Sophie and Yariv Fadlon. "Promotions and Race: An Analysis of Wage Returns and Job Satisfaction." Labour: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations published online (24 November 2019): DOI: 10.1111/labr.12169.
1780. Tunalilar, Ozcan
White, Robert G.
The Growing Importance of Socioemotional Skills for Academic Achievement in the United States
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Achievement; Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior, Antisocial; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Schooling; Social Emotional Development

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence that socioemotional skills related to attentiveness and anti-social behavior are closely tied to academic achievement underscores the importance of the broad range of skills required for school success in modern America. Using two birth cohorts born during early 1980s and 1990s, we find that the importance of these skills is a relatively recent phenomenon. We select two cohorts of adolescents from the NLSY97 and the children of the NLSY79 to assess changes in the effects of attentiveness and anti-social behaviors in models of school achievement. We adopt a propensity score weighting procedure to account for changes in the distributions of family background between cohorts and construct cohorts suitable for comparison. The estimated increase in the effect of socioemotional skills for achievement illustrates how these skills present an emerging additional axis for educational inequalities.
Bibliography Citation
Tunalilar, Ozcan and Robert G. White. "The Growing Importance of Socioemotional Skills for Academic Achievement in the United States." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
1781. Turner, Abby Clay
Three Essays on the Economics of Education
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Colleges; Earnings; Geocoded Data; Modeling, OLS

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing the rich data from the NLSY97 Geocode merged with institutional data from IPEDS, in Chapter 3 I empirically analyze data on individuals with two-year degrees, estimate the average marginal earnings gain from a two-year degree, and compare the effects of degrees across institutional sector and across major area of study using OLS with family background and extensive demographic controls. I find evidence of selection at three levels: selection into college, selection into type of college, and selection into major area of study. Any estimates of labor market returns to these degrees will be biased until future research unravels and models these selection mechanisms and processes. This chapter provides a first look into the differential inputs and outputs of for-profit and public two-year degree programs. I find statistical differences in the marginal earnings gains across institutional sector within major fields of study, suggesting that attending a for-profit does matter when major field of study is taken into account.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Abby Clay. Three Essays on the Economics of Education. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2013.
1782. Turner, Michael G.
Repeat Bully Victimizations and Legal Outcomes in a National Sample: The Impact Over the Life Course
Presented: Honolulu HI, American Psychological Association Annual Conference, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Bullying/Victimization; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course

OBJECTIVE: While it has been shown that bullying is associated with subsequent legal problems (i.e., arrest), the evidence related to the association of bully victimization and legal problems is less clear. The present study investigates the repeated bully victimization/legal consequences relationship over an extended period of the life course.

METHODS: This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 7335), a population-based longitudinal study of individuals who were age 12 to 16 at the study outset. A typological measure was created where individuals were categorized as: (1) non-victims, (2) childhood victims (victims below the age of 12), (3) adolescent victims (victims between the age of 12 and 18), and (4) chronic victims (victims before age 12 and between age 12 and 18). The repeat bully victimization variable was then associated with several offending and victimization legal outcome measures experienced in late adolescence and adulthood.

RESULTS: Experiencing repeat bully victimizations was associated with an increase in respondent’s likelihood of engaging in substance use, delinquency, arrest, conviction, and incarceration. Experiencing repeat bully victimizations was also associated with an increase in respondent’s perceptions and experiences with violent victimizations. The association between these measures was consistently stronger for females while there were few differences across categories of race.

CONCLUSIONS: Being the victim of a bully during childhood and adolescence serves as a marker for subsequent legal problems and victimization in adolescence and adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing involvement in delinquency, crime, and victimization would benefit by targeting bully victimizations as a risk factor.

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G. "Repeat Bully Victimizations and Legal Outcomes in a National Sample: The Impact Over the Life Course." Presented: Honolulu HI, American Psychological Association Annual Conference, 2013.
1783. Turner, Michael G.
Phillips, Matthew D.
Tigri, Henry B.
Williams, Meredith A.
Hartman, Jennifer L.
On the Association Between Repeat Bully Victimizations and Carrying a Firearm: Evidence in a National Sample
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 60,8 (June 2016): 871-896.
Also: http://ijo.sagepub.com/content/60/8/871.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Childhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bullying is a significant public concern. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether being repeatedly victimized by a bully during childhood and adolescence is associated with gun carrying in adolescence and adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we found that just over one fourth of the respondents reported carrying a gun at some point in their lifetime. Respondents experiencing repeat bully victimizations reported higher rates of gun carrying during the last 12 months and the last 30 days. No support was found for the association of repeat bully victimizations and carrying a gun to school. Individuals victimized during childhood (before the age of 12) and during adolescence were found to be at risk of carrying a gun later in the life course. Repeat bully victimizations should be considered a marker for gun-carrying behaviors in adolescence and adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Matthew D. Phillips, Henry B. Tigri, Meredith A. Williams and Jennifer L. Hartman. "On the Association Between Repeat Bully Victimizations and Carrying a Firearm: Evidence in a National Sample." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 60,8 (June 2016): 871-896.
1784. Tyler, Kimberly A.
Longitudinal Study of Precursors to Running Away Among Adolescents in the General Population, A
Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Behavior, Antisocial; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Runaways; Teenagers; Youth Problems

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Leaving home is an expected practice for American young adults and is viewed as one of the steps in the transition to adulthood. Leaving home between ages 18 to 24 years is considered "on time" whereas leaving home at ages 13 or 14 is considered "off time". Each year, thousands of adolescents fall into the latter category and may be at risk for long-term negative outcomes including adult homelessness. The current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) to look at precursors to running away among a sample of 12 to 16 year olds in the general population. The proposed study is unique because it focuses on adolescents who are currently housed but some of who have previously run away. Because the study is longitudinal, we are able to control for previous runs among the adolescents. Results revealed that numerous factors play a role in an adolescent's decision to run away from home. Gender, race/ethnicity, family structure, parenting practices, being suspended from school, high rates of school absenteeism, alcohol use, and engaging in high rates of deviant behavior were all predictive of adolescents running away within the past year. Numerous race/ethnic interactions were found to be significant.
Bibliography Citation
Tyler, Kimberly A. "Longitudinal Study of Precursors to Running Away Among Adolescents in the General Population, A." Presented: San Francisco, CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 2004.
1785. Tyler, Kimberly A.
Bersani, Bianca Elizabeth
A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away
Journal of Early Adolescence 28,2 (May 2008): 230-251.
Also: http://jea.sagepub.com/content/28/2/230.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences; Runaways; School Suspension/Expulsion; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine predictors of running away among a diverse sample of housed adolescents ages 12 through 13. Results indicate that socioeconomic status, being African American or Hispanic, and monitoring were significantly predictive of a decrease in the mean rate of running away in midadolescence. In contrast, being female, neighborhood victimization, personal victimization, school suspension, and delinquency all significantly increased the expected frequency of running away. Although findings provide some support for previous cross-sectional studies, they also point to the importance of young people's community environment as a risk factor for leaving home. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Early Adolescence is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Tyler, Kimberly A. and Bianca Elizabeth Bersani. "A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away." Journal of Early Adolescence 28,2 (May 2008): 230-251.
1786. U.S. Travel Association
Made in America: Travel's Contribution to Workforce Development and Career Advancement
Report, U.S. Travel Association, May 7, 2019.
Also: https://www.ustravel.org/research/made-america-travels-contribution-workforce-development-and-career-advancement
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Travel Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Income; Occupational Choice

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This report, based in part on data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97 datasets, looks at how travel industry jobs influence workforce development and career advancement. Key highlights include:

Americans whose first job was in travel went on to earn a maximum average salary of $82,400 by the time they were 50 years old--higher than workers whose first jobs were in manufacturing, health care and most other industries.

The travel industry is one of the top 10 largest employers of middle-class wage earners in the U.S.

Of the 6.1 million Americans working part time while pursuing higher education in 2018, more than half were employed in travel-related industries.

Among workers who began their careers in the travel industry, nearly one-third (32%) eventually earned at least a bachelor's degree.

Bibliography Citation
U.S. Travel Association. "Made in America: Travel's Contribution to Workforce Development and Career Advancement." Report, U.S. Travel Association, May 7, 2019.
1787. Uekawa, Kazuaki
The Influence of Family Structure on Social Outcomes
Presented: Washington DC, American Evaluation Association Annual Conference, October 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Evaluation Association
Keyword(s): Crime; Dropouts; Family Structure; Health Factors; Sexual Activity; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) provides a wealth of data on youth as they transition into adulthood, including information about their family structure. In this presentation, the author will present results of his investigation of the relationship between a youth's family structure (i.e., intact, blended, divorced, and never-married families) on a variety of social outcomes including dropout, substance abuse, sexual behaviors, health habits, and crime. This investigation will include both a summary of the literature on the influence of family structure on social outcomes, as well as the results of quantitative analyses to describe the marginal influences of family structure on each type of outcome. Implications of these findings will be discussed, especially as they relate to family engagement.
Bibliography Citation
Uekawa, Kazuaki. "The Influence of Family Structure on Social Outcomes." Presented: Washington DC, American Evaluation Association Annual Conference, October 2013.
1788. Uekawa, Kazuaki
The Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve Analysis for the Prediction of Educational Outcomes: Lessons Learned from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)
Presented: Washington DC, American Evaluation Association Annual Conference, October 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Evaluation Association
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Educational Outcomes; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve Analysis can be applied to the prediction of educational outcomes that are dichotomous in nature. Such outcomes include grade retention, dropout, college enrollment, or college graduation. The ROC Curve Analysis is used often in medical science where, given the values of a continuous variable (e.g., blood pressure, hormone level), prediction is made for the dichotomous outcome (e.g., diabetes, pregnancy). Based on a pair of diagnostic statistics, sensitivity and specificity, the analysis helps derive a cut point for the predictor variables such that the prediction result will be optimized. Using publicly available educational databases as examples (e.g., NLSY97, NELS88), the authors will show how the analysis can be implemented in educational systems. For example, this method can be used to predict dropouts for an early warning system, or help superintendents predict retention rates. We will conclude the presentation by discussing this method's strengths and weaknesses as a tool for educational intervention.
Bibliography Citation
Uekawa, Kazuaki. "The Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve Analysis for the Prediction of Educational Outcomes: Lessons Learned from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)." Presented: Washington DC, American Evaluation Association Annual Conference, October 2013.
1789. Uzdavines, Alex
Stressful Events and Religious Identities: Investigating the Risk of Radical Accommodation
M.A. Thesis, Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2017.
Also: https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?::NO:10:P10_ETD_SUBID:151126
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: OhioLINK
Keyword(s): Religious Influences; Stress

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

At some point in their lives, everyone will experience a stressful life event. Usually, someone can cope with and make meaning from the event. However, the body of research investigating the impact of severe and/or chronic exposure to stressful life events on the brain shows that harmful effects of stress exposure accumulate. Considering the extant literature regarding religious meaning making in light of these findings and the robust literature on spiritual transformation following stressful life events, I developed three hypotheses: 1) stressful life events increase risk of (non)religious ID change, 2) earlier events continued to impact later ID changes, and 3) risk of ID change was similar across change groups. This study analyzed a nationally representative longitudinal dataset of US children born between 1980 and 1984 (N = 8984). The final analyses used multiple imputation to account for missing data and did not find evidence supporting the hypotheses.
Bibliography Citation
Uzdavines, Alex. Stressful Events and Religious Identities: Investigating the Risk of Radical Accommodation. M.A. Thesis, Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2017..
1790. Valentine, Jessa
Grodsky, Eric
All or Nothing? Economic Returns to College Credits and Degrees
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Enrollment; Earnings; Educational Returns; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we assess the labor market payoff to postsecondary credits and degrees in an era of increasing postsecondary enrollments, rising attendance costs, and low degree completion rates. While most research and a national political agenda focused on college completion emphasizes the importance of degree attainment, less is known about the benefits of accruing some college credits without degree receipt—despite the growing numbers of college-goers who fall into this category. Results based on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 cohort suggest that the labor market returns to an AA and BA have remained strong. Returns to credit accumulation for non-degree-holders, however, accrue to women but not to men.
Bibliography Citation
Valentine, Jessa and Eric Grodsky. "All or Nothing? Economic Returns to College Credits and Degrees." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
1791. Van Winkle, Zachary
Fasang, Anette Eva
Parenthood Wage Gaps Across the Life Course: A Comparison by Gender and Race
Journal of Marriage and Family published online (30 July 2020): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12713.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12713
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Life Course; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parenthood; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

Objective: We map the magnitude, timing, and persistence of parenthood wage gaps in the life course for Black, Hispanic, and White men and women in the United States.

Background: Previous research indicates that penalties only persist into mid‐life for mothers with three or more children without distinguishing by race. The timing and age range in which parenthood wage gaps occur for fathers and mothers of different racial backgrounds are unknown. We develop a theoretical framework based on the gender‐ and race‐specific interplay between labor market dynamics and family demographics over the life course to derive hypotheses.

Method: Age‐specific parenthood wage gaps from ages 20-40 are estimated using 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth data and fixed effects models.

Results: Only White women with three or more children suffer large and persistent adjusted motherhood penalties up to age 40. For Black and Hispanic mothers, penalties are concentrated in a brief age range of 5-10 years around age 30 and then attenuate irrespective of the number of children. Adjusted fatherhood premiums only occur for White men and are confined to brief periods in early adulthood, suggesting that they result from complex selection effects into education, employment, and fatherhood.

Bibliography Citation
Van Winkle, Zachary and Anette Eva Fasang. "Parenthood Wage Gaps Across the Life Course: A Comparison by Gender and Race." Journal of Marriage and Family published online (30 July 2020): DOI: 10.1111/jomf.12713.
1792. VanEseltine, Matthew
The Good Marriage Effect among Recent Cohorts
Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Crime; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The idea of the "good marriage effect" has become well-known in criminology: marriages, particularly those of high quality, lead to desistance from crime. The emphasis on quality comes largely from the work of Laub, Sampson, and colleagues using the recovered and revitalized Glueck data, where men's desistance was encouraged not merely by being married but by having a high level of marital attachment. This might not tell us the full story, however, as the Glueck data are limited to the family experiences of white men from Boston in the mid-to-late 20th century. Little other work on the marriage-crime relationship has operationalized and measured marital quality. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we can begin to answer several open questions about marriages and crime. How is criminal activity among recent cohorts influenced by relationships and relationship quality? How might these relationships vary by gender, race, and class? Mixed results suggest that a "good marriage" may still have a role in some desistance experiences, but also that the effect is limited in its reach.
Bibliography Citation
VanEseltine, Matthew. "The Good Marriage Effect among Recent Cohorts." Presented: Chicago IL, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, 2012.
1793. VanOrman, Alicia
Changes in the Socioeconomic Gradient in Nonmarital Childbearing across Two U.S. Cohorts
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Fertility; First Birth; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The dramatic growth in the prevalence of nonmarital fertility warrants a re-examination of how women's socioeconomic resources shape nonmarital childbearing. Drawing on a rational-choice model of fertility, prior research focused on births during the 1980s and found a negative relationship between women's socioeconomic resources and nonmarital childbearing. Since then, the nature of marriage and nonmarital childbearing has shifted and economic inequality increased, such that previously identified relationships may have changed. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts, this study compares two cohorts of women to examine change in how economic factors shape the risk of a nonmarital first birth. Preliminary results suggest that the linkages between wages, employment and education and nonmarital childbearing weakened across cohorts, whereas school enrollment became a more important predictor. These preliminary findings suggest we made need to reconsider how women's own economic resources influence nonmarital fertility.
Bibliography Citation
VanOrman, Alicia. "Changes in the Socioeconomic Gradient in Nonmarital Childbearing across Two U.S. Cohorts." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
1794. VanOrman, Alicia
Childhood Family Structure and the Transition to Adulthood
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childhood; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Fertility; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Schooling, Post-secondary; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Family structure research typically examines single outcomes (e.g., fertility, educational attainment) during young adulthood, while an emerging literature on the ‘transition to adulthood' views outcomes as a developmental process with significant heterogeneity across individuals. This study links these literatures by investigating family structure as a determinant of the pathway to adulthood with family income as a potential mechanism. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and use latent class analysis to model the transition to adulthood. Results suggest family structure differentiates broad types of pathways: nonmarital union formation and childbearing pathways from post-secondary educational attainment or marital family formation pathways. Family income partially mediates the relationship between family structure and the pathway to adulthood for youth originating from marital family structures. Income does not mediate the relationship for youth from nonmarital family structures.
Bibliography Citation
VanOrman, Alicia. "Childhood Family Structure and the Transition to Adulthood." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
1795. VanOrman, Alicia
Three Essays on the Interrelationships between Socioeconomic Resources, Family Formation, and Child Wellbeing
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Family Formation; Marital Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter uses data from two recent cohorts of young women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine how the relationship between women's socioeconomic status and having a child outside of marriage has changed across cohorts. Despite striking growth in the prevalence of nonmarital childbearing across cohorts, I find that nonmarital childbearing continues to be concentrated among less-advantaged women. In contrast to prior work, however, I also find that women's economic opportunities are increasingly important for nonmarital childbearing.

The second chapter draws on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort to investigate how men's and women's economic trajectories influence the transition to marriage among cohabitors. I find that growth in earnings and increased schooling hastens the transition to marriage, whereas a loss in earnings or employment encourages separation. The relationship between economic status and marriage varies little across gender and parental status, though the associations are more consistent among men and especially, fathers. The results of this study provide further evidence that having limited economic resources presents a significant barrier to marriage.

Bibliography Citation
VanOrman, Alicia. Three Essays on the Interrelationships between Socioeconomic Resources, Family Formation, and Child Wellbeing. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Sociology, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015.
1796. Varriale, Jennifer Anne
Female Gang Members and Desistance: Motherhood as a Possible Exit Strategy? A Quantitative Analysis of Fleisher and Krienert (2004)
M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. MAI 45/02, Apr 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Motherhood; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study sought to evaluate differential gang processes as they vary by gender through a quantitative analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. Specifically, this investigation explored the role of motherhood as a potential exit strategy for female gang membership, which had been previously examined in the qualitative work of Fleisher and Krienert (2004). In fact, Fleisher and Krienert (2004) noted that sixty-three percent of their sample had attributed pregnancy or "settling down" as the primary reason for desistance. All in all, this investigation found no support for Fleisher and Krienert's (2004) assertions of the causality of motherhood as a potential desistance mechanism, or for the magnitude of their sixty-three percent finding.
Bibliography Citation
Varriale, Jennifer Anne. Female Gang Members and Desistance: Motherhood as a Possible Exit Strategy? A Quantitative Analysis of Fleisher and Krienert (2004). M.A. Thesis, University of Maryland - College Park, 2006. MAI 45/02, Apr 2007.
1797. Venator, Joanna
Essays on the Spatial Economics of the Family
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2021
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Dual-Career Families; Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Geocoded Data; Household Structure; Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this dissertation, I study how household's decisions about where to live vary across household structure and impact marriage and fertility decisions.

The first chapter examines how married couples' migration decisions differentially impact men's and women's earnings and the role that policy can play in improving post-move outcomes for trailing spouses. I use a difference-in-differences methodology to show that access to unemployment insurance for trailing spouses increases the likelihood that households move by 2.3 p.p. and improves the post-move labor market outcomes of women. I then build and estimate a structural model of dual-earner couples' migration decisions to evaluate the effects of a series of counterfactual policies. I show that increasing the likelihood of joint distant offers substantively increases migration rates, increases women's post-move employment rates, and improves both men and women's earnings growth at the time of a move.

The second chapter explores the role that joint geographic constraints play in dual-earner household migration decisions. I develop a measure of joint geographic constraints adapted from a pairwise occupational co-agglomeration index and demonstrate that being well-matched to one's spouse in terms of occupation clustering is positively associated with earnings for women and secondary earners. I show that higher values on the co-agglomeration index is associated with higher mobility rates for dual-earner households as well, consistent with the theory that occupational sorting impacts married couple's ability to overcome dual-earner migration frictions.

Bibliography Citation
Venator, Joanna. Essays on the Spatial Economics of the Family. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, The University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2021.
1798. Venkatesh, Shrathinth
The Emerging College Hours Premium for Men
Education Economics published online (27 July 2021): DOI: 10.1080/09645292.2021.1958169.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09645292.2021.1958169
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Graduates; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Male Sample; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper documents the emerging role of education in the well-known decline in US male working hours. An insignificant hours difference between high school and college graduates becomes a significant 2 hours/week advantage for college graduates within a generation. This growing college hours premium is confirmed in alternate data. Moreover, the growing premium exists throughout the distribution and is not generated by the tails. The increasing premium persists across a wide variety of robustness checks and presents as a widespread phenomenon. The emerging college hours premium increases the overall college earnings premium despite recent trends in the college wage premium.
Bibliography Citation
Venkatesh, Shrathinth. "The Emerging College Hours Premium for Men." Education Economics published online (27 July 2021): DOI: 10.1080/09645292.2021.1958169.
1799. Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Early Sexual Behavior and First Union Formation in Young Adults
M.A. Thesis, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Cohabitation; Marriage; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the first six rounds of data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this research analyzes the role of sexual behavior on union formation for 6,700 adolescents and young adults ages 18 to 22 years. I investigate the effects of age at first sex and number of sexual partners on whether individuals enter a first co-residential union in early adulthood, and among those who do, whether their first union is marriage or cohabitation. Results show that earlier sexual activity and more sexual partners prior to first union significantly increase the likelihood of experiencing cohabitation as one's first co-residential union. Sexually active adolescents are significantly less likely to enter marriages or delay union formation altogether compared to their counterparts who delayed first sex and had fewer sexual partners. These findings suggest that individuals who enter these cohabiting first unions have significantly different sexual behavior than those who enter early marriages or stay single. Cohabitation has emerged as an alternative union type to marriage in which individuals' sexual behavior prior to union formation significantly influences the kind of first union they first experience.
Bibliography Citation
Vespa, Jonathan Edward. Early Sexual Behavior and First Union Formation in Young Adults. M.A. Thesis, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 2006.
1800. Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Early Sexual Behavior and First Union Formation in Young Adults
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=7161
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Marriage; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the first six rounds of data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I analyze the role of sexual behavior on union formation for 6,700 young adults (ages 18 to 22). I investigate whether early sexual activity influences the likelihood of experiencing a co-residential union in early adulthood and whether it is marriage or cohabitation. Results show that earlier ages at first sex and more sexual partners increase the likelihood of experiencing a cohabiting first co-residential union. Sexually active adolescents are less likely to marry or remain single than their counterparts who delayed first sex and had fewer sexual partners. These findings suggest that individuals who enter early cohabiting first unions have different sexual behavior than those who enter early marriages or stay single. Cohabitation has emerged as an alternative union to marriage in which individuals' early sexual behavior influences the kind of first union they first experience.
Bibliography Citation
Vespa, Jonathan Edward. "Early Sexual Behavior and First Union Formation in Young Adults." Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
1801. Visher, Mary G.
Lauen, Doug
Merola, Linda
Medrich, Elliott
School-to-work in the 1990s: A Look at Programs and Practices in American High Schools
Report, under Office of Educational Research and Improvement contract and funded by the National School-to-Work Office, Berkeley, CA, MPR Associates, Inc; August 1998.
Also: http://www.mprinc.com/products/pdf/stw_in_the_1990s.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Education
Keyword(s): Education, Secondary; Educational Attainment; High School Curriculum; Transition, School to Work; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

This report examines the prevalence of school-to-work practices in a large representative sample of American high schools. The data are taken from the Survey of School Administrators, part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which was fielded in the fall of 1996. A total of 5,295 high schools returned questionnaires, containing a battery of questions on the availability of school-to-work programs, broadly defined. This report, commissioned by the National School-to-Work Office, provides evidence that the School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA) is helping to foster significant reform in the delivery of curriculum to students, and is promoting school-to-work practices in American high schools.
Bibliography Citation
Visher, Mary G., Doug Lauen, Linda Merola and Elliott Medrich. "School-to-work in the 1990s: A Look at Programs and Practices in American High Schools." Report, under Office of Educational Research and Improvement contract and funded by the National School-to-Work Office, Berkeley, CA, MPR Associates, Inc; August 1998.
1802. Vogel, Matt
Porter, Lauren C.
McCuddy, Timothy
Hypermobility, Destination Effects, and Delinquency: Specifying the Link between Residential Mobility and Offending
Social Forces 95,3 (March 2017): 1261-1284.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/95/3/1261/2877691
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Mobility, Residential; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Neighborhood Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Residential mobility is often implicated as a risk factor for delinquency. While many scholars attribute this to causal processes spurred by moving, recent research suggests that much of the relationship is due to differences between mobile and non-mobile adolescents. However, studies in this area often operationalize mobility as a single move, limiting researchers to comparing outcomes between mobile and non-mobile adolescents. This approach is rather broad, considering heterogeneity in mobility frequency as well as variation in sending and receiving neighborhood characteristics. We propose a more nuanced framework to help anticipate how characteristics of mobility experiences may mitigate, exacerbate, or fail to influence adolescent behavior. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) and the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we demonstrate that "hypermobility" has detrimental behavioral consequences, increases in neighborhood disadvantage between sending and receiving neighborhoods are associated with reductions in self-reported offending, and long-distance moves reduce delinquency, but only among adolescents with prior behavioral problems. These results underscore the complex association between residential mobility and delinquency during adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Vogel, Matt, Lauren C. Porter and Timothy McCuddy. "Hypermobility, Destination Effects, and Delinquency: Specifying the Link between Residential Mobility and Offending." Social Forces 95,3 (March 2017): 1261-1284.
1803. Vogel, Matt
South, Scott J.
Spatial Dimensions of the Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Delinquency
Criminology 54,3 (August 2016): 434-458.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1745-9125.12110/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research examining the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adolescent offending typically examines only the influence of residential neighborhoods. This strategy may be problematic as 1) neighborhoods are rarely spatially independent of each other and 2) adolescents spend an appreciable portion of their time engaged in activities outside of their immediate neighborhood. Therefore, characteristics of neighborhoods outside of, but geographically proximate to, residential neighborhoods may affect adolescents' propensity to engage in delinquent behavior. We append a spatially lagged, distance-weighted measure of socioeconomic disadvantage in "extralocal" neighborhoods to the individual records of respondents participating in the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (N = 6,491). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicate that the level of socioeconomic disadvantage in extralocal neighborhoods is inversely associated with youth offending, as theories of relative deprivation, structured opportunity, and routine activities would predict, and that the magnitude of this effect rivals that of the level of disadvantage in youths' own residential neighborhoods. Moreover, socioeconomic disadvantage in extralocal neighborhoods suppresses the criminogenic influence of socioeconomic disadvantage in youths' own neighborhoods, revealing stronger effects of local neighborhood disadvantage than would otherwise be observed.
Bibliography Citation
Vogel, Matt and Scott J. South. "Spatial Dimensions of the Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Delinquency." Criminology 54,3 (August 2016): 434-458.
1804. Vogel, Matt
Zwiers, Merle
The Consequences of Spatial Inequality for Adolescent Residential Mobility
Social Sciences 7,9 (September 2018): 164.
Also: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/7/9/164
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Mobility, Residential; Neighborhood Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large body of literature suggests that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is positively associated with out-mobility. However, prior research has been limited by (1) the inability to account for endogenous factors that both funnel families into deprived neighborhoods and increase their likelihood of moving out, and (2) the failure to consider how the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation in the broader community conditions the effect of local deprivation on mobility. This paper attends to this gap in the literature by examining how changes in socioeconomic disadvantage between sending and receiving neighborhoods and the spatial patterning of deprivation in the areas surrounding destination neighborhoods influence future mobility among a representative sample of American adolescents. We employ a modeling strategy that allows us to examine the unique and separable effects of local and extralocal neighborhood disadvantage while simultaneously holding constant time-invariant factors that place some youth at a greater likelihood of experiencing a residential move. We find that moves to more impoverished neighborhoods decrease the likelihood of subsequent mobility and that this effect is most pronounced among respondents who move to neighborhoods surrounded by other similarly deprived neighborhoods. In this sense, geographical pockets of disadvantage strengthen the mobility-hampering effect of neighborhood deprivation on future mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Vogel, Matt and Merle Zwiers. "The Consequences of Spatial Inequality for Adolescent Residential Mobility." Social Sciences 7,9 (September 2018): 164.
1805. von Hippel, Paul
Lynch, Jamie L.
College and Weight Gain: Is There a Freshman Five?
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Education is generally associated with superior health, yet it is widely believed that attending college causes excessive weight gain (the “freshman five”). This study tries to ascertain whether college attendance increases or decreases obesity risk. Using data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), we compared the weight and weight gain of 16-to-23-year-olds who did and did not attend college. We conducted separate analyses for black, white, and Hispanic males and females. Each analysis controlled for confounders including prior weight and measures of family background. We find that college attenders do gain weight during their college years, but college-age non-attenders gain about the same amount. There are some weight differences between college attenders and non-attenders, but these differences are established well before college begins. College attendance appears to have little effect on body weight, at least in the short run.
Bibliography Citation
von Hippel, Paul and Jamie L. Lynch. "College and Weight Gain: Is There a Freshman Five?" Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Meetings, May 2012.
1806. von Hippel, Paul
Lynch, Jamie L.
Why are Educated Adults Slim—Causation or Selection?
Social Science and Medicine 105 (March 2014): 131-139.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953614000264
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Socioeconomic Background; Weight

More educated adults tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower risk of overweight and obesity. We contrast two explanations for this education gradient in BMI. One explanation is selection: adolescents with high BMI are less likely to plan for, attend, and complete higher levels of education. An alternative explanation is causation: higher education confers lifelong social, economic, and psychological benefits that help adults to restrain BMI growth. We test the relative importance of selection and causation using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which tracks BMI from adolescence (age 15) through young adulthood (age 29).

Ordinal regression models confirm the selection hypothesis that high-BMI adolescents are less likely to complete higher levels of education. Selection has primarily to do with the fact that high-BMI adolescents tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and tend to have low grades and test scores. Among high-BMI girls there is also some evidence that educational attainment is limited by bullying, pessimism, poor health, and early pregnancy. About half the selection of high-BMI girls out of higher education remains unexplained.

Fixed-effects models control for selection and suggest that the causal effect of education on BMI, though significant, accounts for only one-quarter of the mean BMI differences between more and less educated adults at age 29. Among young adults, it appears that most of the education gradient in BMI is due to selection.

Bibliography Citation
von Hippel, Paul and Jamie L. Lynch. "Why are Educated Adults Slim—Causation or Selection?" Social Science and Medicine 105 (March 2014): 131-139.
1807. Vuolo, Mike
Copula Models for Sociology: Measures of Dependence and Probabilities for Joint Distributions
Sociological Methods and Research 46,3 (August 2017): 604-648.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/smra/46/3
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Modeling; Statistical Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Often in sociology, researchers are confronted with nonnormal variables whose joint distribution they wish to explore. Yet, assumptions of common measures of dependence can fail or estimating such dependence is computationally intensive. This article presents the copula method for modeling the joint distribution of two random variables, including descriptions of the method, the most common copula distributions, and the nonparametric measures of association derived from the models. Copula models, which are estimated by standard maximum likelihood techniques, make no assumption about the form of the marginal distributions, allowing consideration of a variety of models and distributions in the margins and various shapes for the joint distribution. The modeling procedure is demonstrated via a simulated example of spousal mortality and empirical examples of (1) the association between unemployment and suicide rates with time series models and (2) the dependence between a count variable (days drinking alcohol) and a skewed, continuous variable (grade point average) while controlling for predictors of each using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Other uses for copulas in sociology are also described.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike. "Copula Models for Sociology: Measures of Dependence and Probabilities for Joint Distributions." Sociological Methods and Research 46,3 (August 2017): 604-648.
1808. Vuolo, Mike
Kadowaki, Joy
Kelly, Brian
A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 57,3 (September 2016): 351-372.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/57/3/351.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts--including policy, community, and work/family--in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Joy Kadowaki and Brian Kelly. "A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 57,3 (September 2016): 351-372.
1809. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
Impact of Total Vending Machine Restrictions on U.S. Young Adult Smoking
Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18,11 (2016): 2092-2099.
Also: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/11/2092
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Introduction: In an analysis of smoking using a longitudinal sample of U.S. young adults, we extend research on tobacco vending machine restrictions beyond its prior focus on minors by examining the influence of total vending machine restrictions, which apply to adult-only facilities and represents the only remaining vending machine exemption since the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We identify whether the passage of a restriction influences an individual's smoking on repeated observations, and if the propensity is lower among those who live in locations with a restriction.

Methods: Combining a repository of U.S. tobacco policies at all geographic levels with the nationally-representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Census data, we use multilevel logistic regression to examine the impact of total vending machine restrictions on any past 30 day smoking and past 30 day smoking of one pack per day among young adults (ages 19-31), while accounting for other tobacco control policy, community, and individual covariates.

Results: We find that total vending machine restrictions decrease any recent smoking (OR=0.451; p<.01), net of other covariates. Though the passage of a restriction does not alter an individual’s smoking over time, living longer in an area that has a restriction lowers the propensity that an individual will smoke at all (OR=0.442; p<.05). We find no effect of total vending machine restrictions on smoking a pack daily.

Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "Impact of Total Vending Machine Restrictions on U.S. Young Adult Smoking." Nicotine and Tobacco Research 18,11 (2016): 2092-2099.
1810. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults
American Journal of Public Health 106,2 (February 2016): 374-380.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302968
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We examined the mutual effects of smoking bans and taxes on smoking among a longitudinal cohort of young adults.

Methods: We combined a repository of US tobacco policies at the state and local level with the nationally representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (2004–2011) from ages 19 to 31 years and Census data, to examine the impact of tobacco policies on any current and daily pack smoking. The analytic sample amounts to 19,668 observations among 4341 individuals within 487 cities.

Results: For current smoking, we found significant effects for comprehensive smoking bans, but not excise taxes. We also found an interaction effect, with bans being most effective in locales with no or low taxes. For daily pack smoking, we found significant effects for taxes, but limited support for bans.

Conclusions: Social smoking among young adults is primarily inhibited by smoking bans, but excise taxes only deter such smoking in the absence of a ban. Heavy smokers are primarily deterred by taxes. Although both policies have an impact on young adult smoking behaviors, their dual presence does not intensify each policy's efficacy.

Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "Independent and Interactive Effects of Smoking Bans and Tobacco Taxes on a Cohort of US Young Adults." American Journal of Public Health 106,2 (February 2016): 374-380.
1811. Vuolo, Mike
Kelly, Brian
Kadowaki, Joy
The Impact of Clean Air Policies on Smoking Among a National Longitudinal Panel of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Restrictions on smoking in public places has become a major global public health initiative over the past decade. To assess their impact, we examine the effect of comprehensive clean air policies on the prob ability of young adult cigarette use from ages 19-32 across the U.S. We combine a database of every tobacco policy among states and cities with the geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, an annual nationally representative survey of adolescents aged 12-16 during 1997 (n=8,984). In this respect, we trace the impact of these clean-air policies from adolescence through young adulthood. Using a multilevel panel model, we find that comprehensive clean air policies lower the odds of any smoking (OR=0.788, p<.05) and smoking a pack per day (OR=0.652, p<.01) during the past 30 days, while controlling for numerous other factors at both the city and individual levels. Taking advantage of longitudinal policy data, we decompose policy into within-and between-person effects, finding that the effect on any smoking has a within-person effect; that is, a clean air policy affects a given person's odds of any smoking over time (OR=0.774, p<.05). By contrast, we see a between-person effect on daily pack smoking, such that policies distinguish between individuals who smoke at this level (OR=0.428, p<.01), but do not affect a specific person's use. We situate these findings within Bird and Rieker’s (2008) Constrained Choices framework, which states that decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts, including policy, community, and work and family, in which they are formulated. We demonstrate that policies restricting public smoking influence tobacco use over time even in the face of proximal constraints. Further, the results underscore the efficacy of clean air policies on young adult smoking behaviors throughout a critical point in the life course.
Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Brian Kelly and Joy Kadowaki. "The Impact of Clean Air Policies on Smoking Among a National Longitudinal Panel of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
1812. Vuolo, Mike
Lindsay, Sade L.
Kelly, Brian C.
Further Consideration of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Young Adult Smoking in Light of the Liberalization of Cannabis Policies
Nicotine and Tobacco Research published online (17 July 2021): DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntab149.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/ntr/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ntr/ntab149/6323257
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Geocoded Data; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Changing patterns of cannabis consumption related to the liberalization of cannabis policies may have a countervailing effect on tobacco use. We analyzed whether cannabis policies have tempered the effects of tobacco control policies as well as the extent to which they were associated with young adult cigarette smoking.

Methods: Combining data on tobacco and cannabis policies at the state, county, and city levels with the nationally-representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Census data, we use multilevel regression and fixed effect analyses to examine the impact of cannabis policies on any past 30-day cigarette smoking, frequency of smoking, and past 30-day near-daily smoking among young adults while accounting for community and individual covariates.

Results: Tobacco control policies, including significant effects of comprehensive smoking bans, total vending machine restrictions, single cigarette sale restrictions, and advertising restrictions, remain robust in reducing young adult smoking, net of cannabis policy liberalization, including the legal status of possession, penalties for sale, and medical cannabis. Cannabis policies do not directly affect young adult smoking patterns in an adverse way.

Bibliography Citation
Vuolo, Mike, Sade L. Lindsay and Brian C. Kelly. "Further Consideration of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Young Adult Smoking in Light of the Liberalization of Cannabis Policies." Nicotine and Tobacco Research published online (17 July 2021): DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntab149.
1813. Wai, Jonathan
Lakin, Joni M.
Finding the Missing Einsteins: Expanding the Breadth of Cognitive and Noncognitive Measures Used in Academic Services
Contemporary Educational Psychology published online (6 September 2020): DOI: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101920.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361476X20300850
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; High School and Beyond (HSB); Noncognitive Skills; Project Talent; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Education researchers, policymakers, and practitioners are concerned with identifying and developing talent for students with fewer opportunities, especially students from historically marginalized groups. An emerging body of research suggests "universally screening" or testing all students, then matching those students with appropriate educational challenges, is effective in helping marginalized students. However, most tests have focused on two areas: math and verbal reasoning. We leverage three nationally representative samples of the U.S. population at different time points that include both novel cognitive measures (e.g., spatial, mechanical, and abstract reasoning) and non-cognitive measures (e.g., conscientiousness, creativity or word fluency, leadership skill, and artistic skill) to uncover which measures would improve proportional representation of marginalized groups in talent identification procedures. We find that adding spatial reasoning measures in particular--as well as other non-cognitive measures such as conscientiousness, leadership, and creativity--are worthwhile to consider for universal screening procedures for students to narrow achievement gaps at every level of education, including for gifted students. By showing that these nontraditional measures both improve proportional representation of underrepresented groups and have reasonable predictive validity, we also broaden the definition of what it means to be "gifted" and expand opportunities for students from historically marginalized groups.
Bibliography Citation
Wai, Jonathan and Joni M. Lakin. "Finding the Missing Einsteins: Expanding the Breadth of Cognitive and Noncognitive Measures Used in Academic Services." Contemporary Educational Psychology published online (6 September 2020): DOI: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101920.
1814. Waithaka, Eric
An Examination of the Latent Structure of Family Capital Estimated Using Family Resources and Processes Measures
Presented: Washington DC, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Social Work and Research (SSWR)
Keyword(s): Family Background and Culture; Family Process Measures; Family Resources; Net Worth; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The achievement of the traditional milestones associated with adulthood within the current cohort of young adults appears to differ by social class backgrounds, and these differences may be growing due to the differential support of natal families. Family background matter but the ways in which it matters and what attributes in the family of origin are most salient is a subject that has not been comprehensively interrogated. Extant research does not examine the multi-dimensional aspects of family resources (capital) and how this capital is deployed during transitions to adulthood. Building on the work of Pierre Bourdieu (1986) on forms of family capital and Annette Lareau's (2000; 2003) work on family processes, this paper explores the latent structure of family capital when estimated using distinct family background resources and processes measures.
Bibliography Citation
Waithaka, Eric. "An Examination of the Latent Structure of Family Capital Estimated Using Family Resources and Processes Measures." Presented: Washington DC, Society for Social Work and Research Annual Conference, January 2018.
1815. Walker, James R.
Adolescents' Expectations Regarding Birth Outcomes: A Comparison of the NLSY79 and NLSY97 Cohorts
In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 201-229
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; College Graduates; Fertility; Gender Differences

Chapter: Used data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97, respectively) to investigate whether youths can reasonably forecast their future fertility outcomes and, if so, whether the intentions of the cohorts differ. The sample consisted of Ss aged 15-17 yrs. It was found that youths can reliably assess (short-term) fertility outcomes, and, unlike other events (such as mortality and perhaps college graduation), fertility events are salient to them. Little difference was found between the fertility expectations of the members of the NLSY79 cohort and those of NLSY97 cohort. The differences that did occur were among males, especially poor males. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Walker, James R. "Adolescents' Expectations Regarding Birth Outcomes: A Comparison of the NLSY79 and NLSY97 Cohorts" In: Social Awakening: Adolescent Behavior as Adulthood Approaches. R.T. Michael, ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001: pp. 201-229
1816. Walker, James R.
Choice Choice, Enrollment and Educational Attainment within the NLSY79 and NLSY97
Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
Also: http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu/Research/conferences/NLSYConf/pdf/nlsjc5.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Household Income

I use information from two cohorts of the BLS's National Longitudinal Surveys to compare college choice, enrollment and educational attainment. I find a large increase in enrollment between cohorts and a smaller increase in educational attainment. Current household income affects enrollment and attainment and its role is stable across cohorts. The influence of ability on enrollment is several times larger than household income. Moreover, the role of ability appears to have changed between cohort: in the NLSY79 ability determines who attends college (at either a two–year or four–year school) while for the NLSY97, with entry into college apparently available to all, ability determines who enrolls in four–year schools.
Bibliography Citation
Walker, James R. "Choice Choice, Enrollment and Educational Attainment within the NLSY79 and NLSY97." Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
1817. Wall, Ian F.
Embodied Disadvantage and Socioeconomic Stratification: Parental Body Mass and Offspring Income in the United States
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Income; Obesity; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Sociologists have a long-standing interest in the social factors that influence life chances and how these factors may have lingering effects over generations, yet intergenerational studies often overlook the role of embodied factors. Well-established relationships in medical and social science literatures justify an investigation of body mass as one such embodied factor. Specifically, body mass is strongly related to socioeconomic position, in an inverse direction; parental body mass is highly correlated with the body mass of their offspring; and higher offspring body mass can negatively influence socioeconomic attainment. I take this series of associations to be a plausible mechanism connecting parental body mass and offspring income, and here I examine this overarching association net of traditional measures of social origin and individual-level controls, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort. Multiple regression analyses suggest that, on average, above-normal parental body mass (BMI≥25) is negatively associated with offspring income in early adulthood, especially for whites. In one analysis, white men with two obese parents (BMI≥30) make an average of ~$8,570 (SE $2,410) less per year than white men with two normal weight parents, net of controls. In the same analysis, having two obese parents is a larger income disadvantage than being black compared to white [$6,580 (SE $1,560)] or being female compared to male [$8,410 (SE $1,330)]. Given that socioeconomic characteristics have strong influences on one’s body mass, I argue that body mass may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic position.
Bibliography Citation
Wall, Ian F. "Embodied Disadvantage and Socioeconomic Stratification: Parental Body Mass and Offspring Income in the United States." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
1818. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Are Young Adults Losing Out on Sleep? Changes in Sleep Duration in a U.S. Population-based Study
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Labor Force Participation; Sleep; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chronic sleep problems are widespread in the U.S. population, affect an estimated 50 to 70 million U.S. adults, and are associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. We know relatively little about how sleep duration changes over time, and specifically how sleep duration changes over the course of early adulthood, a period marked by substantial transitions into and out of education, employment, and family roles. We use prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a U.S. based representative sample of persons born between 1980 and 1984. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1997, with annual follow-ups through 2011. Sleep duration was assessed in 2002, 2007, 2009, 2010, and 2011. We estimated random-coefficient models to examine how sleep duration changes during early adulthood as a function of demographic characteristics, educational experiences, employment, and family roles. Results indicate that sleep duration declines from 18 to 30 years old, from approximately 7.25 hours to 6.6 hours on a typical weeknight. Men sleep an average of 1.25 hours longer than women at age 18, but this sleep advantage declines to 18 minutes by age 30. Young adults with less than a high school education sleep longer than those with more education with the exception of college-educated young adults, and this difference does not change over time. Part-time and full-time workers report shorter sleep than non-workers, but over time, this difference narrows slightly. Finally, young adults with children in the household sleep consistently less than young adults with no children in the household. Overall, U.S. young adults experience shorter sleep over the course of early adulthood, but changes in sleep duration vary widely by demographic factors, education, employment, and family roles. This study is the first to establish how sleep duration changes during this important life stage.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle and Jennifer A. Ailshire. "Are Young Adults Losing Out on Sleep? Changes in Sleep Duration in a U.S. Population-based Study." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
1819. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Fisk, Calley E.
Brown, Lauren L.
Do Gender and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Duration Emerge in Early Adulthood? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Adults
Sleep Medicine 36 (August 2017): 133-140.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389945717302216
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Sleep

Objective: Gender and racial/ethnic disparities in sleep duration are well documented among the U.S. adult population, but we know little about how these disparities are shaped during the early course of adult life, a period marked by substantial changes in social roles that can influence time for sleep.

Methods: Prospective data was used from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a U.S.-based representative sample of persons born between 1980 and 1984, who were first interviewed in 1997. Sleep duration was assessed in 2002, 2007/2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Random-coefficient models were estimated to examine gender and racial/ethnic disparities in trajectories of sleep duration across early adulthood as a function of educational experiences, employment, and family relationships.

Results: Sleep duration declined during early adulthood. Women reported shorter sleep than men from age 18 to 22, but slept longer than men by age 28. Young adults of black race/ethnnicity reported sleep durations similar to those of young adults of white race/ethnicity until age 24, after which blacks slept less than whites. Educational experiences and employment characteristics reduced gender and racial/ethnic disparities, but family relationships exacerbated them.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire, Calley E. Fisk and Lauren L. Brown. "Do Gender and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Duration Emerge in Early Adulthood? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Adults." Sleep Medicine 36 (August 2017): 133-140.
1820. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Gee, Gilbert C.
Student Loans and Racial Disparities in Self-reported Sleep Duration: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70,1 (January 2016): 42-48.
Also: http://jech.bmj.com/content/70/1/42.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Racial Differences; Sleep; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Student loans are the second largest source of personal debt in the USA and may represent an important source of financial strain for many young adults. Little attention has been paid to whether debt is associated with sleep duration, an important health-promoting behaviour. We determine if student loans are associated with sleep duration. Since black young adults are more likely to have student debt and sleep less, we also consider whether this association varies by race.

Methods: Data come from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The main analytic sample includes 4714 respondents who were ever enrolled in college and who reported on sleep duration in 2010. Most respondents had completed their college education by 2010, when respondents were 25 to 31 years old. Multivariable linear regression models assessed the cross-sectional association between student loans accumulated over the course of college and sleep duration in 2010, as well as between student debt at age 25 and sleep duration in 2010.

Results: Black young adults with greater amounts of student loans or more student debt reported shorter sleep duration, controlling for occupation, hours worked, household income, parental net worth, marital status, number of children in the household and other sociodemographic and health indicators. There was no association between student loans or debt with sleep for white or latino adults and other racial/ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Student loans may contribute to racial inequities in sleep duration. Our findings also suggest that the student debt crisis may have important implications for individuals’ sleep, specifically and public health, more broadly.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire and Gilbert C. Gee. "Student Loans and Racial Disparities in Self-reported Sleep Duration: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults ." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70,1 (January 2016): 42-48.
1821. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Gee, Gilbert C.
Gentile, Danielle
Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Health of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Assistance; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Student Loans; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated how college loans are related to health during early adulthood, whether this relationship is stronger among those with less parental wealth or without a college degree, and if this relationship varied by type of college attended (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative sample of young adults, restricting our sample to persons who ever attended college (n=4,643). Multivariate regression tested the association between college loans and self-rated health and psychological functioning in 2010, adjusting for a robust set of socio-demographic indicators. Student loans were associated with poorer self-rated health and psychological functioning. This association varied by level of parental wealth, but not degree attainment or type of college attended. Our study raises provocative questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Gilbert C. Gee and Danielle Gentile. "Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Health of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
1822. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Gee, Gilbert C.
Gentile, Danielle
Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Mental Health of Young Adults in the United States
Social Science and Medicine 124 (January 2015): 85-93.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953614007503
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Debt/Borrowing; Educational Attainment; Financial Assistance; Health, Mental; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Student Loans

Student loans are increasingly important and commonplace, especially among recent cohorts of young adults in the United States. These loans facilitate the acquisition of human capital in the form of education, but may also lead to stress and worries related to repayment. This study investigated two questions: 1) what is the association between the cumulative amount of student loans borrowed over the course of schooling and psychological functioning when individuals are 25-31 years old; and 2) what is the association between annual student loan borrowing and psychological functioning among currently enrolled college students? We also examined whether these relationships varied by parental wealth, college enrollment history (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year college), and educational attainment (for cumulative student loans only). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Analyses employed multivariate linear regression and within-person fixed-effects models. Student loans were associated with poorer psychological functioning, adjusting for covariates, in both the multivariate linear regression and the within-person fixed effects models. This association varied by level of parental wealth in the multivariate linear regression models only, and did not vary by college enrollment history or educational attainment. The present findings raise novel questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities. The study of student loans is even more timely and significant given the ongoing rise in the costs of higher education.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Gilbert C. Gee and Danielle Gentile. "Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Mental Health of Young Adults in the United States." Social Science and Medicine 124 (January 2015): 85-93.
1823. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Educational Pathways and the Smoking and Binge Drinking Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Education; College Enrollment; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways are associated with smoking and binge drinking among US young adults. This is important because educational heterogeneity is infrequently studied in the education-health literature. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n=7,359). Young adults who delayed college enrollment or who did not attain their bachelor's degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke whereas young adults who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink than young adults who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital and occupational statuses in young adulthood explained a portion of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways is important for understanding young adult health behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Educational Pathways and the Smoking and Binge Drinking Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
1824. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9463-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An increasing number of U.S. adults are progressing through college in decidedly more complex ways. Little is known, however, about how this growing heterogeneity may be associated with the health behaviors and ultimately health of young adults. Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways--that is, variation in when people attend and complete school--are associated with daily smoking and binge drinking among U.S. young adults. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (n = 7359) that enable us to identify the most common educational pathways, as well as their association with young adult health behaviors. Bachelor's degree recipients who enrolled immediately after high school but did not attain their degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke daily in early adulthood (i.e., ages 26-32) than those who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Conversely, bachelor's degree recipients who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink in early adulthood than individuals who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital status and household income in young adulthood accounted for some of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings highlight the complexity of education's relationship to health behavior and strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways should be explicitly examined in population health research.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
1825. Walters, Glenn D.
Are the Effects of Parental Control/Support and Peer Delinquency on Future Offending Cumulative or Interactive? A Multiple Group Analysis of 10 Longitudinal Studies
Journal of Criminal Justice 60 (January-February 2019): 13-24.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235218303817
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Purpose: This study assessed whether the combined effect of parental control/support and peer delinquency on future participant offending was cumulative, interactive, or redundant.

Methods: A review of database studies available through the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) website identified 10 longitudinal studies with prospective self-report data on parental control/support, peer delinquency or deviance, and future offending in participants 18 years of age and younger.

Results: A multiple group analysis revealed that while there was mild to moderate evidence of measurement invariance or consistency of results across gender and race, there was no evidence of consistency of substantive relationships across the 10 studies. A review of findings from each individual study revealed that while the parent and peer main effects were each significant in 9 out of the 10 studies, the parent x peer interaction was significant in only 1 out of 10 studies.

Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Are the Effects of Parental Control/Support and Peer Delinquency on Future Offending Cumulative or Interactive? A Multiple Group Analysis of 10 Longitudinal Studies." Journal of Criminal Justice 60 (January-February 2019): 13-24.
1826. Walters, Glenn D.
Changes in Arrest Rate as a Function of Probation and Participant Criminal History Risk: Does Probation Work Best With Lower Risk Probationers?
Criminal Justice Policy Review 30,5 (2019): 748-764.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0887403417721605
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Behavior, Antisocial; Criminal Justice System; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether criminal history risk moderates the effect of probation on future reoffending. A sample of 327 participants from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97) who had been on probation were compared with 327 propensity score matched members of the NLSY97 who had been arrested but not placed on probation. Probation and arrest data analyzed between 1999 and 2008 failed to support the presence of an overall effect for probation. When the sample was divided into higher criminal history risk (one or more prior arrests) and lower criminal history risk (no prior arrests), however, probation was found to reduce recidivism in the lower criminal history risk group but not in the higher criminal history risk group. Accordingly, probation appeared to have a small but significant ameliorative effect on future offending in lower criminal history risk offenders.
Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Changes in Arrest Rate as a Function of Probation and Participant Criminal History Risk: Does Probation Work Best With Lower Risk Probationers?" Criminal Justice Policy Review 30,5 (2019): 748-764.
1827. Walters, Glenn D.
Cognitive Mediation of Crime Continuity: A Causal Mediation Analysis of the Past Crime-Future Crime Relationship
Crime and Delinquency 61,9 (November 2015): 1234-1256.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/61/9/1234
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Expectations/Intentions; Incarceration/Jail; Psychological Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizing data from two large samples, cognitive variables were evaluated as potential mediators of the past crime–future crime relationship. In the first study, the reconstructed General Criminal Thinking (GCTrc) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was found to mediate the relationship between past adult convictions/juvenile adjudications and future recidivism in 1,101 male federal prisoners. In the second study, a cognitive appraisal of one's future chances of arrest was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported delinquency between the ages of 13 and 15 and self-reported delinquency between the ages of 17 and 19 in 1,414 male and female members of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) cohort. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the mediating effects in both studies were reasonably robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption. These findings suggest that cognitive factors may play a role in encouraging continuity from the early to the later stages of criminal involvement.
Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Cognitive Mediation of Crime Continuity: A Causal Mediation Analysis of the Past Crime-Future Crime Relationship ." Crime and Delinquency 61,9 (November 2015): 1234-1256.
1828. Walters, Glenn D.
Continuous versus Categorical Models of Delinquency Risk
American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,3 (September 2014): 395-410.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-013-9235-1
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; School Suspension/Expulsion; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two groups of participants, one a nationally representative sample with roughly equal numbers of male and female participants (N = 8,984) and the other a sample of mostly male adjudicated delinquents (N = 1,354), were used to test whether risk factors for delinquency are organized continuously or categorically. A continuous (variable-centered) model was created using factor scores from a one-factor confirmatory factor analysis and a categorical (person-centered) model was constructed using posterior probabilities from a two-class finite mixture modeling analysis. In both samples the continuous model correlated significantly better with subsequent offending than did the categorical model, a finding that was replicated in males from both samples and in females from the nationally representative sample. The current findings suggest that risk factors are better construed as points along a continuum rather than as properties of distinct groups or types. These results further suggest that the etiology of offending, in the form of risk factors, is general/additive rather than specific/selective. The implications of these results for theory development, clinical practice, and future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Continuous versus Categorical Models of Delinquency Risk." American Journal of Criminal Justice 39,3 (September 2014): 395-410.
1829. Walters, Glenn D.
Mothers and Fathers, Sons and Daughters: Parental Knowledge and Quality of the Parent-Child Relationship as Predictors of Delinquency in Same- and Cross-Sex Parent‒Child Dyads
Journal of Child and Family Studies 28,7 (July 2019): 1850-1861.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10826-019-01409-5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Fathers and Children; Fathers and Sons; Mothers and Daughters; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Sons

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: This study tested two putative mechanisms for the perceived parental knowledge-delinquency relationship using a longitudinal cross-lagged research design.

Methods: The first mechanism tested in this study proposed that a positive parent-child relationship enhanced parental knowledge, which, in turn, inhibited delinquency. The second mechanism started with parental knowledge, which then led to improved parent-child affiliation, which, in turn, reduced delinquency. These two pathways were evaluated in 5102 mothers (2631 sons, 2471 daughters) and 3999 fathers (2117 sons, 1882 daughters) of adolescent members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).

Results: Causal mediation analysis revealed that both pathways (positive relationship → parental knowledge; parental knowledge → positive relationship) were significant in all four dyads (fathers-sons, fathers-daughters, mothers-sons, and mothers-daughters).

Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Mothers and Fathers, Sons and Daughters: Parental Knowledge and Quality of the Parent-Child Relationship as Predictors of Delinquency in Same- and Cross-Sex Parent‒Child Dyads." Journal of Child and Family Studies 28,7 (July 2019): 1850-1861.
1830. Wang, Lijuan
Generalized Mixed Models with Mixture Links for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2008.
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Bayesian; Behavioral Problems; Modeling, Logit; Sample Selection; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Count data with excessive zeros are often observed in substance use or problem behavior research. When multiple items which could produce zero-inflated count data are used to measure a construct (e.g., substance use), a traditional way to estimate individuals' trait levels of the construct is to form composite scores of the items. However, the main disadvantage of this method is that the composite scores' distribution is negatively skewed and the weight of each item is usually simply set as 1. In this study, I introduce a generalized mixed model with mixture links such as a logit link and a log link to estimate individuals' trait levels and investigate the psychometrics properties of the multiple items for multivariate zero-inflated count data. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the possible influence of factors such as sample size, number of items, proportion of zeros, and estimation method on the estimation of the proposed model and to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of previously employed alternative methods. Application of the model is illustrated by analyzing the substance use data from the NLSY study.

The simulation results showed that the proposed model can recover the true trait levels more accurately than the selected alternative methods and the estimation of the person trait levels is more accurate with more items and lower proportions of zeros. Regarding the accuracy of the item parameter estimates, middle proportions of zeros, larger sample size, and more items provide more accurate estimates under the tested conditions. When sample size was larger than 2000, the item parameters were estimated accurately in most conditions. The simulation results also showed that both marginal maximum likelihood estimation method (MMLE) and Bayesian estimation (BE) methods can provide accurate item parameter estimates with large enough sample sizes. Each estimation method had its own advantages and disadvantages in computation ti me and convergence rate.

The empirical results included many outcomes that were not obtained using previous methods, especially in investigating the psychometric properties of the multiple substance use items from both propensity and level perspectives. Limitations and future directions of this study are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Lijuan. Generalized Mixed Models with Mixture Links for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 2008..
1831. Wang, Lijuan
IRT–ZIP Modeling for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data
Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 35,6 (December 2010): 671-692.
Also: http://jeb.sagepub.com/content/35/6/671.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Data, Zero-inflated Count; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP); Propensity Scores; Sample Selection

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study introduces an item response theory–zero-inflated Poisson (IRT–ZIP) model to investigate psychometric properties of multiple items and predict individuals' latent trait scores for multivariate zero-inflated count data. In the model, two link functions are used to capture two processes of the zero-inflated count data. Item parameters are included to investigate item performance from both propensity and level perspectives. The application of the model was illustrated by analyzing the substance use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (97 cohort). A simulation study based on the empirical data analysis scenario showed that the item parameters can be recovered accurately and precisely with adequate sample sizes. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Lijuan. "IRT–ZIP Modeling for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data." Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 35,6 (December 2010): 671-692.
1832. Wang, Ruochen.
Assessing the Student Loan Debt Burden of First-Generation College Students: Do They Face Additional Difficulties in Debt Repayment?
M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2020
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Modeling, OLS; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a unique demographic group, first-generation college students are receiving an increasing amount of attention in recent years both as a result of their growing population and their implications on upward mobility. However, first-generation college students have characteristics that can facilitate their difficulties in receiving postsecondary education, especially in financial terms. This thesis tries to answer the question of whether first-generation college students, compared to continuing-generation students, take out greater amounts of government educational loans in financing their postsecondary education, and whether first-generation college student face greater student loan debt burdens at age 25 and age 30. Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and a fixed effects Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model, this thesis found that first-generation students take out smaller amounts of government educational loans before and while attending their first postsecondary institution, and there is not enough evidence that the debt repayment pattern of first-generation students is significantly different from that of continuing-generation students. Policy implications of this thesis include continuous academic attention to first-generation college students, as well as the importance of collecting and administering high-quality data so that researchers are better able to conduct analyses that produce reliable results to advise policymaking.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Ruochen. Assessing the Student Loan Debt Burden of First-Generation College Students: Do They Face Additional Difficulties in Debt Repayment? M.P.P. Thesis, Department of Public Policy and Policy Management, Georgetown University, 2020.
1833. Wang, Sharron
Does Ethnic Capital Matter? An Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Education Among Hispanic Americans
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups; Geocoded Data; Heterogeneity; Hispanic Studies; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational transmission of education from parents to children is an important indicator of societal inclusiveness and educational inequality. This topic has been investigated extensively. However, research on the heterogeneity of intergenerational education transmission remains scarce. The present study uses restricted-access data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to investigate whether intergenerational education transmission varies by ethnic capital for Hispanic Americans. Based on immigration generation, Hispanic Americans are grouped into 3+ generation Hispanic Americans (i.e. children of native-born Hispanic parents) and 2nd-generation Hispanic Americans (i.e. children of foreign-born Hispanic parents). Men and women are analyzed separately. Results indicate that an increase in the Hispanic population in counties where Hispanic youths reside decreases father-son transmission of schooling for 3+ generation Hispanics. An increase in the college-educated population in counties where Hispanic youths reside decreases father-son and mother-son transmission of schooling for 2nd generation Hispanics. In other words, intergenerational educational mobility is higher if 3+ generation Hispanic men reside in areas with a larger Hispanic population, and if 2nd generation Hispanic men resided in areas with a larger college-educated population, during their adolescent years. Ethnic capital does not seem to affect intergenerational educational mobility of Hispanic women, non-Hispanic white men, or non-Hispanic white women. Theoretical and empirical implications of the findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Sharron. "Does Ethnic Capital Matter? An Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Education Among Hispanic Americans." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2018.
1834. Wang, Sharron Xuanren
Sakamoto, Arthur
Does Where You Live Matter? An Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Education Among Hispanic Americans
Frontiers in Sociology published online (13 August 2021): DOI: 10.3389/fsoc.2021.657980.
Also: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsoc.2021.657980/full
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: abstract absent
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Geocoded Data; Hispanic Studies; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Neighborhood Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The intergenerational transmission of education from parents to children is an important indicator of societal inclusiveness and educational inequality. The present study uses restricted-access data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to investigate whether intergenerational educational transmission varies by county-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics for Hispanic Americans. Based on parental birthplace, Hispanic Americans are grouped into 3 + generation (i.e., children of native-born Hispanic parents) and 2nd generation (i.e., children of foreign-born Hispanic parents). Men and women are analyzed separately. The results indicate that intergenerational educational mobility is higher if 3 + generation Hispanic men reside in areas with a larger Hispanic population, and if 2nd generation Hispanic men reside in areas with a larger college-educated population, during their adolescent years. County-level socioeconomic characteristics do not seem to affect intergenerational educational mobility of Hispanic women, non-Hispanic white men, or non-Hispanic white women. Theoretical and empirical implications of the findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Sharron Xuanren and Arthur Sakamoto. "Does Where You Live Matter? An Analysis of Intergenerational Transmission of Education Among Hispanic Americans." Frontiers in Sociology published online (13 August 2021): DOI: 10.3389/fsoc.2021.657980.
1835. Wang, Shun-Yung Kevin
Contingencies in the Long-Term Impact of Work on Crime among Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Employment, Youth; Income; Income Level; Job Characteristics; Job Promotion; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The impact of jobs on working American youth has not been examined thoroughly and the mechanism between employment and delinquency is not fully understood. Many prior studies that addressed the issue of youth employment and crime emphasized one variable, work intensity, and left plenty of unknown pieces in this puzzle. This study introduces the concept of "ladder jobs" that arguably deter job holders from committing delinquent and criminal behaviors. In this dissertation, "ladder jobs" are those with significant upward-moving occupational positions on a status ladder, and, to adolescents, these jobs encompass potential to be the start of an attractive career. Three promising mediating factors, job income, job stability, and parental control, are also examined. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 and structural equation modeling are used to test hypotheses.

Results indicate that "ladder jobs" demonstrated a significant crime-decreasing effect, while employment exhibited a crime-increasing effect. In addition, the magnitude rate of "ladder jobs" versus employment increased as youth aged; that is, the advantages of "ladder jobs" gradually outweigh the disadvantages of employment in the sense of crime prevention. Furthermore, job income partially mediates the crime-increasing effect of employment on delinquency, and job stability partially mediates the crime-decreasing effect of "ladder jobs" on delinquency. However, parental control, which is measured as direct supervision, does not play a mediating role between employment and delinquency. In sum, from a crime-prevention standpoint, a job that pays little now, but improves the chances of a long-term career appears to better than a dead-end job that pays comparatively well in the short-term. The findings also imply that the discussions of employment and of internships among youth should address the importance of future-oriented feature of occupations, and not just the immediate monetary gains from the employment.

Bibliography Citation
Wang, Shun-Yung Kevin. Contingencies in the Long-Term Impact of Work on Crime among Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 2011.
1836. Wang, Wendy
Wilcox, W. Bradford
First Comes Marriage or the Baby Carriage? The Connection Between the Sequencing of Marriage and Parenthood and Millennial Parents' Economic Well-being
Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Economic Well-Being; Marriage; Parenthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A record 55% of Millennial parents ages 28 to 34 have put childbearing before marriage--more than double the share among the Baby Boomers (25%) when they were parents at the same age. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97), we examine the link between the sequencing of marriage and parenthood and economic well-being among young adults ages 28 to 34. Our findings suggest that young adults who put marriage before any childbearing are much more likely to avoid poverty and find themselves at least in the middle class, compared with their peers who have children before or outside marriage, and even compared with their peers who have not married. Further analysis reveals that the number of children Millennials have and their living arrangements are major factors that help to explain differences in economic outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Wendy and W. Bradford Wilcox. "First Comes Marriage or the Baby Carriage? The Connection Between the Sequencing of Marriage and Parenthood and Millennial Parents' Economic Well-being." Presented: Denver CO, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2018.
1837. Wang, Wendy
Wilcox, W. Bradford
The Millennial Success Sequence: Marriage, Kids, and the 'Success Sequence' among Young Adults
Report, American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and Institute for Family Studies, June 2017.
Also: http://www.aei.org/publication/millennials-and-the-success-sequence-how-do-education-work-and-marriage-affect-poverty-and-financial-success-among-millennials/
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Educational Attainment; Family Formation; Labor Force Participation; Life Course; Marriage; Poverty; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Extracted from Executive Summary]: A record 55% of Millennial parents (ages 28-34) have put childbearing before marriage, according to a new analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics' Panel data by the American Enterprise Institute and the Institute for Family Studies. As the oldest of the nation's largest generation, these Millennials were born between 1980 and 1984 and were surveyed between 2013 and 2014, in the latest wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). By comparison, when the youngest Baby Boomers (born between 1957 and 1964) were the same age and became parents, only a quarter of them had their first child before marriage...These divergent paths toward adulthood are associated with markedly different economic fortunes among Millennials. Young adults who put marriage first are more likely to find themselves in the middle or upper third of the income distribution, compared to their peers who have not formed a family and especially compared to their peers who have children before marrying.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Wendy and W. Bradford Wilcox. "The Millennial Success Sequence: Marriage, Kids, and the 'Success Sequence' among Young Adults." Report, American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and Institute for Family Studies, June 2017.
1838. Wang, Xiaoqing
Wu, Haotian
Feng, Xiangnan
Song, Xinyuan
Bayesian Two-level Model for Repeated Partially Ordered Responses: Application to Adolescent Smoking Behavior Analysis
Sociological Methods and Research published online (5 March 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0049124119826149.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0049124119826149
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Bayesian; Monte Carlo; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Given the questionnaire design and the nature of the problem, partially ordered data that are neither completely ordered nor completely unordered are frequently encountered in social, behavioral, and medical studies. However, early developments in partially ordered data analysis are very limited and restricted only to cross-sectional data. In this study, we propose a Bayesian two-level regression model for analyzing repeated partially ordered responses in longitudinal data. The first-level model is defined for partially ordered observations of interest that are taken at each time point nested within individuals, while the second-level model is defined for individuals to assess the effects of their characteristics on the first-level model. A full Bayesian approach with the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for statistical inference. Simulation studies demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the developed methodology. The methodology is then applied to a longitudinal study on adolescent smoking behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Xiaoqing, Haotian Wu, Xiangnan Feng and Xinyuan Song. "Bayesian Two-level Model for Repeated Partially Ordered Responses: Application to Adolescent Smoking Behavior Analysis." Sociological Methods and Research published online (5 March 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0049124119826149.
1839. Wang, Yongyi
Krishnamurty, Parvati
Interview Mode Effects in NLSY97 Round 4 and Round 5
Presented: Phoenix, AZ, American Association of Public Opinion Research Annual Meeting, May 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Association of Public Opinion Research
Keyword(s): Crime; Data Quality/Consistency; Drug Use; Interviewing Method; Self-Reporting; Sexual Behavior; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The incidence of telephone interviewing has been increasing in successive rounds of NLSY97. There are concerns about the accuracy of responses to sensitive questions when the interview is conducted by telephone compared to when these questions are self-administered as part of an in-person interview. This study explores the impact of interview mode on respondents' willingness to reveal sensitive information in NLSY97 round 4 and round 5. The dependent measures for this study include sex behavior, smoking, drug use, destroying, stealing, attacking and arrest. Within each round, controlling for the differences in demographic characteristics, respondents tend to underreport negative behaviors on most SAQ items when interviews are conducted by telephone. They are also less willing to respond to these sensitive questions, resulting in more missing data. We also linked the two rounds together by looking at how individual respondents responded to the same questions in round 4 and round 5. The results show that for respondents who did not switch interview mode across rounds, the distributions of response differences do not differ much regardless of whether the interviews were conducted consistently in-person or by phone. If the respondents did switch interview modes across rounds, the distribution of response differences are significantly different for some sensitive items, depending on whether the switch is from in-person to phone or the other way round. This evidence also supports the existence of interview mode effects.
Bibliography Citation
Wang, Yongyi and Parvati Krishnamurty. "Interview Mode Effects in NLSY97 Round 4 and Round 5." Presented: Phoenix, AZ, American Association of Public Opinion Research Annual Meeting, May 2004.
1840. Ward, Shannon
Williams, Jenny
Does Juvenile Delinquency Reduce Educational Attainment?
Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, July 2014.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2469675
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the effect of delinquency in youth on subsequent educational attainment. To do so, we focus on delinquent acts committed by age 16 and examine their impact on two measures of educational attainment: high school graduation and college graduation. Using information on males from the extremely rich National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we find plausible evidence that delinquency by age 16 reduces the likelihood of graduating from high school and college. This effect is driven by early initiators, those who offend intensely, and by those whose delinquent activities involve income generating acts. Importantly, the impact of delinquency on education is not confined to those who have interaction with the criminal justice system, or gang members. Further analysis suggests that a mechanism through which delinquency impacts on education is expected returns to crime, as reflected by subjective beliefs about the probability of arrest for a property crime. This effect is stronger for those of higher ability and is robust to accounting for attitude to risk.
Bibliography Citation
Ward, Shannon and Jenny Williams. "Does Juvenile Delinquency Reduce Educational Attainment?" Working Paper, Social Science Research Network, July 2014.
1841. Ward, Shannon
Williams, Jenny
Does Juvenile Delinquency Reduce Educational Attainment?
Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 12,4 (December 2015): 716-756.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jels.12090/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): College Degree; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article investigates the effect of delinquency in youth on subsequent educational attainment. To do so, we focus on delinquent acts committed by age 16 and examine their impact on two measures of educational attainment: high school graduation and college graduation. Using information on males from the extremely rich National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we find plausible evidence that delinquency by age 16 reduces the likelihood of graduating from high school and college. This effect is driven by early initiators, those who offend intensely, and by those whose delinquent activities involve income-generating acts. Importantly, the impact of delinquency on education is not confined to those who have interaction with the criminal justice system, or gang members. Further analysis suggests that a channel through which delinquency impacts education is expected returns to crime, as reflected by subjective beliefs about the probability of arrest for a property crime.
Bibliography Citation
Ward, Shannon and Jenny Williams. "Does Juvenile Delinquency Reduce Educational Attainment?" Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 12,4 (December 2015): 716-756.
1842. Ward, Shannon
Williams, Jenny
van Ours, Jan C.
Bad Behavior: Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9248, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2015.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=9248
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Income; Male Sample; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality. Our key finding is that delinquency as well as arrest leads to early school leaving. Further investigation reveals that the effect of delinquency is largely driven by income generating crimes, and the effect of both income generating crime and arrest are greater when onset occurs at younger ages. These findings are consistent with a criminal capital accumulation mechanism. On the basis of our sample, we show that taking into account the proportion of young men affected by delinquency and arrest, that the overall reduction in education due to delinquency is at least as large as the reduction due to arrest. This highlights the need for crime prevention efforts to extend beyond youth who come into contact with the justice system.
Bibliography Citation
Ward, Shannon, Jenny Williams and Jan C. van Ours. "Bad Behavior: Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9248, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2015.
1843. Ward, Shannon
Williams, Jenny
van Ours, Jan C.
Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics published online (17 July 2020): DOI: 10.1111/obes.12393.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/obes.12393
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Boys typically initiate delinquent behaviour during their teenage years, and many go on to be arrested. We show that engaging in delinquency and being arrested in youth are each associated with early school leaving. The effect of delinquency on school leaving is largely driven by crimes that produce a monetary return, and the increase in school leaving is greater when onset of these types of crime, and arrest, occur at younger ages. The sizeable impact of delinquency on school leaving highlights the need for crime prevention efforts to extend beyond youth who come into contact with the justice system.
Bibliography Citation
Ward, Shannon, Jenny Williams and Jan C. van Ours. "Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving." Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics published online (17 July 2020): DOI: 10.1111/obes.12393.
1844. Warkentien, Siri
Secondary School Segregation and the Transition to College
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Black Studies; College Education; Common Core of Data (CCD); Educational Outcomes; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Studies of racial school segregation generally find that attending segregated schools negatively affects educational outcomes. However, most studies measure exposure at just one point in time. Less is known about long-term exposure and the consequences of experiencing different timing, sequencing, and duration of exposure. This is problematic given changing policy and demographic contexts that increase the likelihood that students experience varying racial compositions throughout their education. This study uses a unique dataset constructed from three data sources—National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, Common Core of Data, and Private School Survey—to estimate the effect of differences in the timing, sequencing, and duration of exposure to black school segregation on college outcomes. Using marginal structural models, I estimate the causal effect of time-varying exposure on college enrollment and completion. Results will provide evidence-based implications for federal, state, and district policy aimed at equalizing educational opportunity and improving college outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Warkentien, Siri. "Secondary School Segregation and the Transition to College." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
1845. Warner, Cody
From the Cot to the Couch? Young Adult Incarceration and Returns to the Parental Household
Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research has examined the effect of incarceration on housing and residential outcomes. The results of this work paint a complicated picture; where housing insecurities are common, in some cases helpful, and in other cases a risk factor for recidivism. The current study adds to this literature by focusing on residential independence following release from incarceration. In response to growing shares of young adults living in the parental home, researchers have begun to investigate the causes and consequences of residential independence and later returns home (or boomeranging). Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, and utilizing event history data that provides the month and year of key life events, I find that exiting prison or jail increases the risk of moving back into the parental home. In addition, the risk of boomeranging is highest in the months and years closest to the release date. I close by considering the implications of these findings, especially given that residence with parents after release may be protective against recidivism.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody. "From the Cot to the Couch? Young Adult Incarceration and Returns to the Parental Household." Presented: Montreal, QC, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2017.
1846. Warner, Cody
Houle, Jason N.
A Prison of Debt? Incarceration and Consumer Debt in Young Adulthood
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Criminal Justice System; Debt/Borrowing; Incarceration/Jail

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The American criminal justice system has expanded considerably since the 1970s, and research finds that formerly incarcerated individuals are disadvantaged in the labor market, experiencing unemployment and reduced wages. Recent research further demonstrates that incarceration is damaging to wealth accumulation, including homeownership. We extend this research to consider if incarceration is associated with unsecured debt owed to credit card companies or other business. While some research examines the growth and proliferation of legal debt associated with a criminal conviction, no studies have explicitly examined if or how incarceration impacts access to credit or overall debt burdens. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort (NLYS97), we have two key findings. First, young adults with a history of incarceration are nearly 40% less likely to report unsecured debt than their never-incarcerated counterparts. That said, and second, among those with debt, formerly incarcerated young adults report over $11,000 more unsecured debt, or average, than their peers. Thus, incarceration appears to limit access to credit, but increases debt burdens among those who borrow. Our findings provide further evidence on the diverse and deleterious economic outcomes associated with incarceration, and contribute to growing knowledge of the indebtedness of American families.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody and Jason N. Houle. "A Prison of Debt? Incarceration and Consumer Debt in Young Adulthood." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
1847. Warner, Cody
Houle, Jason N.
Precocious Life Course Transitions, Exits From, and Returns to the Parental Home
Advances in Life Course Research 35 (March 2018): 1-10.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104026081730062X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Marriage; Cohabitation; High School Dropouts; High School Employment; Life Course; Mothers, Adolescent; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving; Transition, Adulthood

Residential independence has long been considered a core feature of the transition to adulthood in contemporary American society. But in recent years a growing share of young adults are living in their parents' household, and many of these have returned home after a spell of residential independence. Recent research on exits and returns to the parental home has focused on the role of concurrent life-course transitions, young adult social and economic status, family background, and family connectivity. We know little, however, about how precocious, or early, life course transitions during adolescence affect leaving or returning home. We use longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort) to examine the association between precocious transitions to adult roles during adolescence and home-leaving (n = 8,865) and home-returning (n = 7,704) in the United States. Some, but not all, precocious transitions are tied to residential transitions, and often in competing ways. Our findings contribute to growing research on young adults living in the parental home, and shows how adolescent experiences can contribute to inequality in the transition to adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody and Jason N. Houle. "Precocious Life Course Transitions, Exits From, and Returns to the Parental Home." Advances in Life Course Research 35 (March 2018): 1-10.
1848. Warner, Cody
Houle, Jason N.
Kaiser, Joshua
Criminal Justice Contact and Indebtedness in Young Adulthood: Investigating the Potential Role of State-level Hidden Sentences
Social Currents published online (3 December 2020): DOI: 10.1177/2329496520974018.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2329496520974018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Debt/Borrowing; Geocoded Data; Incarceration/Jail; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Contact with the American criminal justice system is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and financial insecurity, but little research has explored the link between criminal justice contact and indebtedness. In this study, we ask whether contact in young adulthood is associated with access to credit and unsecured debt burdens. We also focus on state-level policies that operate alongside official punishments and restrict citizenship and societal participation among the justice-involved (termed hidden sentences), and ask whether such policies moderate the association between criminal justice contact and indebtedness. We find that criminal justice contact, especially incarceration, is associated with reduced access to unsecured credit and greater absolute and relative debt burdens. These associations are strongest for individuals residing in states with more onerous hidden sentence regimes. We argue that indebtedness is a key socioeconomic consequence of criminal justice contact and that hidden sentences may exacerbate these consequences.
Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody, Jason N. Houle and Joshua Kaiser. "Criminal Justice Contact and Indebtedness in Young Adulthood: Investigating the Potential Role of State-level Hidden Sentences." Social Currents published online (3 December 2020): DOI: 10.1177/2329496520974018.
1849. Warner, Cody
Remster, Brianna
Criminal Justice Contact, Residential Independence, and Returns to the Parental Home
Journal of Marriage and Family published online (20 January 2021): DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12753.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jomf.12753
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; Residence, Return to Parental Home/Delayed Homeleaving

Background: More young adults live with their parents today than live independently. Despite the prevalence of criminal justice contact among young Americans, and research suggesting that such contact can reshape the life course, it is unknown whether the criminal justice system is associated with patterns of home‐leaving and home‐returning.

Method: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a sample of 8,984 young adults born between 1980 and 1984. Event history analyses are used to examine the timing of home‐leaving (n = 810,274 person‐months), and among those who leave, the timing of home‐returning (n = 630,394 person‐months). Criminal justice contact is measured via self‐reported arrests and spells of incarceration.

Results: Across both the short term and long term, there is a robust association between criminal justice contact and residential transitions out of and back into the parental home. The risk of experiencing home‐leaving or home‐returning is considerably higher in the month an individual is arrested or completes a spell of incarceration, compared to individuals with no contact. Additionally, especially for arrest, the risk of each residential transition remains elevated in the months and years that follow contact.

Bibliography Citation
Warner, Cody and Brianna Remster. "Criminal Justice Contact, Residential Independence, and Returns to the Parental Home." Journal of Marriage and Family published online (20 January 2021): DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12753.
1850. Warren, John Robert
Lee, Jennifer C.
Cataldi, Emily Forrest
Teenage Employment and High School Completion
In: After the Bell: Family Background, Public Policy, and Educational Success. D. Conley and K. Alb